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Haec ego non agitem? Sed quid magis Heracleas
Aut Diomedeas aut mugitum Labyrinthi
Et mare percussum puero fabrumque volantem,
Quum leno accipiat moechi bona, (si capiendi
Jus nullum uxori,) doctus spectare lacunar,
Doctus et ad calicem vigilanti stertere naso?
Quum fas esse putet curam spectare cohortis
Qui bona donavit praesepibus, et caret omni
Majorum censu dum .pervolat axe citato
Flaminiam puer ? Automedon nam lora tenebat
Ipse lacernatae quum se jactaret amicae.
Nonne libet medio ceras implere capaces

60

Persius and Juvenal as the representative “Ipse miser vidi cum me dormire putares of Roman satire. Lucilius was more in Sobrius apposito crimina vestra mero." Juvenal's way, and he mentions him below The Scoliast Acron quotes this verse on (v. 165) with respect. No one should be Hor. C. iii. 6. 29: “Sed jussa coram non misled by the Scholiast's note: “Lucernam sine conscio Surgit marito." dicit quia Satyrici ad omnium vitia quasi lu 58. Quum fas esse putet) " When that cernam admovent, et ut adurant et ut osten

man thinks he has a right to look for a dant crimina.” 'Lucerna' only means what tribune's place who, while yet a boy, wasted we mean when we speak of the midnight his substance on his stables, and lost his oil.'

patrimony with flying on swift coach down 52. Sed quid magis Heracleas) 'Agitem' the Flaminian road : for he was Automemust be repeated, but in a different sense. don and held the reins while the great man He asks why he should rather write on such made himself pleasant to his man-mistress." hackneyed subjects as the labours of Her. This person may have been some favourite cules, the wanderings of Diomed, the ad. of Domitian's, who had been made, or ventures of Theseus, Icarus, and Daedalus, hoped to be made, a tribunus militum' (see than attack the vices of the day? Jahn xvi. 20, n.). The Scholium on praesepibus' punctuates differently and badly, ' Sed quid is “ Neronem tangit ;” but this seems to bemagis ? Heracleas,' &c.

long to 'ipse,' which is often used inde55. Quum leno accipiat moechi bona,] This pendently for the great man' (S. v. 86, man connives at his wife's intrigues at his n.), and is here opposed to Automedon, own table, like the man Galba, mentioned Achilles to his charioteer. Madvig below (S. v. 4), and gets her paramour to (Opusc. i. 36) denies that there is any allu. make him his heres,' which the woman sion to Nero, and says that 'ipse' is plainly could not be under the ‘lex Voconia,' if the the driver. There may be two opinions on man's census exceeded a certain amount.

the subject ; but after much reflection I (Savigny, Ueber die Les Voconia. Vermischt. have adopted the other with Heinrich. “La. Schrift. vol. i.) *Accipiat bona' Heinrich cerna' is a man's cloak, and lacernatae ' understands to mean that he was made

means that the • amica' was a man. Two • heres ex asse,' heir of the man's whole

men are recorded as having been formally estate. (See Long's Cicero, vol. i. p. 121 married to Nero, named Sporus and Py899., for a full discussion of the lex Vou thagoras (Sueton. c. 28, and Tacitus, Ann. conia.') Suetonius (c. 8) says that Domitian

xv. 37). Jactaret 'may be showed him. took away from women of loose character self oti,' or something of that sort. Madvig • lecticae usum, jusque capiendi legata here- finds great difficulty in this interpretation. ditatesque;' but these must be women. 03. Nonne libel ceras implere capaces] notorious and convicted, whereas Juvenal “Does not one feel inclined to take out one's is attacking the vices of private society, as tablets, and fill pages, even while the scene Heinrich observes. As to • lacunar,' see is passing under his eyes in the middle of the Hor. S. ii. 3. 272, n.

street ?" The • tabulae,' waxed wooden tab• 57. vigilanti stertere naso?] So Ovid says lets, of the Romans, are fully described in (Amor. i. 5. 13):

Dict. Antiqq.

were called

as

The pages

65

Quadrivio, quum jam sexta cervice feratur,
Hinc atque inde patens ac nuda paene cathedra
Et multum referens de Maecenate supino,
Signator falso, qui se lautum atque beatum
Exiguis tabulis et gemma fecerat uda ?
Occurrit matrona potens, quae molle Calenum
Porrectura viro miscet sitiente rubetam,
Instituitque rudes melior Locusta propinquas

70

simply 'cerae.' • Quadrivia' were the names on the outside of it (see Dict. Ant. crossings of two streets, compita,' where “Testamentum').

