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than all the rest, indulged the tribune's lust. See what bad company does ! he came to us a hostage. 'Tis here we fashion men. Let children stay with us and they will find a lover. They'll throw away their breeches and their sports, and carry back foul habits to their home.
Ultra Sauromatas fugere hinc libet et glacialem
1. Ultra Sauromatas). It is enough for tion, and overrun the town with their lewd. this place to say, tbat Sarmatia represented ness.? • Primum' has no .deinde' after it, Poland, and the Russian empire in Europe and does not require it. It is not uncomand part of Asia, from the Vistula to the monly used to introduce a subject. Ruperti, Volga and from the Euxine to the Northern makes a deinde’ at frontis nulla fides ocean, including regions unexplored by the (8), a 'praeterea' at 'hispida membra quiancients, countries of fable to which, accord- dem’(11), and a denique' at 'rarus sermo ing to Pindar (Pyth. x. 40)
illis' (14). The • frons,' or outside show, on
which no dependence is to be placed, is their ναυσι δ' ούτε πεζός των άν εύροις affectation of studious habits and learning. θαυματάν οδόν. .
quanquam plena omnia gypso Chry
sippi] Though you will find all parts of See note on Horace, C. ii. 20. 16: • Hyper. his house full of busts of Chrysippus (the boreosque campos.'
reputed founder of the Stoic philosophy, 2. aliquid de moribus audent] 'Audere' though third in descent from Zeno-see is here used as we might say, 'venture any note on Hor. S. i. 3. 123), made of gypsum,' thing on morals,' i. e. have the boldness to
of which casts were commonly made. It was say anything about morals.
asual to see busts of this sort in libraries, 3. Qui Curios simulant] • Who affect both public and private-see note on Hor. the Curii.' On this plural see last Satire, S. i. 4. 21 : “ Beatus Fannius ultro Delatis v. 109, n. Horace has “ Et maribus Curiis capsis et imagine.” et decantata Camillis” (Epp. i. 1. 64), 6. Si quis Aristotelem] ‘Similem' where, as here, the person referred to is M.
a good likeness. So Martial uses the word Curius Dentatus, the conqueror of Pyrrhus, in an epigram on Issa, a little dog of Puband the type of honesty in all after ages lius (i. 110): among the Romans; a pattern of the good old times (see note on the above passage of
“ Hanc ne lux rapiat suprema totam
Picta Publius exprimit tabella, Horace). Martial (i. 25) has the following epigram on a lately.married man, which, be.
In qua tan similem videbis Issam
Ut sit tam similis sibi nec ipsa. sides this place, illustrates vo. 8 and 9 (see notes):
Issam denique pone cum tabella,
Aut utramque putabis esse veram, Adspicis incomptis illum, Deciane, capillis, Aut utramque putabis esse pictam."
Cujus et ipse times triste supercilium ; Qui loquitur Curios assertoresque Camil.
7. Et jubet archetypos] Cleanthes was
the teacher of Chrysippus and disciple of los? Nolito fronti credere; nupsit heri.”
Zeno, and was born at Assos, about the year
B.c. 300. Pittacus, one of the seven wise So he says to one Chrestus (ix. 28): “Curios men, was born at Mitylene, about B.C. 630. Camillos Quintios Vumas Ancos Loqueris.' • Pluteus' was a shelf fixed to the wall for
4. Indocti primum,] 'In the first place books or other things to stand upon. See they are ignorant fellows, though they pro. Pers. i. 1013, n. The translators say that fess a great acquaintance with authors; but Cleanthes' busts are set to guard the books. with all their show you cannot trust their It is the shelves that are ordered to hold outsides ; within they are full of abomina- the busts. For “pluteum' has been substi.
Frontis nulla fides. Quis enim non vicus abundat
tuted, in two of the old editions (Nürnberg, 9. Tristibus obscoenis ?] Tristibus' is 1497, and Ascensius of Paris, 1498), “pu. here 'grave,' serious.'
