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Attollens oculos : vitreo bibit ille Priapo
Reticulumque comis auratum ingentibus implet,
Caerulea indutus scutulata aut galbina rasa,
Et per Junonem domini jurante ministro.
Ille tenet speculum, pathici gestamen Othonis,
Actoris Aurunci spolium, quo se ille videbat
Armatum quum jam tolli vexilla juberet.
Res memoranda novis annalibus atque recenti
Historia, speculum civilis sarcina belli.
Nimirum summi ducis est occidere Galbam,

100

95. vitreo bibit ille Priapo] He drinks atur," and asks, "habitune et incessu an illo out of a glass made in this obscene shape, muliebri ornatu mereretur imperium ?” Juties up his great bushy hair in a net of gold venal says he carried his mirror into the thread, wears a blue dress picked out in camp with him when he went to attack square or lozenge pattern, or fine green Vitellius. Tacitus (Hist. i. 88) says that cloth with the nap closely clipped. "Gal. when he was leaving Rome some of his binus' is said to be derived from galbus,' a soldiers bought “luxuriosos apparatus conparticular shade of green. According to viviorum et irritamenta libidinum ut instru. this etymology it would naturally be writ menta belli," and there may have been a ten 'galbina, not galbana' ('gum'), with story current about the emperor's mirror, which it has no connexion. Rasa' is op- which with his babits he could hardly disposed to .pexa,' cloth with the nap left on pense with. Juvenal says the appearance it. “Scutulatus' is a word of which the of a mirror in the camp was an event to be derivation is uncertain : but scutulae' is recorded in a new page of history. used for the squares of a tessellated pave 104. Nimirum summi ducis] Otho having ment, or anything of that sort.

long been in favour with Nero (i. 39, n.), 98. Et per Junonem domini] The ge- deserted him and paid his court to Galba; nius of a woman was called her Juno (see but being disappointed in his expectation note on Hor. Epp. i. 7. 94). This man's that Galba would make him his heir, with slave, by way of keeping up the farce, swears the support of a small body of troops by by his master's Juno.

whom he was proclaimed emperor he at99. Ille tenet speculum.] The mirrors of tacked Galba, who was killed by one of the the ancients were of metal, though there soldiers in the fray, A.D. 69. According to may have been glass mirrors at this time, Suetonius (c. 12), when Otho himself was but they were of inferior quality. They dead most people began to speak well of were only made for the hand, and were him, saying that he had killed Galba not usually held by slaves before their mistress so much for his own advancement as for the (see Dict. Ant.). This man holds it for public good. The soldiers wept over him himself, and Juvenal says it was the iden is fortissimum virum unicum Imperatorem tical mirror in which Otho had looked at praedicantes.” “Of course,' says Juvenal, 'it himself, and of which this person had rob- showed a consummate commander to kill a bed him, which is a jest. To make the tyrant and take such care of his own skin, absurdity greater, we have a parody of Vir. and an excellent citizen to aim at stealing gil's words (Aen. iii. 286): “Aere cavo an empire and at the same time to rub his clypeum magni gestamen'Abantis ;” and face with soft bread.' The satire lies in the again (Aen. xii. 93), Turnus “ validam vi bathos in both cases. Gifford, though he corripit hastam Actoris Aurunci spolium.” has not translated the verses well, right Suetonius says of Otho (c. 12) that he was I think in his notion of its meaning. He of short stature and Jame: that he was ef says in these lines “ we have the original feminate in his personal habits, keeping his of the mock heroic so much adınired in the skin smooth (as men of the worst passions Rape of the Lock:” did), and that he wore a wig which titted him so well that nobody would find out it “Whether the nymph shall break Diana's was a wig. Piso addressing the soldiers law, speaks of Otho's “ vitia quibus solis glori. Or some frail china jar receives a flaw;