The common way of numbers of passengers would be found; and writing wills was on waxed tablets (exiguis he says it is enough to make a man take out tabulis), whence come the expressions cera his tablets in the public streets, to note the prima,' secunda,' 'ima' (see Hor. S. i. 5. shameless proceedings of these people. 53, n.). • Gemma uda' is a seal moistened

64. sexta cervice feratur,] This thief was before the impression was made. •Lautus' carried in a .cathedra,' borne by six slaves, is .fine;' and beatus,' well to do' (see • hexaphoron ;' the sides were thrown open, Hor. C. i. 4. 14, n.). by the drawing back of the curtains by which 69. molle Calenum] The wine of Cales they were usually closed in. This represents (Calvi) in Campania was among the best in the impudence of the man, who ought to Horace's time. It seems to have been one have been ashamed to show his fare, and of the milder wines, from this epithet. This his laziness, in which he is said to look woman, who is represented as a person of very much like Maecenas. The character family (Ruperti says Agrippina is meant, of Maecenas, in this respect, is mentioned which Madvig (i. 40) rightly denies), Juvenal in my note on Hor. S. i. 2. 25, “ Maltinus says, when she was going to hand her hus. tunicis demissis ambulat,” where authorities band some wine, mixed poison with it; and are quoted. See also below, S. xii. 39. “Mul. being well skilled in such matters, taught tum referens de Maecenate' is, literally, her simpler neighbours how to get rid of • representing much of Maecenas.' So Virgil their husbands in the same way, and to carry has

Invalidique patrum referunt jejunia them out to their burial without any regard nati" (G. iii. 127). "Supino' means no more to the notoriety of the murder and the crowds than lying lazily on his back. The cathedra' that collected to see the funeral. Rubeta' was so constructed that the person half re is a poisonous sort of toad (see below, vi.

clined and half sat. In the · lectica ' he lay 659). Nigros' expresses the effect of the at full length; and in the sella' he sat up. poison on the dead body. The woman is right, as on an arm chair. “Cathedrae 'were called "Locusta, after her who poisoned chiefly used by women, and were considered Claudius by the direction of Agrippina, and effeminate carriages for men. Cujus apud Britannicus by the order of Nero. See molles minima est jactura cathedras” (vi. 91). Tacitus, Ann. xii. 66; xiii. 15. See also SueIts shape and furniture are described in ix. tonius (Nero, c. 33), who says she was hand52: “Strata positus longaque cathedra.” somely rewarded for the latter of these mur. They were all carried by a single pole in ders. She was put to death by Galba, Nero's front, and another bebind, resting on the successor. The Scholiast on this place calls bearers' shoulders. The Indian 'tonjon' her · Lucusta,' in one version of his text; represents the 'sella,' and in some instances and Jahn adops that form. Valla's Scholiast the cathedra.'

says that Nero employed her to teach him 67. Signator falso,] This is the punc her art, and many young women besides, tuation of most editions. Ruperti puts the

“ut et illum doceret et plures puellas;' and stop after • signator,' which Madvig savs is Suetonius says, he gave her “impunitatem right, or else Juvenal wrote • signato falso,' (she had been convicted of witchcraft) praewhich no one I think will adopt (Op. i. 40). diaque ampla, sed et discipulos." The

Signator falso’ is one who has put forged Scholiast quotes two corrupt lines from Tur. seals and signatures to a false will, or has nus, the satiric poet, thus amended by Valla: got knares like himself tu witress such a Ex quo Caesareas soboles Locusta cecidit will with him. A testamentum' required Horrendum, curas dum liberat atra Nefive witnesses, who put a seal and their ronis."

6

Per famam et populum nigros efferre maritos.
Aude aliquid brevibus Gyaris et carcere dignum,
Si vis esse aliquis: Probitas laudatur et alget.
Criminibus debent hortos, praetoria, mensas,

75
Argentum vetus et stantem extra pocula caprum.
Quem patitur dormire nurus corruptor avarae,
Quem sponsae turpes et praetextatus adulter?

