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Secreto coenavit avus? Nunc sportula primo

Limine parva sedet, turbae rapienda togatae.
Ille tamen faciem prius inspicit et trepidat, ne
Suppositus venias ac falso nomine poscas.
Agnitus accipies; jubet a praecone vocari
Ipsos Trojugenas; nam vexant limen et ipsi
Nobiscum. Da Praetori, da deinde Tribuno.
Sed libertinus prior est. “Prior," inquit, “ego adsum:
Cur timeam dubitemve locum defendere, quamvis


the expense of dining are given by Gellins, 97. trepidat,] This word expresses any ü. 24. They never had much attention paid hurried action or emotion. •Inspicit et them. See Dict. Ant. “Sumptuariae leges.' trepidat' means he looks in the man's Here were men, according to Juvenal, who face anxiously, with a sharp scrutinizing at their private dinner tables had seven. eye. «Ille' can hardly be any but the The acccusative, ‘fercula,' is like Horace's master, who is supposed to condescend so “patinas coenavit omasi Vilis et agninae.” far as to look on and regulate the distribu

95. Nunc sportula primo Limine parva tion. Some take it for the dipensator' or sedet,] He says that the sportula' is now • balneator,' which is the name Martial gives a shabby affair, and that instead of being to the servant who distributed the sporgiven in the .atrium' as a regular enter tulae.' "Quos (quadrantes) dividebat baltainment (coena recta'), in the way clients neator elixus” (iii. 7. 3). used to be received by their patrons, it was 99. jubet a praecone vocari Ipsos Troju. now-set out at the door, to be scrambled genas ;] The .praeco' may mean the .nofor by the hungry rabble, closely watched by menclator,' whose particular duty was to the master, lest any should get it under false attend the morning visits and to know all pretences. Sportula,' a little basket, was his master's acquaintance by sight and the name given to a dole which first under name, with their circumstances and all the emperors it became customary for rich about them. See Hor. Epp. i. 6. 50, n. men to give to those dependants who chose The master bids this man call up the reto pay their respects to them at their early spectable people first; for, says Juvenal, reception in the morning, and to dance at. proud gentlemen of the old families contendance upon them at other times. It was descend to join us humble folk in begging. given sometimes in the shape of meat, at The poorer they got the more they stuck to others in a small sum of money, usually their pedigree, and nothing would satisfy 100 quadrantes, or one and a half denarii, them short of the blood of Aeneas in their about eleven pence (v. 120). (See Dict. veins. See below (viii. 42), “Ut te conAnt.) Gifford has confounded the public ciperet quae sanguine fulget Iuli ;” (ib. 56) • sportula' with the private. The former, “ Dic mihi, Teucrorum proles ;" (ib. 181) not the latter, was established by Nero and " At vos, Trojugenae;" (xi. 95) “Clarum abolished by Domitian. Mr. Mayor has Trojugenis factura ac nobile fulcrum.” See made the same mistake.

also Horace, S. ii. 5. 63, n.: " Ab alto de. 96. turbae rapienda togatae.] Ruperti missum genus Aenea.” says this is spoken contemptuously, because 101. Da Praetori, da deinde Tribuno.] under the emperors only the poorer and See S. iii. 128. Martial has an epigram vulgar sort wore the 'toga.' This is non addressed to Paulus, a senator, beginning sense. He refers to Horace, S. i. 2. 63. 82,

“ Cum tu laurigeris annum qui fascibus which only shews that women of bad cha.

intras racter wore a 'toga' instead of a stola.'