Horace opposes it teum,' probably through inadvertence. But to jocosus,' S. i. 10. 11: “Et sermone the word has been taken up by commenta opus est modo tristi saepe jocoso.” The tors (Valesius, Graevius, Heinsius, are men two adjectives are not commonly: joined tioned by Ruperti), and a new sense given together. “Obscoenus' signifies that which to the passage. Cleanthes is reported to is common or unclean. It is said to conhave earned the means of living by drawing tain the Greek koivos, which is doubtful. water; and he is said to have been called It is applied to things, persons, words, &c., in consequence oprávtins. Wherefore of ill omen; but also as here, and as we these critics have supposed Juvenal to have use it, to the lewd.-quum sis :' although meant that these men set up images of you are.' Quintilian (Inst. xii. 3, fin.) Cleanthes to guard their wells, puteum throws light upon the subject of this Satire, servare.' More consideration has been when (writing in Domitian's time) he speaks given to this sugges ion than it deserves. of men “ pigritiae arrogantioris, qui subito * Archetypos ’ is usually rendered original.' fronte conticta immissaque barba veluti deτο αρχέτυπον, το πρωτότυπον signify the spexissent oratoria praecepta, paulum aliquid model or pattern from which copies are sederunt in scholis philosophorum,ut deinde, taken. 'Archetypum' was the same; but in publico tristes domi dissoluti, captarent the word is not found as early as Augustus. auctoritatem contemtu ceterorum. Philoso. • Prototypia' occurs in the Codex Theo- phia enim (he adds) simulari potest, elodos. (see Forcell.) in the same sense. The quentia non potest. adjective archetypus' is found only. here 10. Inter Socraticos] The commentators and in Martial vii. ll, where he says to his and translators, old and modern, are divi. friend, Aulus Pudens, who had asked him ded as to the meaning of Socraticos.' for a copy of his poems corrected with his The sense is the same as in “fictos Scau. own hand: “O quam me nimium probas ros' (v. 34, n.); these men carried on their amasque Qui vis archetypas habere nugas?” vile practices under the disguise of moSee also xii. 69: “Sic tanquam tabulas ralists. The Socratics they would affect to scyphosque Paulle Omnes archetypos habes imitate were Antisthenes and the Cyvics. amicos."
They are called Stoics below, v. 65 (see 8. Frontis nulla fides.] Some of the Int.). Others, like the Scholiast, suppose oldest editions, and four of the MSS. quoted that Juvenal adopted the libel against Soby Achaintre, have ‘fronti,' which Ruperii crates, which made him as bad in that resadopts. Most of the editions, and all the pect as they. Of Socrates personally Juvenal other MSS., appear to have the genitive. speaks with respect (xiii. 185, sq.). Sota. The difference is not important. •Fronti dico;' has been suggested as an emendation, nulla fides' would mean there is no trust derived from one Sotades, who, according to to be put in the outside;' frontis,' that Athenaeus and others, was the first who the outside has nothing trustworthy in it; practised this abomination. But no MSS. in the one case “fides' is .faith,' in the support the word; nor have any editors, I other that on which faith is exercised. The believe, adopted it, though it has always expression of the brow represents as much been thought necessary to notice it. as any part of the face the working of the 12. atrocem animum :] «A bold, manly mind, and 'frons' appears with every epi. mind.' •Atrox' commonly has the meaning thet that expresses character and feeling. of a dogged courage, as in Horace, C. ii. But the face may be tutored and expression 1. 23: assumed, and the lewdest villain may wear the most modest brow. μη κρίνετε κατ' “ Et cuncta terrarum subacta όψιν, αλλά την δικαίαν κρίσιν κρίνατε, Praeter atrocom animum Catonis." is the divine command.
Rarus sermo illis et magna
libido tacendi Atque supercilio brevior coma. Verius
15 Et magis ingenue Peribomius : hunc
14. Rarus sermò illis] Many will be re and face, and as he was at any rate more minded of Gratiano's description in the honest, Juvenal lets him alone, and charges Merchant of Venice (Act i. sc. 1):
him (by which he means his wickedness) on “ There are a sort of men whose visages
the fates, supposing him to be mad, 080Do cream and mantle like a standing pond: BlaBiis, as Heinrich says. • Imputare' is And do a wilful stillness entertain,
a word used in accounts, for putting to a With purpose to be dress’d in an opinion person's credit, as 'acceptum referre,' or Of wisdom, gravity, profound conceit;
(as 'expensum referre') to his debit. To As who would say, I am Sir Oracle,
'impute' a thing to any one is to lay it to And when I ope my lips let no dog bark. his charge. The openness (“simplicitas ') O my Antonio, I do know of those of such persons, and their blind madness, Who therefore only are esteemed wise
he says, may excite compassion and get For saying nothing.”
them some indulgence. Heinecke justly
reproves Ruperti for substituting .quem? Which is all an expansion of what Solomon for .qui,' as if .morbum' was the object says: “Even a fool when he holdeth his of 'imputo.' Morbum' means his vice, peace is counted wise; and he that shutteth mentis morbum'as Horace has it (S. ü. his lips a man of understanding ” (Prov. 3. 80). xvii. 28).