Si natura negat facit indignatio versum, 72. Per famam et populum] This forms emperor (x. 161). As to the Roman tables one subject, in the midst of the whispers or and their vessels of silver and bronze, see talking of the citizens. It seems, therefore, Hor. S. i. 4. 28, n. ; ii. 2. 4, n. that the corpse was carried out with the 76. stantem extra pocula caprum.] The face exposed.

Scholiast quotes Martial (viji. 51.9): “ Stat 73. brevibus Gyaris) This was a small caper Aeolio Thebani vellere Phrixi Cul. barren island (still called Giura) in the Ae. tus. Grangaeus asks, not with his usual gean, one of the Cyclades, to which a few judgment, whether «stantem' means “pedi. of the worst sort of criminals were trans bus erectis ut solent pascere caprae, an ported in the time of the empire. When it eminentem ?” It means standing out in was proposed that Silanus should be sent bold relief, as in Ovid (Met. xii. 235): thither, Tiberius to shew his clemency chose

“ Forte fuit juxta signis extantibus asper another place of banishment for him, saying

Antiquus crater." that Gyara (or Gyarus) “insulam immitem et sine cultu hominum esse” (Tac. Ann. üi. 69). "Stare' is occasionally used in this sense It was ill supplied with water (“egena aquae:' absolutely, as in Hor. C. i. 9. 1: “Vides ut Ib. iv. 30); and it was little better than death alta stet nive candidum Soracte," see you to be sent there. See vi. 563; x. 170. •Bre. how white Soracte with deep snow stands vibus' is equivalent to 'parvis.'

out' (see note). Such figures on cups, 74. Probitas laudatur et alget.] These &c., when they were moreable, were called words are often quoted and imitated. Gif • emblemata,' after the Greek. The Latin ford quotes from Massinger's Fatal Dowry name seems to have been 'crustae. On the (Act ii. sc. 1):

ancient Greek vessels they were very hand

some and curious. Verres laid his hands “In this partial, avaricious age, upon many. Cicero calls them scyphos What price bears honour? virtue ? long sigillatos,' cups with signa,' or carved ago

figures, upon them (in Verr. ii. 4. 14. It was but praised and freezed : but now-a See Long's note). The art, though condays

tinued till the latter years of the Roman re'Tis colder far, and has nor love nor praise.” public, was suddenly dropped, as Pliny says

(H. N. xxxiii. 12). The latest artist of the John of Salisbury (Policr. iii. 9) quotes these kind whom he mentions, and whom he calls words : Quis Themistoclis diligentiam, a 'crustarius,' of note, was named Teucer, Frontonis gravitatem, continentiam So no doubt a Greek. cratis, Fabricii fidem, innocentiam Numae, 78. praetextatus adulter?] Heinrich and pudicitiam Scipionis, longanimitatem Ulys. Madrig take this for a boy paramour, who sis, Catonis parcitatem, Titi pietatem imita. has learnt his lesson of vice before he has tur? quis non cum admiratione veneratur ? put on the 'toga virilis.' It may be so. probitas siquidem laudatur et alget." For Compare ii. 170: “Sic praetextatos referunt * aliquis,' some of the MSS. have aliquid ;' Artaxata mores. There is more force in but the masculine is right. Persius has it this than in taking the words for a senator, (i. 129), “seque aliquem credens ;” and or others who wore the 'toga praetexta,' Cicero (Ad Att. iii. 15, sub fin.), “meque ut concerning which, see Dict. Ant., and Hor. facis velis esse aliquem.” The Greeks used S. i.5.34, n. As to 'sponsae,' see iii. 111, n. tig in the same way; and the same is com 79. facit indignatio rersum,] These mon in most languages. To be “somebody" words also are used by John of Salisbury, is the great object of ambition with half the whose quotations are always well chosen world.

