« PreviousContinue »
Antiquis una comedunt patrimonia mensa.
Nil erit ulterius quod nostris moribus addat
man's dinner may read the ninth chapter of came into fashion in Cicero's time. (See Becker's Gallus, and the description of Hor. S. ii. 2. 21, n.) The common practice of Trimalchio's dinner by Petronius, on which bathing immediately after meals, though in Becker's fiction is founded.
hot baths, might well lead to sudden deaths 139. Nullus jam parasitus erit :] We or to frequent intestacy, as Juvenal expresses shall soon have no parasites : but who shall it. See Persius, S. iii. 98, sqq., where there bear to see this selfish gluttony of yours?' are some powerful lines on this subject. He addresses the man. • Luxuriae sordes' • Ducere funus' is one of the many applicameans avarice and luxury combined. “Po. tions of that verb, of which a great variety nere' is the word used for putting dishes will be found in Horace. on the table. See Hor. S. ü. 4. 14, n., and 149. Omne in praecipiti vitium stetit.] elsewhere. At large banquets a boar served “All vice is at its height” (Stapylton). “All up whole, and sometimes stuffed with all vice is at its zenith” (Gifford). “Al vice manner of forced meat and rich things, was is at its pitch-pole" (whatever that may be) usually the chief dish. (See Hor. S. ii. 3. is Holyday's version. The notion is, that 234, n., and 8. 6, n.) Grangaeus says Ju. vice is at a point from which it can climb venal has taken animal propter convivia no higher, and that the age is on the brink natum' from Varro, de Re Rust. ii. 4: of a precipice, and likely to be ruined through “ Suillum pecus donatum ab natura dicunt its vices. The stone was still rolling in ad epulandum.” Juvenal means more than Horace's days : Varro did. He says it is so big as only to
“ Damnosa quid non imminuit dies ? be meant to be eaten when several are col. lected at a feast. He might have said the
Aetas parentum pejor avis tulit
Nos nequiores, mox daturos same of the peacock. Natum 'is used like
Progeniem vitiosiorem." • Natis in usum laetitiae scyphis' (Hor. C. i.
C. iii. 6, fin. 27. 1). For ‘ferat' some MSS. have• feret:' either will do. Heinrich has the future. Rigalti quotes Velleius (lib. ii.): “adeo
142. Poena tamen praesens,] . But the mature a rectis in vitia, a vitiis in prava, a penalty follows hard after the crime, for pravis in praecipitia pervenitur." when he goes to bathe with his stomach full Ctere relis, Totos pande sinus.] He and his hard meat undigested, he gets a fit addresses his Muse as a ship, and bids her of apoplexy which puts an end to him. The set all sail. But he supposes one to ask news gets about from one house to another, where he is to get the ability for such work, and his friends, angry at missing the lega- and where the freedom of speech that his cies they expected, are glad to hear of his forefathers had, but which at that time could death.' As he made no will his property not be so much as spoken of, not in public would go to his 'haeredes.' The peacock first at least.
Simplicitas, cujus non audeo dicere nomen?
