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A TABLE SHOWING THE CAPITAL INVESTED, THE NUMBER OF HANDS EMPLOYED, AND THEIR WAGES, AND THE QUANTITY AND KINDS OF FUEL USED IN THE

MANUFACTURE OF PIG IRON IN THE UNITED STATES-TOGETHER WITH THE VALUE OF THE RAW MATERIAL AND TIIE ENTIRE PRODUCTS.

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Maine..
N. Hampsh'e
Vermont
Mas'chusetts.
Connecticut.
New York..
New Jersey.
Pen'sylvania.
Maryland
Virginia....
N. Carolina..
Georgia.....
Alabama ...
Tennessee.
Kentucky
Ohio.
Michigan....
Indiana ...
Illinois.
Missouri.
Wisconsin

214,000

2,000
62,500
469,000
225,600
605,000

967,000
8,570,425
1,420,000
513,800
25,000
26,000

11,000
1,021,400

924,700
1,503,000

15,000
72,000
65,000
619,000
15,000

2,907

500
7,676
27,900
35,450
46,385
51,266
877,283
99,866
67,319

900
5,189
1,838
88,810
72,010
140,610

2,700
5,200
5,500
37,000
3,000

213,970 14,939

50,000 4,900 150 326,437 40,175

1,855,000 185,741

2,870,000 289,225
20 3,000,074 321,027
20,865 1,621,000 332,707
316,060 27,505,186 3,732,427
14,088 3,707,500 560,725
39,982 1,311,000 158,307

150,000 27,900
430,000 25,840

145,000 6,770
177,167 160,000 254,900

4,576,269 260,152
21,730 5,428,800 630,037
... 185,000 14,000

310,000 24,400

170,000 15,500 55,180

97,367 150,000 8,250

71

1,562 $22 00 10

180

18 00
100
2,208

22 80
263

7,238 27 50
148
3,967

26 80
605
12,625

24 96
600
12,720

21 20
9,285 9 201,039 46 21 15
1,370

27,595 21 27
1,115 14 14,232 96 12 67 6 86

26 5 208 22 8 00 4 40
135 3 2,355 15 17 44 500
40

700

17 50
1,713 109 21,958 588 12 82 5 10
1,845 10 37,355 47 20 23
2,415
59,129

24 48
25

875

35 00
88
2,290

26 00
150
3,310

22 06
334
8,112

24 28 60 1,800

30 00

1,484

200
3,200
12,287
13,420
23,022
24,031
285,702
43,641
22,163

400
900

522
30,420
24,245
52,658

660
1,850
2,700
19,250
1,000

36,616

6,000
68,000

295,123
20,000 415,600
12,800 597,920

560,544
40,000 6,071,513
96,000 1,056,400

521,924

12,500
28,000 57,300

5,000 22,500
41,900 676,100
10,000 604,037

1,255,850
6,000 21,000

58,000
70,200
314,600
27,000

..

4 70

Total

17,346,420 1,579,309 645,242 54,165,236 7,005,289 20,298

150

421,435

784

564,765 259,700 12,748,777

ore.

MANUFACTURE OF IRON CASTINGS IN THE UNITED STATES.
A TABLE SHOWING THE CAPITAL INVESTED, TILE TOTAL NUMBER OF HANDS EMPLOYED, AND THEIR WAGES, AND THE QUANTITY AND KINDS OF FUEL USED IN THE
MANUFACTURE OF IRON CASTINGS IN THE UNITED STATES-TOGETHER WITH THE VALUE OF THE RAW MATERIAL AND THE ENTIRE PRODUCTS.

Tons
Tons Tons Tons of Bushels Value of No, hands Average wages

Tons

Value of Value of
Capital pig

old
of mineral coke and
raw material, employed. per month. castings

other

entire States. invested. iron. metal.

coal.
charcoal. fuel, &c. Male. Female. Male. Female. made.

products, products.
Maine..
150,100 3,591 245
1,319 14,000 112,570 243 1 $20 00 $5 00 3,691

265,000
N. Hampshire 232,700 5,673 500

1,680 20,500 177,060 874

33 05

5,764 27,700 371,710
Verinont.... 290,720 2,279

274
1,066 198,400 160,603 881

28 27

5,000 87,770 460,831 Mass'chusetts 1,499,050 31,134 3,361 12,401 3,500 1,057,904 1,596 30 90

32,074

2,235,635 Rhode Island 422,800 8,918

4,670 4,000 258,267 800

29 63

8,658 119,600 728,705
Connecticnt 580,800 11,396 337

7,592
30,600 351,369 942

27 02 8 00 11,210 70,000 981,400
New York... 4,622,482 108,945 3,212
22,755 181,190 2,393,768 5,925 27 48