(Curial. iii. 13): “Disposueram tamen silere 75. praetoria,) Fine houses fit for an de mollibus qui sicut ignominiosi ita sunt et

Qualemcunque potest : quales ego vel Cluvienus. 80

Ex quo Deucalion, nimbis tollentibus aequor,
Navigio montem ascendit sortesque poposcit,
Paullatimque anima caluerunt mollia saxa,
Et maribus nudas ostendit Pyrrha puellas,
Quidquid agunt homines, votum, timor, ira, voluptas, 85
Gaudia, discursus, nostri est farrago libelli.
Et quando uberior vitiorum copia ? quando
Major avaritiae patuit sinus ? alea quando

was

videntur innominabiles. Silentium indicit by “discursationes, conatus, labores, ad reverentia morum, et verecundus animus opes aut dignitates adipiscer.das," and natura dictante illorum declinat aspectum. quotes Pliny (Epp. viii. 23), "quo discursu Quid multa? Si natura negat facit indig. aedilitatem petiit." It seems to signify natio versum."

generally the distractions of a busy life. 80. Cluvienus.] It is impossible to say • Farrago, which is derived from • far,' is who is meant by this name. The Scholiast properly a mixture of various grains given throws no light upon it. He only says it to cattle (Georg. iii. 205). Here it means “delirus poeta vel indoctus."

a medley of miscellaneous topics. Persius 81. Ex quo Deucalion,] Horace has this uses it in a different sense (v. 77, see note). phrase (C. iii. 3.21): “Ex quo destituit Deos ‘Libelli' might mean a volume of satires Mercede pacta Laomedon.” Juvenal says or this present satire only, as in Horace that the passions of mankind, such as they (S. i. 10. 92), "I puer atque meo citus have been ever since the flood, are the sub. haec subscribe libello," where I think lijects he has chosen for his pen. The story bellus' means the satire ; but many comof Deucalion and Pyrrha, and how men and mentators take it for the book (see Intr.). women sprung up from the stones they 88. Major avaritiae patuit sinus ? ] threw behind them, is told at length by • Sinus' means the fold of the toga over Ovid (Met. i. 260 sqq.). The mountain the breast within which the purse (cru. on which the ark landed is said by Ovid, mena) usually hung. A large purse would and was generally supposed, to be Par. require a large sinus.' Ovid has (Am. nassus; and the divinity whose oracle Deu. i. 10. 18): Quo pretium condat non calion consulted, Themis. “Sortes,' for the habet ille sinum.” So Heinrich takes it. answer of an oracle, is taken from the Ita. The old commentators differ. Grangaeus lian practice, particularly in the temples of takes it this way. Britannicus explains it Fortuna, whose responses were delivered by from the bellying of a sail with a fair wind; lots (Cic. Div. ii. 41. 56), wooden tablets and Owen translates thus, with different inscriptions shaken out of a “ And when did vice with growth so rank box (sitella,' 'cista,' 'urna,' "arca'), and

prevail ? not by word of mouth, as the Greek oracles

Or avarice wanton in so fair a gale?" were delivered. Virgil has · Lyciae sortes' twice over (Aen. iv. 316. 377). • Sortes Holyday, “When open lay to avarice a poscere' is an unusual phrase. • Poscere' larger haven?” Mr. Mayor says, “When is stronger than 'petere,' which is more did the gulf of avarice yawn wider ?” comcommonly used. • Poscere divos' is not paring the passage quoted by Forcellini analogous. That is to ask a favour of the from Seneca (Oed. 582), “Subito dehiscit gods, as "Quid dedicatum poscit Apollinem terra et immenso sinu Laxata patuit." I Vates ?” (Hor. C. i. 31. 1.)

have no doubt the first explanation is right. 83. caluerunt mollia sara,] This seems 88. alea quando Hos animos ??]

" When to be taken from Ovid's description (1. c.): has the gambling spirit run so higa ?" “Saxa (quis hoc credat ? nisi sit pro teste

(Owen.) This is a pretty literal translation.

“When had gambling such spirit as it has vetustas?) Ponere duritiem coepere suumque rigorem,

now (hos animos)?” Ruperti's explanation Mollirique mora mollitaque ducere for- of hos' as "tot animos sc. cepit, occu

pavit” (i.e. when did gambling seize upon

so many minds ?) is very bad. Heinecke is 86. discursus,] Forcellini interprets this no better, who takes .hos animos' for hos

mam.