105

Et curare cutem: summi constantia civis
Bebriaci campo spolium affectare Palati,
Et pressum in facie digitis extendere panem :
Quod nec in Assyrio pharetrata Semiramis orbe,
Moesta nec Actiaca fecit Cleopatra carina.
Hic nullus verbis pudor aut reverentia mensae ;
Hic turpis Cybeles et fracta voce loquendi

110

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Or stain her honour or-her new bro- Horace (C. i. 37. 16) represents Augustus cade,

pursuing her Forget her prayers or miss -a masque

“ ab Italia volantem,
rade,

Remis adurgens, accipiter velut
Or lose her heart or--necklace at a ball.” Molles columbas-
This sense is given in the Argument. Sue-

quae generosius tonius (1. c.) says:

Perire quaerens nec muliebriter “Quin et faciem quotidie Expavit ensem,” &c. rasitare, ac pane madido linere consuetum, idque instituisse a prima lanugine ne bar. Heinrich thinks the reading should be · batus unquam esset.” Horace speaks of the

moecha,' and that the monks altered it to Phaeacians as “ In cute curanda plus aequo

• moesta.' All the MSS. have moesta.' operata juventus” (Epp. i. 2. 29), and of See iii. 108, n. himself as “pingnem et nitidum bene curata

110. Hic nullus verbis pudor] He goes cute" (Epp. i. 4. 15).

back after the digression about Otho to the 106. Bebriaci campo] Otho was pro

scene at the mock rites of Fauna. They claimed emperor in Rome on the 15th of had no shame as to what they said, nor any January, A.D. 69, and in March following regard for the decorum of the table, in he led an army into Cisalpine Gallia against respect to which Grangaeus quotes SyneVitellius, and in less than a month his sius, Epist. 57, Tpátesa uèv iepòv xosua troops were defeated with immense loss

δι' ής ο θεός τιμάται φίλιός τε και ξένιος, about twenty miles from a small town called and Claudian (in Ruffin. i. 228), “ Jurata Bebriacum, or Bedriacum, which lay be- Deorum Majestas teritur, nunquam revetween Verona and Cremona. He imme- rentia mensae,” which seems to be copied diately afterwards destroyed himself. Als from Juvenal. The daily offering to the though the battle was fought so far from

Lares at the principal meal gave it in theory Bebriacum, it got its name from that town,

a sacred character; and on the same prinowing to Otho's army being encamped there ciple Horace says (C. iv. 15. 23, sqq.): before the battle and pursued thither after

Nosque et profestis lucibus et sacris it. The MSS. of Juvenal are all in favour Inter jocosi munera Liberi of Behriacum ; those of Tacitus are more

Cum prole matronisque nostris, divided. The form that the editors adopt

Rite deos prius apprecati, is Bedriacum ; Ruperti does so, though in

Virtute functos more patrum duces this place he has the “b,' and according to

(canemus).” him the greatest number of MSS. have the 111. Hic turpis Cybeles] If this be same in Tacitus. (See Rup. on Tac. Hist. the true reading Cybeles' and 'loquendi? i. 23.)

must both depend on “turpis libertas;' 108. Quod nec in Assyrio] Semiramis, Cybele's foul licence and the liberty to the mythical queen and joint founder of speak in feeble voice.' One MS. has Nineveh, was reported to be as voluptuous turpis Cybele est.' I do not think that as she was great and brave. See Ovid, mends the matter much. The worship of Am. i. 5. 11: “ Qualiter in thalamos for- Cybele or Rhea, the mother of the gods, as mosa Semiramis isse Dicitur et multis Lais she is sometimes called, like some others, amata viris."