Manc salutator limina mille teras," The 'toga' was worn out of respect to the

(x. 10,) great man, and it was counted bad taste for any person of respectability to go abroad where limina terere' corresponds to vex. without it. At one time it became common ant limen' in the last line. Horace (S. i. for persons of family to go to the theatre 8. 18) says of the Esquiline, thieves and without the toga,' and Augustus put a beasts were wont hunc vexare locum,' to stop to the practice. “Turba togata,'' gens infest it. It must be supposed that sometogata,' were commonly used for the Romans. times magistrates (who were now sunk very


Natus ad Euphraten, molles quod in aure fenestrae
Arguerint licet ipse negem: sed quinque tabernae
Quadringenta parant. Quid confert purpura major
Optandum, si Laurenti custodit in agro
Conductas Corvinus oves? ego possideo plus
Pallante et Licinis." Exspectent ergo Tribuni ;

low) were among the crowds who waited on called Paterno" (according to Cramer, Italy, the rich. The master says, “Give the ii. 16), was a winter resort of the Romans, Praetor first, after him the Tribunus ;" and abounded with villas.' Large flocks of but a freedman, who had come before either sheep were fed there, and the marshes in of them, asserts his claim to be served be the neighbourhood were famous for wild fore them; and a long speech is put into boars, which Horace, however, does not his mouth, in which he makes himself out recommend (S. ii. 4. 42). Corvinus was a to be richer than the men of office, and cognomen of the Messallae, who were a therefore entitled to take precedence of branch of the Valeria Gens, one of the them, an odd argument at such a time. As oldest families in Rome. (See Hor. C. iii. to • libertinus,' see Hor. S. i. 6. 6, n. 'Sed 21, Int.; S. i. 6. 12, n., "contra Laevinum, libertinus prior est' is part of the narrative, Valeri genus.") This gentleman of old not the words of the dispensator,' as Ru. family is supposed to be reduced to keeping perti says.

sheep as a 'mercenarius.' A person is said, 104. Natus ad Euphraten,] He may conducere rem faciendam,' in which case mean from Cappadocia, from which part he receives pay (“merces') or "conducere the Romans got a good many of their slaves rem utendam,' in which case he pays another (vii. 15). See Martial x. 76:

for the thing used. (See note on Hor. C. i. “ Civis non Syriaeve Parthiaeve

18. 17, and Long on Cic. in Verr. Act. i. c. Nec de Cappadocis eques catastis."

6, there quoted.)

108. ego possideo plus] That' possidere' • Fenestrae' are the holes made for earrings, was used generally in the sense of possessing and they are called "molles,' which means property, and not confined to the possessores' effeminate. The man says he has five technically so called, is obvious from this houses, which he lets out for shops, and and many passages. The 'possessores' they are worth 400,000 sesterces, which of the republican period were patricians,

an equestrian fortune; unless with holders of public lands; and this man could: Heinrich we understand quinque tabernae' not be a ' possessor' in that sense any more to be those spoken of by Liry as banking than Pallas or Licinus. He makes himself houses in the forum: Septem tabernae out to be vastly rich, and yet he is here quae postea quinque et argentariae quae begging. nunc Novae appellantur" (xxvi. 27). In 109. Pallante et Licinis.] The man's that case the man means his transactions at speech ends here. Pallas was a freedman the 'quinque tabernae' bring him in this of Claudius, in whose reign he got together income. Í incline to this interpretation. a large fortune, for the sake of whi he With 'quadringenta' sestertia' must be was put to death by Nero, A.D. 63. See his supplied. See below, iii. 153, sq. ; v. 132; life in Dict. Biog. Licinus was a Gaulish xiv. 323; and Hor. Epod. iv. 15, n. slave manumitted by C. Julius Caesar, and

106. purpura major] That is (as the made by Augustus governor of Gallia, which Scholiast says) the latus clavus,' or broad he robbed, and thereby grew very rich. The purple stripe on the tunic worn by senators, Scholiast says it was to stop people's mouths as opposed to the . angustus clavus' worn that he built a basilica' in the name of by equites.' (See Dict. Ant.; and Hor. S. i. Julius Caesar (the Basilica Julia in the 5. 36, n.; ii. 7. 10, n.) A tribunus mili. Forum Romanum). He died in the reign tum' of the first four legions was entitled to of Tiberius. This, the Scholiast says, is a seat in the senate, and therefore to the the Licinus mentioned by Persius (S. ii. 36). • latus clavus ;' but it was allowed to others This may very likely be the person alluded who were not senators under the empire. to by Juvenal here and at xiv. 306. The

107. si Laurenti custodit in agro] authorities for his life are quoted in Dict. Laurentum, which was in Latium, “sixteen Biog. The commentators refer to members miles from Ostia, and near the spot now of the · Licinia gens,' of which the family of



Vincant divitiae, sacro nec cedat honori
Nuper in hanc urbem pedibus qui venerat albis;
Quandoquidem inter nos sanctissima divitiarum
Majestas: etsi funesta Pecunia templo
Nondum habitas, nullas nummorum ereximus aras,
Ut colitur Pax atque Fides, Victoria, Virtus,
Quaeque salutato crepitat Concordia nido.


