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LIGHT-HOUSE AT THE MOUTH OF THE RIVER LLOBREGAT.

DEPARTMENT OF STATE, WASHINGTON, March 23, 1852 FREEMAN HUNT, Esq, Conductor of the Merchants' Magazine, etc.

Sie :-The inclosed intelligence, respecting a new light-house, erected at the mooth of the river Llobregat, near the city of Barcelona, is transmitted to you for such use as you inay think proper to make thereof.

I am, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant,

W. HUNTER, Acting Secretary.

BUREAU OF LIGHT-Houses-GENERAL DIRECTION OF PUBLIC Works,

From the 1st of March, 1852, a light will burn every night, from the setting to the rising of the sun, in a light-house, which has been established on the projecting point formed by the Rver Llobregat, where it empties itself into the sea The light-house is situated on the left bank of the river, and has been constructed upon an old battery, which is put down in the maps and marine charts by the name of Torre de la punia del rio. Its location, in regard to the actual conformation of the shore, is as follows:distance from the mouth 2,520 Castillian feet; distance from the coast 1,803 Castillian feet. The geographical position of the light-house is the following :-latitude 41° 19' 12" N., longitude 8° 26' 30" East of Cadiz. Its apparatus is of the secoed calioptric order, Fresnel, composed of a revolving light with obscurations at every thirty seconds' interval, the whole revolution being performed in six minutes. The light is of a natural color, it is placed at an elevation of 116 Castillian feet above the level of the sea, producing a tangent of 10.5 miles, but may be descried from a greater distance, according to the state of the atmosphere and the elevation of the observer. As a guide to those navigators who may approach the port of Barcelona from the west, it is necessary to remark, that all vessels that may find themselves two miles south of Punta lirrosa, on the coasts of Garraf, must shape their course 12° to the south of the light of the light-house, as much to avoid the shores on the left bank of the river Llobregat, as to keep watch for a shoal on said bank, situated 0.8 mile vestward of the mouth of the river, which stretches out for a distance of 1.5 miles S. S. E. of the light-house. Following the above-mentioned course, said vessels may steer for the port of Barcelona, when the light-house bears 35° west of them. MADRID, December 11, 1852.

[Signed) [True copy.]

REINOSO.

CONCERNING SABLE ISLAND. The information contained in the subjoined extract from a letter of H. W. BAYFIELD Captain Surveying the Gulf of St. Lawrence, is important to our navigation, to Great Britain, France, and the North of Europe; the more so as the English charts, according to G. W. Blunt, with the exception of the almiralty, place Sable Island from fourteen to twenty-two miles too far to the westward, and six miles too far north.

EXTRACTS FROM CAPTAIN BAYFIELD'S REPORT ON SABLE ISLAND-SEPT., 1851. The western flagstaff at the principal establishment in Sable Island is in latitude 43° 56' 33" N., lon. 60° 3' 16.7" W.

The eastern extreme of the Grassy Sand Hills is in lat. 43° 59' 0.5" N., lon. 59° 45' 59" W.

The east extreme of the Sand Hills alone remains unchanged from comparison with the observations of Admiral Ogle's officers.

No reason to find fault with their determination of latitude and longitude.

Two miles of the west end of the island washed away since they were observed in 1828. This reduction and consequent addition to the western bar is reported to have been in operation since 1811, and seems almost certain to continue.

An opinion exists that the island is insensibly becoming narrower. It is agreed by all that there has been no material change in the east end of the island within the memory of any one acquainted with it.

The western bar can be safely approached by the lead, from any direction, with common precaution.

The length of the N. E. bar has been greatly exaggerated, but it is still a most for midable danger; it extends 14 miles from the island to 10 fathoms, and is 13 miles to

The State is divided into five Departments, each of which has several Judicial Dis-
tricts, as follows:
Departments.

Population,

Districts. 1. Meridional...

20,000 Rivas or Nicaragua. 2. Oriental...

| Acayopa or Choutales, Grenada, 95,000

Masaga, and Managua.
3. Occidental..

90,000 Leon and Chinandega.
4. Septentrional of Matagalpa... 40,000 Matagalpa.
6. Septentrional of Segovia

12,000 Segovia.

Total.....