The Assyrian world repre was a late importation into Rome. Her sented in its day what the Roman world image was brought from Pessinus in Gadid afterwards, all the civilization of the latia during the second Punic War, and she earth.

had a temple built her on Vous Palatinus, 109. Moesta nec Actiaca! The battle of and consecrated by V. Junius Brutus, Actium was fought A.U.c. 723, and Cleo A.C.C. 563. (See below, iii. 137, n.) The patra's fleet Aed before the battle began. festival called Megalesia (from peyáln

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Libertas et crine senex fanaticus albo
Sacrorum antistes, rarum ac memorabile magni
Gutturis exemplum conducendusque magister.
Quid tamen exspectant Phrygio quos tempus erat jam 115
More supervacuam cultris abrumpere carnem?
Quadringenta dedit Gracchus sestertia dotem
Cornicini, sive hic recto cantaverat aere;
Signatae tabulae ; dictum Feliciter! Ingens

Deá) was established in her honour. It

nunc Saliaribus began on the 4th of April, and lasted six Ornare pulvinar deorum days. Cybele was called Idaea Mater, Be Tempus erat dapibus, sodales." recyntia, Dindymene, from hills of Phrygia where she was principally worshipped with See also S. iii. 163, n. below. Here this impure rites and much discordant noise, abominable scene is brought to an end. her priests being called Corybantes. In 117. Quadringenta dedit] He now goes Rome they were called Galli, from the place on to tell how some rich person entered they came from, and they were eunuchs. into a mock marriage with a musician, and (Hor. S. i. 2. 121.) It does not appear gave him a dos' equal to the fortune of from Ovid's description (Fasti, iv. 1794 an eques, and how at the marriage-supper 384) that the same impurities were prac- he lay on his bosom as his bride in the pretised at Rome as in the East. They were sence of a large company. Tacitus describes regulated by the Curule Aediles, and they how Nero went through a solemn farce of are called by Cicero (de Harusp. Resp. 12) this kind, in which he acted as bride as this “maxime casti solemnes religiosi." (See Gracchus did : “Uni ex illo contaminatoad Fam. ii. 11.) As to “fracta voce,' For. rum grege (Comp. Contaminato cum grege cellini quotes Pliny, Epp. ii. 14, “fracta turpium Morbo virorum, Hor. C. i. 37. 9) pronuntiatione dicere,” which he explains, cui nomen Pythagorae fuit in modum sol. “effeminata, enervi ; cui opponitur intenta, lennium conjugiorum denupsisset. Inditum incitata, fortis." Quintilian (xii. 10) says Imperatori flammeum (a veil worn by Cicero's contemporaries ventured to attack brides) visi auspices dos et genialis torus him as “in compositione fractum ac paene et faces nuptiales; cuncta denique specviro molliorem." In this sense the reading tata quae etiam in femina nox operit.” • frangitur artubus' for 'fingitur artibus,' (Ann. xv. 37.) How he married the boy in Hor. C. ii. 6. 22, is supported. (See Sporus has been mentioned above on i. 62. note.)

As to quadringenta sestertia,' see i. 106, 112. et crine senex fanaticus albo] He n., and vi. 134, and Hor. C. ii. 24. 18, n. says the chief priest of these orgies was an • Dos' was the portion brought by the wife old man with white hair, an extraordinary to the husband. Gracchus therefore acted glutton, and one who might be hired to the bride. “Recto aere' means the 'tuba,' teach the science of eating. Fanaticus' is which was straight, while the cornu' was derived from ‘fanum;' and was applied com curved. (See note on Hor. C. i. 1. 23.) Ju. monly to the priests of Bellona, but also to venal says the man played on the cornu those of any frantic ritual.

