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TABLE OF THE AREA, AND THE NUMBER OF INHABITANTS TO THE SQUARE MILE OF EACH
STATE AND TERRITORY OF THE UNION.
No. of in
No. of in. Area in habitants
habitants square Population to the
square Population to the State. miles. in 1850. sq. mile.
in 1859. sq. mile. Maine..... 30,000 583,188 19.44 Kentucky. 37,680 982,405 26.07 N. Hampshire. 9,280 317,964 34.26 Tennessee.... 45,600 1,002,625 21.98 Vermont..... 10,212 313,611 30.07 Missouri.... 67,380 682,043 10.12 Massachusetts . 7,800 994,499 126.11 | Arkansas... 52,198 209,639 4.01 Rhode Island... 1,360 147,544 108.05 Obio...... 39,964 1,980,408 49.55 Connecticut ... 4,674 370,791 79.33 | Indiana..
33,809 988,416 29.23 New York..... 46,000 3,097,394 67.66 Illinois
55,405 851,470 15.36 New Jersey.
8,520 489,555 60.04 Michigan... 56,243 397,654 7.07 Pennsylvania. 46,000 2,311,786 50.25 Iowa.....
50,914 192,214 3.77 Delaware..... 2,120 91,535 43.64 Wisconsin. 53,924 305,191 5.65 Maryland 9,356 583,035 62.31 California..... 188,981 Virginia . 61,352 1,421,661 23.17 Minnesota...... 83,000 6,077 00.07 North Carolina... 45,000 868,903 19.30 Oregon.. 341,463 13,293 00.03 South Carolina... 24,500 668,507 27.28 New Mexico.... 210,744 61,505 00.28 Georgia....... 58,000 905,999 15.68 Utah,
187,923 Alabama..... 50,722 771,671 15.21 Nebraska 136,700 Mississippi... 47,156 606,555 12.86 Indian.. 187,171 Louisiana.. 46,431 611,974 11.02 Northwest... ... 587,564 Texas..
237,321 212,592 00.89 Dis, of Colum'a. 60 51,687 861.45 Florida
59,268 87,401 1.47 From the location, climate, productions, and the habits and pursuits of their inhabitants, the States of the Union may be properly arranged in the following groups :
Population itants to the square miles.
square mile. New England States; namely, Maine, New
Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and
63,226 2,727,597 43.07 Middle States, including New York, New Jer
sey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and Ohio....
151,760 8,653,713 57.02 Coast Planting States, including South Caroli
na, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana ..
286,077 3,537,089 12.36 Central Slave States ; Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, Missouri, and Arkan
308,210 5,168,000 16.75 Northwestern States; Indiana, Illinois, Micbigan, Wisconsin, and Iowa...
250,000 2,735,000 10.92 Texas..
189,000 165,000 .87
There are points of agreement in the general characteristics of the States combined in the above groups, which warrant the mode of arrangement adopted. Maryland is classed as heretofore, with the Middle States, because its leading interest appears to connect it, rather with the commercial and manufacturing section, to which it is here assigned, than with the purely agricultural States. Ohio is placed in the same connection, for nearly similar reasons. There seems to be a marked propriety for settiog off the new agricultural States of the northwest by themselves, as a preliminary to the comparison of their progress with other portions of the Union. The occupations which give employment to the people of the central range of States, south of the line of the Potomac, distinguish them to some extent from that division to which we have given the appellation of coast planting Staies. In the latter, cottons, sugar, and rice are the great staples, the cultivation of wbich is so absorbing as to stamp its impress on the character of the people.
The industry of the Central States is more diversified, the surface of the country is more broken, the modes of cultivation are different, and the minutes divisions of labor, create more numerous and less accordant interests. So far as Texas is settled, its population closely assimilates with that of the other coast planting States; but it would obviously convey no well founded idea of the density of population in that section, to distribute their people orer the vast uninhabited region of Texas. For the same reason, and the additional one of the insolation of her position, California is considered distinct from other States.
Taking the thirty-one States together, their area is 1,485,870 square miles, and the average number of their inhabitants is 15.48 to the square mile. The total area of the United States is 3,220,000 square miles, and the average density of population is 7.219 to the square mile.
The areas assigned to those States and Territories in which public lands are situated are doubtless correct, being taken from the records of the land office; but, as to those attributed to the older States, the same means of verifying their accuracy, or the want of it, do not exist. But care has been taken to consult the best local authorities for ascertaining the extent of surface in those States, and as the figures adopted are found to agree with or differ but slightly from those assumed to be correct at the General Land Office, it is probable they do not vary essentially from the exact truth.
The area of some of the States—as Maryland and Virginia—are stated considerably below the commonly assumed extent of their territory, which may be accounted for on the supposition that the portions of the surface, within their exterior limits, corered by large bodies of water, have been subtracted from the aggregate amount. This is known to be the case in regard to Maryland, the superficial extent of which, within the outlines of its boundaries, is 13,959 square miles, and is deemed probable with reference to Virginia, from the fact that many geographers have given its total area as high as 66,000 square miles.
It appears from the returns that during the year ending on the 1st June, 1850, there escaped from their owners, one thousand and eleven slaves, and that, during the same period, fourteen hundred and sixty-seven were manumitted. The number of both classes will appear in the following table:
In connection with this statement, and as effecting the natural increase of the free colored population of the United States, it may be proper to remark, that during the year to which the census applies, the Colonization Society sent 562 colored emigrants to Liberia. In our calculations respecting the increase of the free colored population, we have considered that class of persons independent of these two causes, which respectively swell and diminish their number,
The statistics of mortality for the census year represent the number of deaths occurring within the year as 320,194, the ratio being as 1 to 726 of the living population , or as 10 to cach 726 of the population. The rate of mortality in this statement seems so much less than that of any portion of Europe, that it must at present be received with some degree of allowance.