247,000 The population here given is the result arrived at, in round numbers, by a census attempted in 1846. It was only partially successful, as the people supposed it preliminary to some military conscription, or new tax.

The principal towns of the State, with their estimated population, are as follows:Leon, (the capital) including

Puebla Nueva.....

2,900 Subtiava 25,000 Nagorote...

1,800 Chinandega. 11,000 Souci

2,500 Chinandega Viejo. 3,000 Managua

12,000 Realejo... 1,000 Massaya.

15,090 Chichigalpa. 2,800 Grenada,

10,000 Posultega. 900 Nicaragua

8,000 Telica.. 1,000 Segovia ..

8,000 Somotillo.. 2,000 Matagalpa.

2,000 Villa Nueva..

1,000 It is a singular fact that the females greatly exceed the males in number. In the Department Occidental, according to the census, the proportions were as three to two !

PROGRESS OF LIVERPOOL IN POPULATION AND COMMERCE. The model of Liverpool, forwarded to the Great Exhibition in London, is accompanied with the following tabular statement, illustrative of the population of Liverpool under three Queens, namely, Elizabeth, Anne, and Victoria :

RISE AND PROGRESS OF LIVERPOOL.

Under Queen Under Queen Under Queen
Elizabeth.

Anne.

Victoria, 1570. 1710.

1851. Population..

800

1,168

400,000 Tonnage.

268

12,636 3,536,337 Number of Vessels.

15

334

23,000 Dock dues....

£600

£211,743 Town dues......

£20

£378 198. 11d. £91,000 Amount of customs.

£272 3s. Od. £70,000

.£3,366,284 Income of the Corporation...... £20 4s. 8d. £1,115 19.01d. £139,152 78. 4d.

no

POPULATION OF SAN FRANCISCO. This great metropolis of the western seas, built upon more hills than Rome was, and, unlike her, built almost in a “day,” contains a population of twenty-three thousand, who, attracted by the sparkling of gold, have come hither from every quarter of the habitable globe. From the sunny climes of Spain and Italy, from the fairy lands of Persia and Arabia, from the regions of snow and ice in Norway and Russia, from the corn and vine lands of pleasant France, from the British isles and colonies, from the green South America, from the imperial dominions of the near relative of the Sun and Moon, and from the golden islands of the Pacific, have they come in myriads to California. In our streets the fair European jostles with the swarthy Kanaka or the darker Hindoo; the pious Mussulman says his daily prayers, as he passes the churches of the Christian, the calculating German drives bard bargains with the volatile Frenchman, and the stiff-made Yankee daily deals with the long-tailed Chinaman. Such an omnium gatherum of humanity was never before witnessed in the world's history. The golden charm has spoken the open sesame” to the brazen gates and lofty walls that have

uratott

T bed!

fonte

Cities and Towns.

Population

of 1830.

80,620
18,826
6,055
9,814
8,322
5,276
30,289
7,302
3,194
49,826

.

Wilmington, Del.......
Baltimore, Md.....
Washington, D. C..
Richmond, Va....
Norfolk ...,
Petersburg-..
Wheeling.
Charleston, S.C..
Savannah, Ga ...
Mobile, Ala...
New Orleans, La..
Lafayette....
Memphis, Tenn..
Nashville ...
Louisville, Ky..
Cincinnati, Ohio.
Columbus..
Cleveland
Dayton..
Chillicothe
Zanesville...
Madison, Ia..
Chicago III
Detroit Mich
St. Louis, Mo.
Milwaukee, Wis.

Batio of in- Ratio ofis Population Population crense fi'm crease fa of 1840. of 1850. 1830 to 1840. 1840 to 3. 8,367 13,979

67.07 102,313 169,054 26.09 65.23 23,364 40,001 24.01 71.02 20,153 27,482 232.83 36.36 10,920 14,326 11.26 $1.19 11,136 14,010 33.81 25.08

7,885 11,391 49.45 44.46 29,261 42,985

46.90 11,214 16,060 53.57 43.21 12,672 20,513 296.74 61.87 102,193 119,460 105.09 16.89 3,207 14,190

342.46 2,026 8,839

336.27 6,929 10,478 24.48 51.21 21,210 43,196 105.01 103.65 46,338 15,436 86.61 149.11 6,048 17,883 148.37 195.68 6,071 17,034 464.21 180.57 6,067 10,977 105.66 80.99 3,977 7,100 39.74 78.52 4,760 7,929 64.04 66.86 3,798 8,005

110.76 4,470 29,963

570.31 9,102 21,019 309.63 130.99 16,469 77,560 230.09 372.76 1,712 20,061

1,071.78

5,566 10,341 24,831 2,435 1,076 2.950 2,846 3,094

2,222 4,977

POPULATION OF NICARAGUA.