104,588

5,921,980
New Jersey
593,250 10,666 350
5,444 175.800 301,048 803

24 09
10,259

686,430
Pennsylvania 3,422,924 69,501 819

49,228 276,855 2,372,467 4,782 1 27 55 6 00 57,810 661,160 5,354,881
373,500 4,440

4,967
153,852 250

23 36

3,630 55,000 267,462 Maryland... 359,100 7,220

5,000 30,000 259,190 761

27 50

6,244 80,000 685,000
Virginia... 471,160 7,114 205

7,878
71,600 297,014 810 9 19 91 9 44 5,577

674,416
Noth Carolina 11,500 192

6,375 8,341 15

23 46 172

12,867 S'th Carolina. 185,700 169

2,800 405,500 29,128 153 2 13 59 4 00 1,286

87,683 Georgia. 35,000 440

100
9,800 11,950 39

27 43
415

46,200
Alabama ...
216,625 2,348

31,300 102,085 212

30 05 1,915

271,126 Mississippi... 100,000 1,197

248 92,000 50,370 112

37 91

924 2,800 117,400
Louisiana....
255,000 1,660

3,205
75,300 347

35 60

1,570 4,000 312,500 16,000 250

250

8,400 35

43 43

200 15,000 55,000 Tennessee 139,500. 1,682 5,050 24,690 13,200 90,035 261 8 17 96 4 50

3,384

294,325 Kentucky 502,200 9,731 2,649 432,750 295,533 558 21 24 89 4 15 5,888

744,316 Ohio 2,063,650 37,555 1,843 2,000 30,006 355,120 1,199,790

27 32

37,399 208,700 3,069,350
Michigan
195,450 2,494

901
16,200 91,865 337

28 68

2,070 25,616 279,697 Indiana 82,900 1,968

5 132 29,600 66,918 143 25 74

1,757

149,430
Illinois
260,400 4,818 50
1,412 12,500 172,330 332

28 50

4,160 89,250 441,185
Missouri..
187,000 5,100 200

2,598
133,114 297

19 63
5,200

336,495
Iowa..

200
2,524 17
32 35
71 2,600

8,500
Wisconsin... 116,350 1,371

16

595 2,700 86,930 228

26 73

1,342 64,125 216,195 California.... 5,000 75

25

8,530

3 23 33 75

20,740 Dist. of Col.. 14,000 545

80 18,100 27

27 05

512 11,000 41,696 17,416,361 345,553 11,416 9,850 190,891 2,413,750 10,346,353 23,641 48

322,745 1,524,121 25,108,155

2,758

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Delaware...

5,500
81

Texas

Total .....

BREAD BAKED BY STEAM IN ENGLAND.

Thr Plymouth (English) papers contain an account of a new method of baking bread, which is in operation at Stonehouse, under the patent of Mr. Lee. The bread is pronounced to be excellent, and superior to that baked on the old principle. A description of the process will not be found uninteresting. When the loaves are moulded, they are placed on carriages aud conveyed on railways into the ovens—which are made of cast iron, and placed one above another. The doors being closed, the steam is then “ turned on” from the boiler, and passing through a singularly formed coil of pipes, heated to a high degree in a furnace of remarkable construction, is, by opening the valves, admitted to the ovens. The baking process, from the time of running in the carriages to drawing them out again, occupying from half an hour to an hour and a half

, according as the loaves vary in size. There are perforated pipes placed at equal distances inside the ovens, by which means all parts are alike beated. The heat is kept within determinate thermometric limits by the adjustment of the valves, and the degree ascertained by an indicator, the “ bulb' being scarcely thicker than a cobweb, yet ranging from 120 to 800 Far.

STATISTICS OF POPULATION, &c.

CENSUS STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES.

We publish below all the more important parts of Mr. Kennedy's full and able report just made to Congress, through the Secretary of the Interior. These statements and statistics, it will be seen relate chiefly to population of the United States. Under the appropriate head, in another part of the Merchants' Magazine, the reader will find a variety of statistics relating to the manufactures of the several States :

The seventh enumeration of the inhabitants of the United States exhibits results which every citizen of the country may contemplate with gratification and pride. Since the census of 1840 there have been added to the territory of the republic, by annexation, conquest, and purchase, 824,969 square miles, and our title to a region covering 341,463 square miles, which before properly belonged to us, but was claimed and partially occupied by a foreign power, has been established by negotiation, and it has been brought within our acknowledged boundaries. By such means the area of the United States has extended during the past ten years from 2,055,163 to 3,221,595 square miles, without including the great lakes which lie upon our northern border, or the bays which indentate our Atlantic and Pacific shores. All which has come within the scope of the seventh census.