Crassus in particular was very rich. As to where the declivity commenced called (see the plural Licinis, where only one person is Horace, C. iv. 2. 35) Sacer Clivus, which meant, see note on Horace, S. i. 7, 8. led down to the Forum Romanum. It

110. sacro nec cedat honori] The person was begun by Claudius and finished by of the tribunus plebis' was inviolable, .saVespasian, who deposited in it the spoils of crosanctus' (Liv. ii. 33). Martial has (viii. Jerusalem brought to Rome by Titus. 66) “ Et Caesar genero sacros honores;” and (Joseph. B. J. vii. 37.) It was burnt down Virgil (Aen. iii. 484), “Nec cedit honori.” in the reign of Commodus, about 120 years

111. pedibus qui venerat albis ;] The after it was built. Fides had a temple on Scholiast has a note here, which need not Mons Capitolinus, which was said to have be attended to. Slaves newly imported been founded originally by Numa, and was are generally said to have been chalked on afterwards restored in the consulship of M. the soles of their feet when exposed for sale. Aemilius Scaurus, A.V.C. 639. No less (See Dict. Ant. Art. 'Servus,' 872, b.) Ovid than three temples of Victoria are mensays, “Gypsati crimen inane pedis” (Am. tioned, one of which was in the Forum, i. 8. 62); and Propertius speaks of slaves another on Mons Palatinus, and a third on for sale,

Mons Aventinus. That on the Palatine quorum titulus per barbara colla pe- built by Evander. In his first consulship

was said by tradition to have been originally pendit Cretati medio cum saluere foro,"

M. Marcellus built a temple to Virtus near

the Porta Capena, from which the Via (iv. 5. 51); but what could have been the Appia began. use of chalking their soles is not obvious to 116. crepitat Concordia nido.] “Con. me. They may have worn white slippers cordia, who twitters when the birds salute perhaps, or something of that sort.

their nest;" that is, her temple sounds with 112. divitiarum Majestas :) This con- the twittering of the birds. There was a denses Horace's “Virtus, fama, decus, di. beautiful temple to Concordia in the Carinae, vina humanaque pulchris Divitiis parent originally built by Furius Camillus after the (S. ii. 3. 95).

expulsion of the Gauls, A.U.c. 364, and 113. funesta Pecunia) Compare Horace, restored by Livia, Augustus' wife. See Ovid. Epp. i. 6. 37, “ Et genus et formam regina Fast. vi. 637 : Pecunia donat,” where I have quoted the “Te quoque magnifica concordia dedicat Christian writers on whose authority Pe.

aede cunia is said to have been worshipped.

Livia quam caro praestitit illa viro." Seneca (de Provid. c. 5) says, “Non sunt divitiae bonum. Itaque habeat illas et See also Fast. i. 639, sq. There was Ellius leno: ut homines Pecuniam cum in another, that stood between the Capitol and templis consecraverint videant et in for the Forum, in which the senate sometimes nice.” From which it would seem there held their meetings. (Sall. B. Cat. 4!). were statues of Pecunia in the temples. Cic. Phil. ii. 8.) Some say that the crow,

115. Ut culitur Pax atque Fides,] This others that the stork was the bird sacred group is found in Horace, C. S. 57: to Concordia. John of Salisbury says (i. “Jam Fides et Pax et Fonos Pudorque

13), “ Ciconia quoniam avis Concordiae est

concordiam invenit et concordiam facit." Priscus et neglecta redire Virtus Audet,"