154. Quid refert dictis ignoscat Mucius] always have been hard to understand. Pi. The MSS. vary between Mucius' and thoeus says of it: "nec ullus est in his Sa• Mutius.' The same variation appears in tyris locus, quem ego ex Grammaticorum Persius (i. 115), where the name occurs again Glossis minus grammatice intelligam.” Ges. in conjunction with Lupus, whom Horace ner, quoted by Ruperti, supposes Juvenal mentions with Metellus as objects of Luci- to mean that his body would be dragged lius' satire. The man is supposed to ask, through the arena. Rigalti had said this • What does it signity (refert, rem fert) long before : “ ardebis in tunica molesta, et whether you might attack Mucius with im- jam ecce raptaris per mediam arenam ut punity, as Lucilius did, or not? Introduce pice oblitus et impactus unco flammeris." Tigellinus, and you will be served as the I incline, to this interpretation, which Hein. Christians were. • Pone' is used in Pers. rich also approves. The present for the i. 70:“ nec ponere lucum Artifices ;" where future only represents the action as if now the Scholiast says, “ Ponere dicit scribere;" going on. • Et' for 'aut' presents no difand he quotes Horace, A. P. 120 : “ Scriptor culty. But Heinrich thinks it should be honoratum si forte reponis Achillem.” “aut,' which is not in any MS. Another There ‘reponere' has reference to the stage. explanation is that the sulcus’ is a stream Here it means, perhaps, ‘put up as your or gutter formed by the melted pitch runmark,' or it may be put into your verse.' ning off the man's body on the ground. I
of the great do not see how (sulcus can have that man's great men you will suffer for it. So. meaning. Madvig's explanation, adopted pbronius Tigellinus (whose name is used by Mr. Mayor, is to my mind without any proverbially) was Nero's chief favourite, value. He reads •deducit,' and derives a and his accomplice in the burning of Rome. nominative (quae taeda) from what goes beThe origin of the fire was traced to his fore, and then supposes the furrow to be house (Tac. Ann. xv. 39). To avert from formed in the earth by a number of vichimself and his friend the odium of this tims buried up to their waists in a long row crime, Nero, as is well known, charged it and set fire to. Some take the meaning to upon the Christians, who were put to death be ploughing the sand and wasting labour, in great numbers and in the most cruel quoting“ tenuique in pulvere sulcos Ducifashion. Among other torments they were mus, et sterili littus versamnus aratro” (vii. bung up on crosses, tarred, and set fire 48, sq.). But this gives a poor meaning to by way of torches (Tac. I. c. cap. 44). here. Nearly all the MSS. have the third • Taeda' here means either a pitched shirt, person, fluctuating between di’ and de' called below tunica molesta' (viii. 233), and the present and future tenses. P. has or, as Heinrich takes it, the pine wood with . deducis as a correction ; and Robt. Stewhich they were burnt. Juvenal represents phens' oldest MS., which Ruperti describes the poor wretches with a stake thrust under as of high character, has the same. Stetheir chin. Two of the oldest MSS., P. phens' edition has . deducit;' but the joint and the oldest of the Nürnberg, have pec- edition of his grandson and Rigalti (Paris, tore' for .gutture,' which is the reading of 1613) has • deducis ;' and I believe that to the other MSS. In P. the word is corrected be the true reading. to 'gutture' by a later hand. Jahn adopts 158. Qui dedit ergo] Probus, quoted 'pectore.' I have not met with any other by the old commentators, says Tigellinus editor who does so.
had three uncles, and poisoned them all and 157. Et latum media sulcum deducis] forged wills by which he got their money, The variety of readings, and still greater va. which is most probably an invention derived riety of conjectures, in respect to deducis;' from the text. The Scholiast says more involve the passage in almost hopeless dift. truly that Juvenal is speaking generally culty. To judge by the Mss., which are against those who gain their bad ends by no where so various as here, the verse must poison. •Pensilibus plumis' means a "lec
Pensilibus plumis, atque illinc despiciat nos?
tica' with soft feather-bed and cushions, 168. Inde irae et lacrimae.] Terence's raised aloft on men's shoulders.
“Hinc illae lacrimae” (Andr. i. 1.99) came 162. Securus licet Aeneam] •You may to be a proverb. Horace uses it, Epp. i. safely set Aeneas and Turnus fighting; 19. 41 ; and Cicero likewise (pro Coelio, Achilles will not hurt you if you write of C. 25). his death at the hand of l'aris; and Hylas is 169. Ante tubas :) Before the battle is at the bottom of the well with his pitcher, begun. When a man has put on his armour so you may say what you like about him.' it is too late to draw back. The substance Hylas was a favourite of Hercules; drawing of his friend's advice is, that if he must water at a well he was dragged in by the write he had better attack those who are nymphs, and Hercules sought him long, dead and gone; and the poet says he will sorrowing and calling upon his name, and follow his advice. From this it might be set the people of the country (Mysia) to inferred that this Satire was written beseek him; a subject much handled by the fore the others. But I do not think it old poets. Virgil asks, “Cui non dictus is a proof that can be depended upon. Hylas puer?” (Georg. iii. 6.) “Committere' The • Via Latina' was the oldest road out is to match one against another. So be of Rome, and ran through the heart says below (vi. 436): “Committit vates et of Latium to Beneventum, where the • Via comparat.