In the endeavor to ascertain the progress of our population since 1840, it will be proper to deduct from the aggregate number of inhabitants shown by the present census, the population of Texas in 1840, and the numbers embraced within the limits of California and the new territories at the time of their acquisition. From the best information which has come to hand, it is believed that Texas contained in 1840, 75,000 inhabitants, and that when California, New Mexico, and Oregon came into our possession in 1816, they had a population of 97,000. It thus appears that we have received by additions of territory, since 1840, an accession of 172,000 to the numbers of our people.

The increase which has taken place in those extended regions, since they came under the authority of our government, should obviously be reckoned as a part of the development and progress of our population. Nor is it necessary to complicate the comparison by taking into account the probable natural increase of this acquired population, because we have not the means of determining the rate of its advancement, por the law which governed its progress while yet beyond the influence of our political system. The year 1840, rather than the date of the annexation of Texas, has been taken for estimating the population, in connection with that of the Union, because it may be safely assumed that, whatever the increase during the five intervening years may have been, it was mainly, if not altogether, derived from the United States.

Owing to delays and difficulties mentioned in completing the work, which no action on the part of this office could obviate, some of the returns from California have not yet been received. Assuming the population of California to be 165,000, (which we do partly by estimates,) and omitting that of Utah, estimated at 15,000, the total number of inhabitants in the United States was, on the 1st of June, 1850, 23,246,301. The absolute increase from 1st of June, 1840, has been 6,176,848, and the actual increase per cent is 36.18. But it has been shown that the probable amount of population acquired by additions of territory should be deducted in making a comparison be tween the results of the present and the last census. These deductions reduce the total population of the country, as a basis of comparison, to 23,074,301, and the increase to 6,004,848. The relative increase, after this allowance, is found to be 35.17 per cent. The aggregate number of whites in 1850 was 19,619,366, exhibiting a gain upon the number of the same class in 1840 of 5,423,371, and a relative increase of 38.20 per cent. But excluding the 153,000 free population supposed to have been acquired by the addition of territory since 1840, the gain is 5,270,371, and the increase per cent 37.14.

The number of slaves, by the present census, is 3,198,298, which shows an increase of 711,085; equal to 28.58 per cent. If we deduct 19,000 for the probable slave population of Î'exas in 1840, the result of the comparison will be slightly different. The absolute increase will be 692,085, and the rate per cent 27.83.

The number of free colored population in 1850 was 428,637 ; in 1840, 386,245. The increase of this class has been 42,392, or 10.95 per cent.

From 1830 to 1840 the increase of the whole population was at the rate of 32.67 per cent. At the same rate of advancement the absolute gain for the ten years last past would have been 5,578,333, or 426,515 less than it has been, without including the increase consequent upon additions of territory

The aggregate increase of population from all sources shows a relative advance greater than that of any other decennial terms, except that from the second to the third census, during which time the country received an accession of inhabitants by the purchase of Louisiana considerably greater than one per cent of the whole number. Rejecting from the census of 1810 1.45 per cent for the population of Louisiana, and from the census of 1850 1 per cent for that of Texas, California, &c., the result is in favor of the last ten years by about one-fourteenth of 1 per cent; the gain from 1800 to 1810 being 35.05 per cent, and from 1840 to 1850, 35.12 per cent. But, without going behind the sum of the returns, it appears that the increase from the second to the third census was thirty-two-hundredths of one per cent greater than from the sixth to the seventh.

The relative progress of the several races and classes of the population is shown in the following tabular statement:

TABLE OF INCREASE, PER CENT, OF EACH CLASS OF INHABITANTS IN THE UNITED STATES

FOR SIXTY YEARS.

1790 to 1800 to 1810 to 1820 to 1830 to 1810 to 1800.

1810. 1820. 1830. 1840. Classes.

1850. Whites....

35.68 36.18 34.30 34.52 34.72 38.20 Free colored.

82.28 72.00 27.75 34.85 20.88 10.95 Slaves.....

27,96 33.40 29.57 30,75 23.81 28.58 Total colored..

32.23 37.58 29.33 31.31 23.40 26.16 Total population..