Aelian (ile Animalibus, l. iii.) gives this

honour to the crow. Whichever it was, where I have a note on each of these divi. Juvenal supposes some bird to have built its nities. The temple of Par was one of the nest on the temple of Concordia. Some handsomest buildings in Rome, and was MSS. hare .ciconia, the first syllable of situated on the Via Sacra, about the point wbich is short, and it would bave no mean

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Sed quum summus honor finito computet anno,
Sportula quid referat, quantum rationibus addat,
Quid facient comites, quibus hinc toga, calceus hinc est
Et panis fumusque domi? Densissima centum
Quadrantes lectica petit, sequiturque marituin
Languida vel praegnans et circumducitur uxor.
Hic petit absenti, nota jam callidus arte,
Ostendens vacuam et clausam pro conjuge sellam.
“Galla mea est," inquit; “ citius dimitte ; moraris.”
“Profer, Galla, caput." “ Noli vexare, quiescit."
Ipse dies pulcro distinguitur ordine rerum :
Sportula, deinde forum, jurisque peritus Apollo


ing here. M. has it in the margin. It pro

was invented. As far as it goes this divi. bably arose from Ovid's “crepitante ciconia sion of the day corresponds with Martial's rostro” (Met. vi. 97).

(iv. 8). The two first hours, he says, were 117. Sed quum summus honor] “But given up to the salutatio,' the next three to when the highest magistrates take account the courts, the sixth to sleep and the 'pranat the end of the year what the sportula' dium,' the seventh to business again, the brings them in, and how much it adds to eighth to exercise, and the ninth to dinner, their income, what will their followers do which went on ad libitum till bed-time. who get every thing, clothes, and victuals, (See Hor. Epp. i. 7. 47, n.) It is here said and firing (fumusque) from that source ?" that the sportula' was the first business. • Referre' is the proper word for entering Becker says the dole itself was taken away money in an account book, and rationes in the afternoon, though the salutatio' took are the accounts themselves.

place in the morning (Gall. p. 29, n.). We 119.' Quid facient comites,] That is, have a scene below (iii. 249, sqq.) of slaves those parasites whose profession it was to carrying away hot viands in the afternoon ; wait upon the rich. See above, v. 46. and Martial (x. 70. 13) says he has to go at

120. Densissima centum Quadrantes] the tenth hour for his bath or his spor. -See note on v. 95. • Densissima lectica’ is tula'; “ Balnea post decimam lasso, cenequivalent to “plurima lectica.' Men are tumve petuntur Quadrantes.” It appears, not satisfied with going themselves, but therefore, that people could take the earnthey'must take their wives with them to ings of their servility either in the morning get a double allowance, though they be sick or the afternoon. or in the family way. Another takes his 128. jurisque peritus Apollo] As to the wife's empty chair, with the curtains drawn Forum Augusti, which is here alluded to, round. “It's my wife Galla,” says he; "we see Hor. Epp. i. 16. 57, n.

There was in are in a hurry, don't detain us. “ Put it a statue of Apollo inlaid with ivory (Plin. out your head, Galla, that we may see H. N. vii. 53). In this forum were two you're there,” says the 'balneator.' “Don't porticos, in one of which were statues of disturb her, she's asleep;" and so he takes Aeneas and the Roman kings, and in the a second dole. As to the difference between other of distinguished soldiers. Compare ·lectica' and 'sella,' see note on v. 64. Sueton. (Aug. 31): “Statuas omnium (qui

127. Ipse dies pulcro] Here follows an imperium populi Romani ex minimo maxiaccount of the divisions of the day, which mum reddidissent) triumphali effigie in utrahe calls a 'fair ordering' ironically. The que fori sui porticu dedicavit,” with Ovid distribution of the dole is the first thing in (Fast. v. 563, sqq.): the morning; then the great man goes to

Hinc videt Aenean oneratum pondere sacro the forum and the law courts, and returns

Et tot luleae nobilitatis avos. home about dinner time, still attended by

Hinc vide Iliaden humeris ducis arma bis clients, who, after seeing him to his

ferentem door, retire wearied, and disappointed be

Claraque dispositis arma subesse viris." cause he does not ask them to dinner, as rich men used to do before the sportula' Amongst others a colossal one of Augustus