Appia 'joined it. The • Via Flaminia' has 165. Ense velut stricto] This reminds been mentioned above, v. 61. The chief us of Horace, S. ii. 1. 39, sqq.:
roads leading out of Rome were lined Sed hic stilus haud petet ultro
for several miles with the tombs of the Quemquam animantem, et me veluti cus
wealthier citizens, burial within the walls todiet ensis
of the city being forbidden by the twelve
tables. Hominem in urbe ne sepelito Vagina tectus; quem cur distringere coner Tutus ab infestis latronibus?"
neve urito" (Cic. de Legg. ii. 23). So that
burning was practised as early as the decemWhat Ruperti says about Damocles' sword virate. It grew afterwards into general use, is ridiculous.
and was not discontinued till the end of the 167. tacita sudant praecordia culpa.] A second century of the Christian era (see cold sweat coming over the heart through Becker's Gall., Exc. on the interment of the the power of conscience and the fear of ex. dead). Heinrich supposes Juvenal, by menposure is a forcible description. • Praecor- tioning the Flaminian and Latin roads, to dia' are the intestines rather than the heart. hint at Domitian and his favourite, Paris In these passion and feeling had their seat, the actor, of whom the former was buried according to the Romans : the heart was the on the Via Flaminia, and the other on the seat of intelligence.
INTRODUCTION. This satire is levelled at those persons in the upper ranks of society (and particularly it would seem at the Emperor Domitian) who, pretending a stoical virtue and crying out against vice and calling up stringent old laws against it, were themselves practising the worst vices in secret, and giving to the age a character which never had been equalled, and could never be surpassed, for debauchery of the filthiest kind. The Commentators have generally supposed the satire to be aimed at the professional philosophers of the day. “ The poet in this Satyr inveighs against the Hypocrisie of the Philosophers and Priests of his time,” is Tate's account of the argument. What his notions of a Roman priest may have been it is hard to say, but he writes :
“ When hypocrites read lectures, and a sot,
Because into a Gown and Pulpit got,
Nothing but Abstinence for's theme will chuse.” Heinrich, in a dissertation of much sagacity, has shown that Juvenal's meaning is very different from this, and the scope of the poem more wide and important. The vices and hypocrisy of Domitian were imitated by the respectable people, and at these he aims his invectives.
From the word 'nuper,' in v. 29, it has been inferred that the satire was written soon after the events there referred to, which took place A. D. 83. *Nuper' admits a good deal of latitude, as it often does in Cicero, but it is reasonable to suppose that Juvenal wrote while the matter was pretty fresh; and as the satire clearly has reference to the time of Domitian, that it was written before his reign was over (A. D. 97). It is not very likely that he gave it much publicity while the tyrant was alive.
For indignant power there is none of the poems that excels this. The nature of the subjects however renders it almost unreadable, and nothing but the honesty of the writer could make the task of editing it endurable. Whoever would judge of the difference between the spirit of true indignation and that of a weak or impure mind in dealing with such painful subjects, should compare Juvenal with his translator Tate, who has taken from the satire the best recommendation it has, which is the virtue of the author. If the psalm-translator and poet-laureate was a man of purity he has done himself injustice. The other translators have executed their task better in this respect.