Should a more critical examination, which time will enable us to exercise, prove the returns of the number of deaths too small, such a result will not affect their value for the purposes of comparison of one portion of the country with another, or cause with effect. The tables will possess an interest second to none others in the work, and the many valuable truths which they will suggest, will be found of great practical advantage. Medical men will accord to the Census Board no small meed of credit, for the wisdom manifested in an arrangement which will throw more light on the history of disease in the United States, and present in connection more interesting facts coopec ted therewith than the united efforts of all scientific men have beretofore accomplished.
STATEMENT OF THE POPULATION IN EACH STATE AND TERRITORY, DECENNIALLY, COMMENCING 1790 TO 1850, INCLUSIVE.
Ratio of increase P. C.
crease p. c.
10.9 11.4 83,059
Ratio of in-
Ratio of in-
Ratio of in
crease p. e.
New York.. New Jersey: Pennsylvania
340,120 586,756 72.5 959,049 63.4 1,372,812
34.4 1,049,458 958,632 1,401,070 46.16 2,014,695 43.79 2,699,845
43,1 13.0 29.5 34.0
27.52 31.14 34.09 80.32
72,674 24,023 380,546 974,622 555,500 415,115 252,433
ATLANTIC STATES. 13.0 72,749 36.8 33,039 87.5 11.4 407,350 7.0 10.7 1,065,379 9.3 16.2 638,829 15.0 20.1 502,741 18.1 55.1 340,987
Ratio of in
NEW ENGLAND STATES.
1,852,504 2,285,909 23.39
2,674,913 17.01 3,061,074 14.43
STATEMENT OF THE POPULATION IN EACH STATE AND TERRITORY, &c.—CONTINUED.
805,991 140.3 1,424,745 76.76
2,202,551 54.59 3,409,132 54.78 5,041,009
Total populatn 3,929,827
Seamen in U. S. service
5,305,941 35.01 7,239,814 36.45 9,638,191 33.12 12,866,020 33.48
STATEMENT SHOWING THE DECENNIAL INCREASE OF LACH CLASS OF THE POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES.
10,537,378 33.95 14,195,995
319,599 36.85 386,245 2,009,043 80.61 2,487,213
SOUTHERN AND WESTERN STATES.
Ratio of increase p. 0.
Ratio of increase P. c.
Ratio of inte crease P. C.
Ratio of increase P. c.
36.2 7,866,569 34.19
Total populat'n 3,929,827 5,085,941
free & slaves. 767,363 1,001,152
SECTARIANISM IN BUSINESS. It seems that the editor of the Advocate, published at Memphis, Tennessee, a journal with which we do not exchange, has been recommending his religious brethren to trade only with church members. Now, if that part of mankind were the exclusively honest and upright dealers in “goods, wares and merchandise,” there would be some propriety in the advice of the editor of the Advocate ; but a large majority of sensible people have, ere this, discovered that the profession of religion, even that deemed the most orthodox, does not always keep men, in mercantile transactions, free from the trickeries, and petty dishonesties of trade. Phrenologists tell us that some men have large reneration and marvelousness, with very small conscientiousness and firmness. Such men may be very religious, and yet not very nice in their discrimination between the right and the wrong in trade. But it was not our purpose to discuss the subject, but merely to copy the common-sense remarks of the Memphis Express upon the narrow and sectarian views of a cotemporary.
HARMONY NECESSARY TO THE BUSINESS SUCCESS OF A COMMUNITY.
“Our neighbor of the Advocate furnishes us with elaborate disquisitions in its last number upon matters and things in general and trade in particular--the horizon of its views in the latter being within the rather limited area of a church membership. We do not design to argue this topic further. We have said all that we thought necessary in condemnation of a principle which we consider anti-American, as its practice would be ruinous to general prosperity. We are content to leave the question among practical business men. They can determine the effect upon commercial prosperity, of the splitting of the community into a thousand little fragments, and precluding business intercourse between all persons, not belonging to the same religious body. There would indeed be an end of enterprise ! The arena of industry and energy would be so narrowed down that both would be hopelessly crippled. Traffic would be stagnated, large establishments would cease to flourish, for they would
not be required to supply such limited circles of customers, confidence and co-operation would cease, and a universal decrepitude fall upon all departments of industrial pursuits. Cannot any one see that such would be the inevitable result of the general acceptance of these recommendations of the Advocate Could a more tremendous or crushing blow be leveled against the prosperity of this young and rising city of Memphis, than to paralyze its industry, its enterprise and its capital, by depriving their possessors of all sphere for the action of these qualities, save within the limits of the churches to which the individuals respectively belonged?
Away with it! To prosper we must harmonize, must be united, must direct our exertions to the attainment of the general welfare. To do this, honesty, industry, enterprise and intelligence, must be the criterions of success. Change this criterion to that suggested by Mr. Chapman and the Advocate, and you invert social order, fill the avenues of business with selfish hypocrites, and deprive merit of its just reward and rights.
It does seem to us that one with half an eye can see that these results must ensue if such a course as that we are condemning is persevered in.
If it be necessary, as the Advocate and Mr. Chapman assert, that church members should deal only with their fellow members, their frequent association, consequent on their duties as members of the same church, would sufficiently lead to that result. The natural tendency would be that they would from choice deal with each other. Where then is the use of quickening this proclivity into a morbid and injurious activity, by such recommendations as those of Mr. Chapman and the Advocate ? Counseling them to do that from a principle of selfish clannishness, which they were already disposed to do from the natural force of circumstances, but which they would not bave carried into a spirit of exclusiveness.
We regard the course of Mr. Chapman and the Advocate as most unfortunate. If it is acted upon, no extended business could be carried on in Memphis, for such business