From the par.

or 'tuba,' he does not know which. It ticularity with which he writes, it appears seems as if his story was founded on fact. as if Juvenal was describing something that • Cantare' is used not only for the human had taken place.

voice, but for instrumental music. 115. Quid tamen exspectant] He means 119. Signatae tabulae ; ] Before the why do they not proceed at once to make marriage a contract was signed, which was themselves what the Galli were (see note called sponsalia ' (vi. 25). The tablets on on v. 111), for they ought to have done so which it was written were called “legitimae long ago, being Phrygians long since in tabulae' (vi. 200). • Dictum Feliciter !' heart” (Gifford). • Tempus erat' seems means that the usual form of congratulation to be used in cases where further delay is was gone through. It was usual for the deprecated, as if the time had come and bridegroom to give a supper on the day of was being allowed to pass away. See Hor. his marriage, at which there was always C. i. 37. 4 (and the note) :

more or less licentiousness. See note on

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120

Coena sedet; grenio jacuit nova nupta mariti.
O proceres, censore opus est an haruspice nobis ?
Scilicet horreres majoraque monstra putares,
Si mulier vitulum vel si bos ederet agnum !
Segmenta et longos habitus et flamea sumit,
Arcano qui sacra ferens nutantia loro
Sudavit clipeis ancilibus! O pater Urbis,

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woman:

66

Hor. S. ü. 2. 59. Coena' is put for the to the men's “tunica,' down to the feet, and guests at the 'coena.' In the ordinary being made longer than the person it was arrangements of a triclinium the “imus fastened up in folds above the waist (see lectus' was occupied by the host and his Hor. S. i. 2. 29, n.). •Flameum' or 'flamfamily, and the wife reclined next to her meum' was a veil, usually worn by brides. husband. See Hor. S. ii. 8. 20, n. Hence See note on v. 116, and below on vi. 225. Ovid says (Amor. i. 4. 5, 35) to a married The veil is said by Verrius Flaccus and

Festus to have had its name from the wives Alteriusque sinus apte subjecta fovebis ? of the 'flamines' (flaminicae), who wore it Injiciet collo cum volet ille manum? always, as a sign that their marriage could

never be dissolved. Others derive it from Nec premat indignis sinito tua colla la 'flamma,' as being of a red colour ; but certis

Pliny (H. N. xxi. 8) says it was yellow; Mite nec in rigido pectore pone caput.” and Lucan (ii. 361) has“ Lutea demissos

velarunt flamea vultus."

The MSS. vary, 121. O proceres,] He cries out to the but the old editions all have 'flamea.? The nobles to condemn one of their own set, and asks whether this monstrous conduct Mars, of which eleven were said to have

ancilia' were twelve shields sacred to requires the censor's branding or to be been made by Numa in exact imitation of looked into by the haruspices, that they

one which in his reign was supposed to might declare how it must be expiated.

have been sent down from heaven. The • But doubtless you would be more shocked, and count it a more frightful omen (re. ancile,' who, on the Kalends of March,

• Salii' were twelve priests, one to each quiring the intervention of the “ haruspex”) carried them through the city with songs if a woman gave birth to a calf or a cow to

and dances. (See Hor. C. iv. 1. 28, n., and a lamb.' The .baruspices' were persons

Epp. ii. 1. 86, n.) The shields were struck whose profession it was to declare the will

with rods in tune with the dance, and hung of the gods by the consulting of entrails and

to the neck with a leather thong, which is in respect of signs and prodigies. There ap

here called “arcanum' or mystic, an epithet pears to have been collegium' of them,

belonging properly to the shield itself. The as of the augurs, under the empire. They

shields are described as nutantia,' swaying were an inferior body to the augurs, whose about with the motion of the dancers, who business was properly connected with the found it hard work it seems. They lived omens derived from the flight of birds. In

too well. censore' Heinrich sees another allusion to Domitian (see above, vv. 29, 63). I think by.Gradivus' below. That name belonged

126. O pater Urbis,] This is explained he strains this point.

to Mars, according to Servius (on Virg. Aen. 124. Segmenta et longos habitus] He is üi. 35), when angry. Because it is said to indignant that Gracchus, who was one of be derived from gradior,' Holyday rather the Salii

, priests of Mars, should have absurdly renders it "Great Marcher. The taken to wearing female ornaments and derivation cannot be this. The word indress. Segmenta,' as applied to dress, volves divus.' The sentiment is repeated in means ribands, fringes, Hounces, and so

the next Satire (v. 67): “Rusticus ille tuus forth. See Ovid de A. A. iii. 169:

sumit trechedipna, Quirine.” And to those “ Quid de veste loquar? nec vos, segmenta, who boasted of their pedigree he says (viii. requiro,

274): Nec quae bis Tyrio murice, lana,

• Majorum primus quisquis fuit ille tuorum rubes."