The population of Nicaragua may be estimated at 250,000. The civilized Indians, and those of Spanish and negro stocks crossed with them, constitute the mass of the population. The pure individuals of pure European stock constitute but a small part of the whole, and are more than equaled in number by those of pure negro blood. The entire population may be divided as follows: Whites.

20,000 Negroes

15,000 Indians

80,000 Mixed.

130,000

Total,...

250,000 Most of these live in towns, many of them going two, four, and six miles daily to labor in the fields, starting before day and returning at night. The plantations, haciendas," "hattos,"“ ranchos," and "Chacras” are scattered pretty equally over the country, and are reached by paths so obscure as almost wholly to escape the notice of travelers who, passing through what appears to be a continual forest from one town to the other, are liable to fall into the error of supposing the country almost wholly unin. habited. Their dwellings are usually of canes, thatched with palm, many of them open at the sides, and with no other floor but the bare earth, the occupation of which is stoutly contested by pigs, calves, fowls, and children. These fragile structures, so equable and mild is the climate, are adequate to such protection as the natives are accustomed to consider necessary. Some of them are more pretending, and have the canes plastered over and whitewashed, with tile roofs and other improvements; and there are a few, belonging to large proprietors, which are exceedingly neat and comfortable, approaching nearer our ideas of habitations for human beings.

A large part of the dwellings in the towns are much of the same character; the residences of the better classes, however, are built of adobes, are of one story, and inclose large courts, which are entered under archways often constructed with great beauty. The court-yard has generally a number of shade trees, usually orange, making the corridors, upon which all the rooms open, exceedingly pleasant.

Districts.

The State is divided into five Departments, each of which has several Judicial Districts, as follows: Departments.

Population. 1. Meridional...

20,000 Rivas or Nicaragua.

| Acayopa or Choutales, Grenada, 95,000

> Masaga, and Managua. 3. Occidental...

90,000 Leon and Chinandega. 4. Septentrional of Matagalpa..

40,000 Matagalpa. 5. Septentrional of Segovia

12,000 Segovia.

2. Oriental. ....

Subtiava ....

Total.......

247,000 The population here given is the result arrived at, in round numbers, by a census attempted in 1846. It was only partially successful, as the people supposed it preliminary to some military conscription, or new tax.

The principal towns of the State, with their estimated population, are as follows:Leon, (the capitalincluding

Puebla Nueva.....

2,900 25,000 Nagorote..

1,800 Chinandega. 11,000 Souci

2,500 Chinandega Viejo. 3,000 Managua

12,000 Realejo... 1,000 Massaya..

15,090 Chichigalpa, 2,800 Grenada..

10,000 Posultega. 900 Nicaragua

8,000 Telica. 1,000 Segovia ..

8,000 Somotillo. 2,000 Matagalpa.

2,000 Villa Nueva..

1,000 It is a singular fact that the females greatly exceed the males in number. In the Department Occidental, according to the census, the proportions were as three to two !

PROGRESS OF LIVERPOOL IN POPULATION AND COMMERCE. The model of Liverpool, forwarded to the Great Exhibition in London, is accompanied with the following tabular statement, illustrative of the population of Liverpool under three Queens, namely, Elizabeth, Anne, and Victoria :

RISE AND PROGRESS OF LIVERPOOL,

Population...
Tonnage..
Number of Vessels.
Dock dues....
Town dues....
Amount of customs..
Incom of the Corporation.....

Under Queen Under Queen

Under Queen Elizabeth.

Anne.

Victoria. 1570. 1710.

1851. 800

1,168

400,000 268

12,636

3,536,337 15

334

23,000 £600

£211,743 .£20

£378 19s. 11d. £91,000 £272 3s. Od. £70,000

£3,366,284 £20 48. 8d. £1,115 ls. Ojd. £139,152 78. 4d.