90

Hos animos ? Neque enim loculis comitantibus itur
Ad casum tabulae, posita sed luditur arca.
Proelia quanta illic dispensatore videbis
Armigero! Simplexne furor sestertia centum
Perdere et horrenti tunicam non reddere servo ?
Quis totidem erexit villas, quis fercula septem

Romanos,' or proposes 'potius' to change money : “Utpote qui ludenti domino num. • hos' into 'haec,' and to explain it thus: mos subministret” (Britannicus). Gran“Quando alea haec, i.e. talis, ut nunc est; gacus says the 'arma’ in armigero' are the talis aleae cupiditas animos, homines, sc. dice, as below (xiv. 5), “parvoque eadem cepit.” • Habuit' is easily supplied, as the movet arma fritillo."

This is wrong, I Scholiast suggests. The verb is often think. omitted in such questions where there is in 92. Simplexne furor sestertia centum] dignation, as below (vi. 641):

The Greeks would say απλή μανία, mad. “ Tune duos una, saevissima vipera, coena?

ness and nothing more. Heinrich explains Tune duos? Septem, si septem forte fuis. it “non simplex furor, sed duplex vel trisent."

plex,” which may be right, though I prefer

the other. Taking the • sestertium' at the Juvenal says elsewhere (xiv. init.) that value in our money of 71. 16s. 3d., a hunfathers taught their young children to game. dred ‘sestertia' would be 7811.58. The RoThe alea' was always vetita legibus' mans did not understand high play if this (Hor. C. iii. 24. 58), but never checked from was enough to make a satirist angry: but the declining times of the republic. Augus- the more than madness lay in the selfishness tus (Vit. c. 70, 71), Caligula (c. 41), Clau. of the man who (as Heinrich explains it) dius (c. 33), and Domitian (c. 21), are all after losing all his money stakes his slave's put down as gamblers by Suetonius; and jacket, and losing that also, never restores Claudius wrote a treatise on the subject. it. The commentators compare Persius (i. Compare S. viii. 10: “Effigies quo Tot 54), “Scis comitem horridulum trita donare bellatorum, si luditur alea pernox Ante lacerna :” but “reddere' means here to re. Numantinos ?"

store, and is never equivalent to the simple 89. Neque enim loculis comitantibus] form dare.' He says men do not now go to the gaming 94. Quis totidem erexit villas,] This table with their purse and play for the con reminds us of Horace's complaint more tents of that, but stake their chest, contain: than a century earlier (C. ü. 15): ing all the ready money they had. •Tabula'

“Jam pauca aratro jugera regiae is the board on which the dice were thrown.

Moles relinquent.-
As to 'neque enim, see Key's Lat. Gr.

Non ita Romuli
Enim' must commonly be trans-

Praescriptum et intonsi Catonis lated by the English conjunction for,' but

Auspiciis veterumque norma.” at times retains what was probably its ear. lier signification, 'indeed,' as in “enim vero,' See Lipsius, De Mag. Rom. lib. iii. c. 14. indeed, indeed ; neque enim,' nor indeed; As to 'fercula,' see Hor. S. ii. 6. 104, n. et enim,' and indeed, &c.; as, 'Quid tute • Secreto' only means by himself,' as Virg. tecum ? Nihil enim (Plaut.).

What are Aen. vii. 670,“ secretosque pios." A you saying to yourself? Nothing, I assure couple of courses was enough for the old you.'

For . ad casum' one MS. of the Romans according to Servius on Aen. i. 729. fifteenth century quoted by Ruperti, and “ For some ages the Roman nobility com. two editions of the same century, Calderini monly used nothing but ‘far' and 'puls, and the Leipzig, hare 'ad causam.' M. and if a marriage or other joyful feast fell has that word in the text, with .casum' in out, they thought it a mighty thing if they the margin. •Causam' has no meaning. added a few small fishes and a few pounds of

91. dispensatore ridebis Armigero!! pork” (Lipsius, De Magn. Rom. iv. 5). • Dispensator' was the cash-keeper, called Suetonius gives Augustus credit for modealso procurator' and 'calculator,' who ration and good taste combined, because his formed one of the establishment in all rich custom was ordinarily to have but three houses. He is called “armigero' because courses, and at his finest dinners only six he furnished the sinews of this warfare, the (c. 74). Various sumptuary laws regulating

1449: "

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