19. qui talia verbis Herculis invadunt] 15. brevior coma.] Their short-clipped “Who attack such vices with big words, hair was another affectation of wisdom, fol. stout, terrible language, such as Hercules lowing, it is said, the fashion of the Stoics. might use. There is no allusion to the lan. See Pers. ii. 51: "detonsa juventus Invi. guage of disdain with which Hercules regilat.” Britannicus, quotes in Latin what jected the addresses of Pleasure in Prodicus' be says is a Greek proverb : “ nullus coma. story. Ruperti has taken this notion up tus qui idem cinoedus non sit.” But the from Britannicus, who tells the whole story. Stoics had a bad name in this matter; and But Heinrich thinks Hercules is mentioned yet Lucian (Hermotimus c. 18, quoted by because the Cynics professed to imitate him Ruperti, and referred to by Turnebus, Adv. in dress and voice. 1. xv. c. 17) speaks of them as év xon 21. Sexte,] The Scholiast says this was κουρίας τους πλείστους, most of them with some senator, which is not improbable. their hair clipped down to the skin. Ruperti The name “Varillus' is varied in some has a long note upon .supercilium,' which MSS., but is so written in most. is not worth attending to.
22. quo deterior te ?] So Davus addres16. Peribomius :) The Scholiast says he ses his master (Hor. S. ii. 7. 40): was an · Archigallus,' or chief among the priests of the Galatian Cybele' (see Hor. “Tu, cum sis quod ego et fortassis nequior,
ultro 8. i. 2. 121, n.), but followed an infamous trade. Ruperti supposes the name to be
Insectere velut melior verbisque decoris taken from βωμός. περιβώμιος is used in
Obrolvas vitium ? Quid, si me stultior the Septuagint translation for a sacred ipso,” &c. grove (2 hings xxiii. 4, and elsewhere). 23. Loripedem rectus derideat,] •Lori. • Peribonius' is the reading of M. and many pes' is the same as iuautótrous. Pliny other MSS. This man made no conceal. (vii. 2) speaks of a tribe among the Indians ment of his trade, but showed it in his gait who were “anguium modo loripedes." See
Quis tulerit Gracchos de seditione querentes?
Forcellini, who explains it of those who in Pompeia, and his violation of the mysteries walking twist their legs about like a thong of · Bona Dea,' in pursuit of his mistress. of leather, or whose legs are naturally dis- Catiline and Cethegus, fellow-conspirators, torted. He quotes also Plautus (Poen. iii. are mentioned together again viii. 231; X. 1. 7); “Nequicquam hos fuscos mihi elegi 287. C. Cornelius Cethegus was not infe. loripedes tardissimos.” The soft word for rior to Catiline in bloody violence, and next such appears to have been ‘varus,' or 'scau. to Lentulus was his chief supporter. rus' (see Horace, S. i. 3. 47, n.). The 28. In tabulam Sullae] The tabula' Scholiast explains . loripedem' as 'solutum means the proscription table of Sulla, and pedibus aut curvis.'
they who are here called his three disciples 24. Quis tulerit Gracchos] This might are Antonius, Octavianus, and Lepidus, stand ‘si Gracchi querantur quis tulerit ?' whose proscription (A.U.c. 711) was more • If the Gracchi were to complain, who would bloody than Sulla's, thirty-eight years be. bear it?' (See Key's Lat. Gr. 1209.) Every fore. It is said to have included 3000 equites one will understand the charge of sedition and 300 senators, and among them were laid upon the Gracchi (Tiberius and Caius), Cicero and others of the first distinction. the friends of the poor, and feared by the Lucan calls Cn. Pompeius a pupil of Sulla aristocracy. It is not surprising that their (Phars. i. 325): names passed into proverbs under the em. pire. Their lives are given at some length
“ Bella nefanda parat suetus civilibus armis in Smith's Dict. Biog.
Et docilis Sullam sceleris vicisse magis
trum.” 25. Quis caelum terris) See below, vi. 283 : “clames licet et mare caelo Confundas As to “tabulam Sullae' Grangaeus quotes homo sum." He means, who would not Florus (iii. 21): “proposita est illa ingens cry out invoking heaven and earth at such tabula, et ex ipso equestri ordinis flore ac hypocrisy? as Stasimus cries out in Plautus senatu duo millia electi qui mori juberen(Trinum. iv. 3. 63): “Mare, terra, caelum, tur.” • Dicere in' is used in the sense of di vostram fidem, Satin' ego oculis plane dicere contra. Cicero has “multa praevideo?” The words of Juvenal are bor. sens in praesentem et dixerat et fecerat” rowed from Virgil (Aen. v. 790): “maria (Ad Att. xi. 12). omnia caelo miscuit,” who, as Grangaeus 29. Qualis erat nuper] He here alludes remarks, may have got his from Lucretius to the adulterous intercourse of Domitian (iii. 834): "non si terra mari miscebitur et with his niece Julia Sabina, a daughter of mare caelo."