POPULATION OF SAN FRANCISCO. This great metropolis of the western seas, built upon more hills than Rome was, and, unlike her, built almost in a “day,” contains a population of twenty-three thousand, who, attracted by the sparkling of gold, have come hither from every quarter of the habitable globe. From the sunny climes of Spain and Italy, from the fairy lands of Persia and Arabia, from the regions of snow and ice in Norway and Russia, from the corn and vine lands of pleasant France, from the British isles and colonies, from the green South America, from the imperial dominions of the near relative of the Sun and Moon, and from the golden islands of the Pacific, have they come in myriads to California. In our streets the fair European jostles with the swarthy Kanaka or the darker Hindoo; the pious Mussulman says his daily prayers, as he passes the churches of the Christian, the calculating German drives bard bargains with the volatile Frenchman, and the stiff-made Yankee daily deals with the long-tailed Chinaman. Such an omnium gatherum of humanity was never before witnessed in the world's history. The golden charm bas spoken the “open sesame” to the brazen gates and lofty walls that have

heretofore inclosed a nation of millions, and the whole world has sent her representa tives in great convention to a little spot that four years ago was known valg as s resort for whalers or merchant vessels who were on the Pacific coast.

No man can accurately calculate the result of this union, but its effects must be grand and lasting. The southron of Europe will return to his home, the fur-clad northerner will again visit the cold land of his childhood; the light-limbed oriental wil go back to his fairy land, the long-tailed child of the sun will enter again his poble wall, the bearded Turk will once more listen to the muezzim as it is sounded from the minerets, and the unsophisticated children of the sea will return to their flowery islands. But all will carry back with them a knowledge of the English language, as idea of the American institutions and liberties, a portion of the energy and ardor of the great Anglo-Saxon race, and an understanding of the blessed principles of Him those precepts will yet spread peace among the nations, and make the ** wilderness bud and blossom as the rose tree.”

The discovery of gold in California has done more to advance the cause of civilization and the spread of eulightened and Christian institutions, than any other one fact brought to light within the last century.- Alta California.

RAILROAD, CANAL, AND STEAMBOAT STATISTICS.

CANALS AND RAILROADS OF PENNSYLVANIA.

594

82

The following statement of the canals and railroads of Pennsylvania is derived from the report of the Canal Commissioners. It only includes the public works owned by the State :

The commonwealth of Pennsylvania bas completed and in operation 652} miles of canal and railroad, independent of feeders not navigable, as follows:Delaware division, from Bristol to Easton.....

....miles Columbia Railroad, from Philadelphia to the basin at Columbia.. Eastern division, from Columbia to the junction of the Juniata and Susquebanna divisions at the head of Duncan Island

457 Juniata division, from the junction at Duncan's Island to the basin at Hollidaysburg .....

1274 Portage Railroad, from Hollidaysburg to Johnstown .. Western division, from Johnstown to the Monongahela River at Pittsburg... 104; Susquehanna division, from the junction at Duncan's Island to Northumberland..

401 West Branch division, from Northumberland to Farrandsville.. North Branch division, from Northumberland to the Lackawanna ..

723 Bald Eagle side cut, from the pool of Dunstown Dam, on the West Branch division, to Bald Eagle Creek...

st Lewisburg side cut, from Lewisburg to the West Branch division Lackawanna feeder, at the termination of the North Branch division. Alleghany Branch of the Western division in Alleghany City... Feeder at Johnstown on the Western division..

13 Feeder at the mouth of the Rayston branch of the Juniata

36

Total miles ......

6523 Upon the completion of the North Branch Canal, from the mouth of the Lackawanna to the New York State Line, 941 miles more of navigation will be added to tbe above

The Erie extension, consisting of the Beaver division, the Shenango and Conneaut lines, and the French Creek feeder, 163 miles in length, and the Wiscopisco Canal, 127 miles in length, which were nearly coinpleted, have been transferred to private companies.

The receipts from tolls have been nearly doubled within the last ten years, as the following table shows:1842....

$940,213 69 1846...... $1,295,494 76 | 1849.... $1,633,277 72 1.017,841 12 1847...... 1,581,575 87 1850.

1,768,209 46 1,167,603 42 1848...

1,533,344 00

... 1,793,624 01 1,196,979 43

1843. 1844. 1845

1861......

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