Aut pastor fuit, aut illud quod dicere The women wore the • stola,' corresponding nolo."

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6

130

Unde nefas tantum Latiis pastoribus ? unde
Haec tetigit, Gradive, tuos urtica nepotes?
Traditur ecce viro clarus genere atque opibus vir :
Nec galeam quassas, nec terram cuspide pulsas,
Nec quereris patri? Vade ergo et cede severi
Jugeribus campi quem negligis ! Officium cras
Primo sole mihi peragendum in valle Quirini.
Quae causa officii? Quid quaeris? Nubit amicus,
Nec multos adhibet. Liceat modo vivere fient,
Fient ista palam cupient et in acta referri.
Interea tormentum ingens nubentibus haeret
Quod nequeunt parere et partu retinere maritos.
Sed melius quod nil animis in corpora juris

135

was a

Latiis pastoribus' refers to Romulus and “ Barbatus rigido nupsit Callistratus Afro Remus, the shepherd-kings as they were Hac qua lege viro nubere virgo solet. called, and their followers. •Urtica' (the Praeluxere faces, velarunt flamea vultus, nettle) is used for the pricking of lust only Nec tua defuerunt verba, Talasse, tibi. here and in xi. 168.

Dos etiam dicta est: nondum tibi, Roma, 129. Traditur] “A man of family and videtur wealth is married to another man.' Taci Hoc satis ? exspectas numquid ut et tus uses tradere' in the same sense (Ann. pariat?" iv. 40): “At enim Augustus filiam suam The fourth verse refers to a song which Equiti Romano tradere meditatus est."

was sung during some part of the marriage (16. c. 75): “Tiberius neptem Agrippinam festival. Nec multos adhibet' means he Germanico ortam quum coram Cn. Do does not invite many friends to his marmitio tradidisset in Urbe celebrari nuptias riage, he was not quite destitute of shame. jussit.”

136. cupient et in acta referri.] He 131. patri ?] That is, to Jove. In xiii.

says, if he lives a little longer he shall see 113 he makes the same sort of appeal these things which the man speaks of (ista) to Jove himself that he here makes to going on without any concealment, and Mars.

even gazetted. The acta diurna Vade ergo] "Go then and quit the soil record, officially kept, of all the principal of that stern field thou dost neglect,' the events of the day, with most of the inCampus Martius which bore his name, formation that is contained in our newswhich was the scene of the comitia, and papers, with the exception of the proceedings over which every triumphal procession of the senate, which were not allowed to be passed in the best days of Rome.

published except for a short time by Julius 132. Oficium cras] Somebody is sup. Cæsar, one of whose first acts was to cause posed to say he must be up early next the proceedings, not only of the comitia morning to attend the wedding of a friend but of the senate, to be published. (Sueton. who lives under the Quirinal, and who is Vit. Caes. 20.) Augustus put an end to to act bride on the occasion. Nubere,' this. (Ib. Vit. Aug. 36.). which signifies to put on a veil, is there.

138. retinere maritos.] To retain the fore only used with reference to the affections of their husbands through their woman, who wore the 'flameum' above mutual children. So Claudian writes (in mentioned. By using the word here the Eutrop. i. 72): writer is not obliged to add another sentence to explain the character of the mar

Faemina quum senuit retinet connubia riage. Martial has an epigram (xii. 42) on

partu the same disgusting subject, which illus. Uxorisque decus matris reverentia pentrates this part of the satire and the forms of a Roman marriage :

139. nil animis in corpora juris] It is

sat.

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