Titus, who was married to Flavius Sabinus, 26. Si fur displiceat Verri,] That is, if the her father's and Domitian's first cousin. plunderer of a province were offended with Suetonius (Domit. 22) relates that she was à common robber. •Furtum' included all offered Domitian in marriage while yet a theft and robbery, with or without violence; virgin, and that he refused her because he but where a distinction is meant it is opposed was married already to Domitia. But not to rapina,' which is ‘furtum' attended long after her marriage (to Sabinus), and with force. See note on Hor. S. i. 3. 122, before he came to the throne, he seduced • Furta latrociniis.' Cicero's seven orations her; and when he was emperor, murdered have made Verres immortal. His iniquities her husband on the pretext (mentioned by are enshrined in the finest specimens of Suetonius, c. x.) that when they were proforensic eloquence that have come down to claimed consul together (A.D. 82), the year us from antiquity. Milo's murder of Clo- after Domitian's accession, the herald prodius, his adversary and Cicero's (A.U.c. claimed Sabinus imperator instead of consul. 70:2), and the blood he and his followers The true reason no doubt was the emshed in his contests with that person, made peror's lust for Julia ; and Juvenal therefore his name proverbial. Clodius was, besides, calls his connexion with her 'tragicus coninfamous for his intrigue with Caesar's wife, cubitus. Julia afterwards died in an at
Concubitu: qui tunc leges revocabat amaras
tempt, forced upon her by Domitian, to perti supposes Juvenal may mean that these procure abortion, which is alluded to in v. men were like Scaurus in his dissimulation. 32, sq. Pliny (Epp. iv. 11. 6), speaking of But whatever Sallust may have thought of Domitian, says he put to death a Vestal for Scaurus, he was classed with the noble and incest and was as bad himself: “Quum honest citizens of Rome by others. Juvenal ipse fratris filiam incesto non solum pollu. says that the lowest characters, who made isset verum etiam occidisset, nam vidua no concealment of their vices, despised these abortu periit.” According to Dion Cassius hypocrites, and when they attacked them (67. 3) this happened A.D. 83; the same returned their bite, as Horace says (Epod. year, probably, as the murder of Sabinus. vi. 3): At the same time Domitian was engaged in
“Quin huc inanes, si potes, vertis minas the reforming of public morals (Sueton. Vit.
Et me remorsurum petis ?” c. 8, “Suscepta morum correctione,” &c.), having taken upon himself the censorship 36. Lauronia] This is any woman of for life; he being the first of the emperors the town. The name is said, without any who had nominally assumed that office (see probability, to be taken from Lauron, a S. iv. 12). The • lex Julia de Adulteriis' town of Hispania Tarraconensis (Beck, may have been loosely observed, and Sue. quoted by Ruperti in his Var. Lect.). tonius speaks of Domitian having enforced Some MSS. have Laronia,, which occurs in with severity, and on several occasions, the inscriptions. The woman smiles quietly at law against incestuous Vestals, “a patre suo these hypocrites crying out pathetically for quoque et fratre neglecta” (c. 8); see below, the ‘lex Julia' (see note on v. 29), and says iv. 9, n. In that loose age the “lex Julia to one of them : Lucky times are these, et Papia Poppaea' above mentioned (see which present such a barrier to immorality Dict. Ant.) would be called .amara omni
Let the town blush at her lewd. bus,' and a terror to the adulterous Mars ness; another Cato has dropped from the and Venus. *Abortivis' signifies means of skies. But where did you buy your per. abortion. "Tunc' means that he was re- fumery?' And then she breaks out in a storing the laws at the very time when he fierce invective against men, and a defence was carrying on his intrigue.
of her own sex. • Subridens' expresses 34. vitia ultima] The most vicious of bitterness, as in Aen. x. 712 : “Ad quem men,
res pro persona;' as 'servitium’ for subridens mista Mezentius ira." The taunt servus,' remigium' for 'remiges,' &c about the ointment is sarcastic enough; and • Fictos Scauros' are those villains who pro- the speech, which passes from quiet irony fess to be as virtuous as M. Aemilius Scau to the utmost scorn, is well managed. rus, who is alluded to again (xi. 91) in con 40. Tertius e caelo cecidit Cato.] This junction with Fabius Cato and Camillus. seems to be an allusion to Domitian's censor. See Horace, C. i. 12. 37, n., “Regulum ship spoken of above (v. 2!)). Some com. et Scauros animaeque magnae Prodigum mentators do not see why there should be Paullum,” where the plural is used as here. three, that is, why Cato of Utica should be See note on S. i. 109; and above, on vv. 3, associated with the Censor. But Juvenal has 10. Because Sallust (B. Jug. 18) speaks put them together, and the younger was an of Scaurus as callide vitia occultans,' Ru. honest man.