Atque triumphales, inter quas ausus habere
Nescio quis titulos Aegyptius atque Arabarches,
Cujus ad effigiem non tantum meiere fas est.
Vestibulis abeunt veteres lassique clientes
Votaque deponunt: quanquam longissima coenae
Spes homini: caulis miseris atque ignis emendus.
Optima silvarum interea pelagique vorabit
Rex horuin, vacuisque toris tantum ipse jacebit.
Nam de tot pulcris et latis orbibus et tam


(Mart. viii. 44. 7). Among all Apollo's Pers. i. 113.) Heinrich quotes several inattributes law was not one, and he is only stances of .non tantum' used in this ellipcalled “juris peritus' because he was always tical way, as Liv. x. 14, “Non vero tantum listening to lawyers. So Martial says (ii. metu,” where we are to add “sed etiam 64), “Ipse potest fieri Marsya causidicus," ficto;" Plin. Epp. ii. 14, init., “Rem atrobecause his statue was in the Forum Ro. cem nec tantum epistola dignam,” where manum. (See Hor. S. i. 6. 119, n.) Gesner supplies "sed historia vel tragoedia

130. Aegyptius atque Arabarches,] This adeo." title has caused a good deal of trouble. It 132. Vestibulis abeunt] The vestibuoccurs in Cicero(Ad Att. ii. 17), where, as here, lum' was a porch leading from the street the MSS. differ, some having . Arabarches,' to the door of the house. These porches and others. Alabarches.' Ernesti (Clavis) were only attached to large houses. In says the sense and MSS. both favour • Ala- them the retainers sat.. And Juvenal says barches' (see end of this note). So also in when they came home with their patron the Codex Justin., iv. 61. I, a duty upon they got no farther than the porch, and, cattle imported from Arabia into Egypt is receiving no invitation to dinner, they laid variously written · Alabarchiae vectigal' and aside their hopes for the first time, and *Arabarchiae.' The reading, however, is not went away to buy a poor supper and firing of much importance, for the meaning must to dress it, while their lord and master went be the same even if the r became corrupted in to a fine dinner which he enjoyed by into l. The title must have been that of himself. “Rex,' as applied to the rich, is some Roman officer of consideration in the very common in Horace. See C. i. 4. 14, province of Egypt, whatever his duties may n.; and below, v. 14. He says that of all have been. They were discharged in one the hopes men feed upon, they are least instance, at least, by the governor of a dis. willing to part with that of a good dinner. trict, as appears by the inscription on Mem. Rigalti quotes a good answer of Epictetus to non's statue quoted by Mr. Mayor, where Hadrian : “ Hadriano interroganti, quid est Claudius Aemilius is said to be spaßápxns longissimum? Epictetus respondit, Spes." και επιστράτηγος θηβαΐδος. Juvenal is 134. caulis miseris atque ignis emendus.] indignant that a provincial officer should See above, v. 120. have had a public statue, with his services 137. et latis orbibus] These were round inscribed on the pedestal (titulos), set up tables made of single slabs of various costly for him among the great men in the forum. woods. (See Hor. S. ü. 2. 4, n.) They The notion of Alabarches' being derived came into fashion in Cicero's time; and from alaßa, which Hesychius says means some may have been preserved from that ink, and therefore that the otficer was day, and would justly be called “antiqui.' scripturae praefectus,' or collector of the (See below, S. xi. 122.) The use of round tax upon cattle, was first propounded, ac tables introduced a change in the distribucording to Pullmann, by his contemporary tion of the company usual in Horace's time, Cujacius, and some later editors have adopted which was on the triclinium, on three it (Ernesti does so in his • Clavis' on Cicero, long couches round a table of three sides to mentioned above). Otherwise it would not correspond to them. The round tables did be worth noticing.

not suit this arrangement, and semicircular 131. non tantum] Non tantum' is ex. couches were introduced, with fewer people plained by Horace S. i. 8. 38. Juvenal says ou them. In large houses there would be that a man may foul this fellow's statue in several of these in a room. Whoever wishes any way he pleases without offence. (See to see how much might be spent on a Ro

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