35.02 86.50 33.35 33.92 32.67 36.18 The census had been taken previously to 1830 on the first of August. The enumerator began that year on the first of June, two months earlier, so that the interval between the fourth and fifth censuses was two months less than ten years; which time allowed for, would bring the total increase up to the rate of 34.36 per cent. THE TABLE GIVEN BELOW SHOWS THE INCREASE FROM 1790 to 1850, WITHOUT REFERENCE

TO INTERVENING PERIODS,

Absolute in

Increase per

crease in sixty ceni in sixty
1790.
1850.

years.
.

years. Number of whites...... 3,172,464 19,630,019 16,457,655 527.97 Free colored

59,466
428,637

369,171 617.44 Slaves

697,897 3,184,262 2,486,365 350.13 Total free colored & slaves. 757,363 3,612,899 2,856,536 877. Total population ...... 3,929,827 23,246,301 19,316,474 491.52

Sixty years since, the proportion between the whites and blacks, bond and free, was 4.2 to 1. In 1850, it was 5.26 to 1; and the ratio in favor of the former race is increasing. Had the blacks increased as fast as the whites during these sixty years, their number on the 1st of June would have been 4,657,239; so that, in comparison with the whites, they have lost in this period, 1,035,340.

This disparity is much more than accounted for by European emigration to the United States. Dr. Chickering, in an essay upon immigration, published at Boston in 1848, distinguished for great elaborateness of research, estimates the gain of the white population from this source at 3,922,152. No reliable record was kept of the number of immigrants into the United States until 1820, when, by the law of March, 1819, the collectors were required to make quarterly returns of foreign passengers arriving in their districts. For the first ten years, the returns under the law afford materials for only an approximation to a true state of the facts involved in this inquiry.

Dr. Chickering assumes, as a result of his investigations, that of the 6,431,088 inhabitants of the United States in 1820, 1,430,906 were foreigners arrived subsequent to 1790, or the descendants of such. According to Dr. Seybert, an earlier writer upon statistics, the number of foreign passengers from 1790 to 1810 was, as nearly as could be ascertained, 120,000; and from the estimates of Dr. Seybert, and other evidence, Hon. George Ducker, author of a valuable work on the census of 1840, supposes the number from 1810 to 1820 to have been 114,000. These estimates make, for the thirty years preceding 1820, 234,000.

If we reckon the increase of these immigrants at the average rate of the whole body of white population during these three decades, they and their descendants in 1820 would amount to about 360,000. From 1820 to 1830 there arrived, according to the returns of the custom-houses, 135,986 foreign passengers, and from 1830 to 1840, 579,370, making for the twenty years 715,356. During this period a large number of emigrants from England, Scotland, and Ireland, came into the United States through Canada. Dr. Chickering estimates the number of such, from 1820 to 1830, at 67,993; and from 1830 to 1840, at 199,130; for the twenty years together, 267,123.

During the same time a considerable number are supposed to have landed at New York, with the purpose of pursuing their route to Canada; but it is probable that the number of these was balanced by omissions in the official returns.

Without reference to the natural increase, then, the accession to our population from foreign sources, from 1820 to 1840, was 982,479 persons.

Erom 1840 to 1850, the arrivals of foreign passengers in the ports of the United States have been as follows:83,504 1847..

234,756 101,107 1848.

226,524 75,159 1849

269,610 74,607 18507.

173,011 102,415 202,157 Total. .....

1,552,860 Within the last ten years there has probably been very little migration of foreigners into the United States over the Canada frontier; the disposition to take the route by Quebec having yielded to the increased facilities for direct passenger transportation to the cities of the Union ; what there has been may, perhaps, be considered as equal. led by the number of foreigners passing into Canada after landing at New York; many having been drawn thither by the opportunities of employment afforded by the public works of the province. As the heaviest portion of this great influx of immigration took place in the latter half of the decade, it will probably be fair to estimate

the natural increase during the term at 12 per cent; being about one-third of that of the white population of the country at its commencement. This will swell the aggregate to 1,739,192. Deducting this accession to the population from the whole amount, the increase is shown to be 3,684,510, and the rate per cent is reduced to 26.95.

The density of population is a branch of the subject which naturally first attracts the attention of the inquirer. The following table has been prepared from the most authentic data accessible to this office :

1840-41. 1842. 1843. 1844. 1845

1846*.

* This return includes fifteen months; namely, from July 1, 1845, to September 30, 1846.

+ The report from the State Department for this year gives 315,333 as the total number of passengers arriving in the United States; but of these, 30,023 were citizens of the Atlantic Stales proceed. ing in California by sea, and 5,320 patives of the country returning from visits abroad. A deduction of 106,879 is made from the balance, for that portion of the year from June 1st to September 300h.

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