I would gladly run to the utmost North when canting hypocrites dare talk of morals,
mere ignorant fellows, though they fill their shelves with busts. No faith is in their outside. The whole town is teeming with these solemn villains. What, you reprove vice; the foulest of all foul pretenders! They affect few words, and silence, and cropped hair; more honest far is Peribomius, who makes no secret of his sin. I leave him to his destiny; I pity him. But they are worst who with fine words attack such vices. “I'm no worse than you,” says Varillus the degraded. Let the straightlimbed laugh at the bandy-legged, the fair at the blackamoor. For who would tolerate the Gracchi complaining of sedition, nor exclaim if Verres should affect to hate a thief, Milo a murderer, Clodius an adulterer, Catiline Cethegus, or Sulla's pupils carp at his proscription ? But such was he who, while his fatal incest was in the doing, and while his niece was spawning her abortions, restored the bitterest laws against adultery. The
most corrupt may therefore well despise these moralists, and turn the tables on them, as Lauconia did when she heard one cry for the Julian law: “O happy times (cried she) with such a bulwark for its morals! Let the town blush, another Cato is come down from heaven! But whence, pray, this perfumery? If you must call old laws up from their rest, you'd better summon the Scantinian first. Look at the men, for they are worse than us, but their compact array and numbers save them; the lewd will hang together : among us nought so detestable is found. Say, do we meddle with the forum and the laws ? A few, and but a few, are seen in the arena. But you will sit and spin and do our women's work better, yea than the best of us. We all know who was Hister's heir, and by what complaisance his wife got rich; and others may do likewise. And yet we are condemned; and censure spares the raven to hunt down
the dove." These Stoics fled confused before the truth of her rebuke. V. 65. What will not others do when you put on those clothes of gauze and go and
preach before admiring crowds against the female sinners, Creticus? They would at least put on a decent toga if it came to that. “But it's so hot,” say you: why then go naked; madness is less disgraceful. Look at the dress in which, had you lived then, our hardy ancestors had seen you in the rostra. Would you not cry out, “ Heaven and earth!” if you saw a judex so attired? How would a witness look in
clothes like these? And yet you, stern unbending Stoic, go transparent! V. 78. The infection has spread, and will farther spread, like murrain among sheep,
or scurf in pigs, or contagious rot from grape to grape. You will go on to something worse than this. The height of wickedness is reached by slow degrees. Soon we shafl see you among those who mock the rites of Bona Dea, driving out the women, and keeping up such orgies as the Baptae tire Cotytto with. They wear long garlands on their heads and jewels on their neck, and sacrifice, and pour libations. Here one paints his eyebrows and makes his eyes look languishing: another drinks from an obscene glass with his long locks tied up in a net of gold, with a handsome tunic, while his slave swears by his master's Juno! Another holds a mirror to his face such as vile Otho carried when he went to the wars; a novel piece of furniture for a camp! Of course it is a great man's part to kill a tyrant—and to mind his skin; to aim at empires —and to smooth his face. Semiramis and Cleopatra did not so. Here is no reverence for the table, none; but Cybele's foul license and the languishing voice, a fanatic high priest with his white hair, rare glutton he and master of his art. Long since they
should have cut their useless parts, as the Phrygian priests are wont. V. 116. Gracchus bis portion brought to a trumpeter : the marriage deeds were signed ;
the blessing spoken; the feast prepared; the new bride lay upon his husband's bosom. Ye nobles ! need we the censor or the harusper here? What if a woman calved or a cow lambed? you'd shudder more and count them greater monsters. The priest of Mars who sweated with the ancilia puts on a bridal dress! Gradivus, whence this shame to Latin shepherds ? whence have thy sons this itch? A man of birth and wealth marries a man, and yet thy wrath is still! quit then the plain which thou dost so neglect. “I must be up betimes, and do my duty by the Quirinal.” “What duty?" “What duty! why my friend will take a husband-the marriage will be private.” But soon there'll be no privacy, they'll want to put it in the news. And yet they must die
barren (this torments them), in spite of herbs and the Lupercus' blows. V. 143. But this is less than noble gladiators, who scour the arena, better born than all
the fine folk who look on by the podium, yea than the great man too who gives the games. The fables about manes, Styx, and Charon's boat we leave to babes. But only think them true, and and what would all those mighty spirits say when such a
shade came down! They'd cry for lustral water, sulphur, pine, and laurel. V. 139. So changed are we, alas! Our arms are carried to the furthest North, but those
barbarians do not what their conquerors do. Yet one, Armenian Zalates, more soft