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tion of an alkali, and afterwards of a weak acid solution. The old process required at least three days for steeping the flax fiber in hot water at a temperature of 90 degrees, while Claussen's requires but three hours boiling, makes less waste, and even that is as useful as the fiber itself, and suitable for bleaching and producing the flax-cotton, or it may be worked as paper material. I have spoken hitherto of the long flax, which is mostly used as the material for spinning, &c.; but the fax tow which is intended to be converted into the flax cotton, and of which two tons may be prepared and bleached daily, is the most important staple, deserving the attention of the manufacturer, and will no doubt receive it, whenever the superior advantages are generally and properly appreciated. Scotland paid £25,000 for Claussen's patent, and a bounty per ton, and England reserved the patent for an association for a much larger sum.

INDUSTRIAL AND OTHER STATISTICS OF MANCHESTER, The annual report of Captain Willis, the Chief Constable of Manchester (England) has just been published, containing, as usual, some elaborate and useful tables, which, besides showing the activity of the police, give a good idea of the progress of the borough in population, in material wealth and resources. By this return it appears that the population has risen from 235,507 in 1841 to 303,358 in 1851; and the gross number of habitable houses has increased from 44,462 to 53,697. One happy feature of this part of the return is that the inhabitants living in cellars have diminished from 22,924 in 1841 to 20,399 in 1851. The total annual value of the property has increased in the same period from £841,664 to £1,204,241. The gross number of all buildings is now 58,385, of which 103 are cotton mills, 7 silk mills, 3 worsted mills, 18 smallware mills, 7 print works, 35 dye works, 15 hat manufactories, 49 inachinists, 38 foundries, 4 lead works, 3 paper works, 27 saw mills, 11 corn mills, 775 workshops. 1619 warehouses, 6262 shops, 109 places of worship, 413 public and private schools, 12 banks, 10 markets, 2 theatres, 7 railway stations, 3 public washhouses, 8 infirmaries and hospitals, 14 public institutions, 33 public buildings, 53 livery stables, 176 breweries, 121 slaughter houses, and 511 buildings used as offices. The total new buildings within the last year were 1556-comprising two cotton mills, 4 saw mills, 21 workshops, 11 warehouses, 1358 dwellings, i18 shops, 8 churches and chapels, 1 bath and washhouse, 3 breweries, and 2 schools. The total number of reputed thieves residing in the borough within the knowledge of the police is 305, and 267 persons known occasionally to steal. Houses where thieves resort 234; houses for the reception of stoleo property, 141.

A LOCOMOTIVE ESTABLISHMENT IN VIRGINIA,

Messrs. Smith and Perkins, of Alexandria, Virginia, have, as we learn from the American Railroad Journal, commenced the manufacture of locomotives upon a pretty extended scale. They now employ about one hundred and fifty hands, and are now manufacturing at the rate of about twenty locomotives a year. Mr. Perkins was for many years superintendent of machinery and repairs upon the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad; and has long enjoyed the reputation of being one of the most skillful and practical mechanics in the country. There is probably no person among us better capable of constructing a good engine, or a better judge of work. The above establishment is now engaged in filling orders for the Orange and Alexandria and the Manasses Gap Railroads, terminating in Alexandria.

The above establishment is one of the beneficial results of the railroad movement in Virginia. But for railroads in that State, it never would have existed. The railroad is the pioneer, and where they are constructed a thousand branches of industry follow in their train. They create a demand for labor to construct and maintain them, and, by opening up a market to every article of use or consumption, stimulate every kind of industry. As the South is behind the North in the manufacturing establishments, we hope to see them give a liberal patronage to their own works, a course which will be of mutual benefit to all parties.

CULTIVATION OF FLAX IN THE SOUTH OF IRELAND,

The annual flax sowing of Ulster averages 50,000 acres. For the rest of Ireland it is but 4,000. Supposing each of the other provinces to cultivate flax as extensively as Ulster, the value of the crop for Ireland, would, it is estimated, be £4,500,000.

NEW CLOTH MEASURING MACHINE.

At a recent meeting of the English Institution of Civil Engineers, Mr. Joseph Whitworth, of Manchester, exhibited a new measuring machine, for determining minute differences of length. The accuracy of the machine was demonstrated by placing in it a standard yard measure, made of a bar of steel, about three-quarters of an inch square, having both the ends rendered perfectly true. One end of the bar was then placed in contact with the face of the machine, and at the other end, between it and the other face of the machine, was interposed a small flat piece of steel, termed by the experimenter," the contact piece," whose sides were also rendered perfectly true and parallel. Each division on the micrometer represented the one millionth part of an inch, and each time the micrometer was moved only one division forward, the experimenter raised the contact piece, allowing it to descend across the end of the bar by its own gravity only. This was repeated until the closer approximation of the surfaces prevented the contact piece from descending, when the measure was com, pleted, and the number on the micrometer represented the dead length of the standard bar to one-millionth part of an inch. Eight repetitions of the experiment, in a quarter of an hour produced identical results, there not being in any case a variation of onemillionth of an inch.

THE USES OF INDIA RUBBER.

Dr. J. V. E. Smith, the editor of the Boston Medical Journal, who has just returned from an extensive journey in the East, states that in those tropical regions where it was necessary to transport water, he found that river water placed in an India rubber bag, and securely corked, remained at the end of six weeks, perfectly sweet and good, while water carried in the whole skin of an animal, as is the custom in that country, became excessively offensive in the desert in a few days, besides assuming the color of a pale decoction of coffee. In wooden casks, another method adopted by travelers, the changes wrought on the water are analogous to those observed in water tanks at sea. The writer does not decide whether the preservation of the water is due to the utter exclusion of air, or to the influence exerted upon it by the material itself. The fact is one of much importance to travelers in tropical countries, where the supply of this important element it is frequently necessary to transport through great distances.

MANUFACTURE OF GLASS PEARLS.

Glass pearls, though among the most beautiful, inexpensive, and common ornaments for women now made, are produced by a very singular process. In 1656, about 200 years ago, a Venetian, named Jaquin, discovered that the scales of a species of fish, called the bleak-fish, possessed the property of communicating a pearly hue to water. He found, by experiment, that beads dipped in this water, assumed, when dried, the appearance of pearls. It proved, however, that the pearly coating, when placed outside, was easily rubbed off, and the next improvement was to make the beads hollow. The making of these beads is carried on even to this day in Venice. The beads are all blown separately. By means of a small tube, the insides are delicately coated with the pearly liquid, and a wax coating is placed over that. It requires the scales of four thousand fishes to produce half a pint of the liquid, to which small quantities of sal ammonia and isinglass are afterwards added.

ECONOMY OF TOBACCO SMOKING.

Mr. Robert Ellis, surgeon, the principal editor of the official catalogue of the Exhibition, has the following remark, (vol. 1, page 180,) which must gladden the hearts of our smoke-raising brethren :-The total quantity of tobacco retained for home consumption, in 1848, amounted to nearly 17,000,000 lbs. North America alone produces annually upwards of 200,000,000 lbs. The combustion of this mass of vegetable material would yield about 340,000,000 lbs. of carbonic acid gas; so that the yearly increase of carbonic acid gas from tobacco-smoking alone cannot be less than 1,000,000,000 lbs., a large contribution to the annnal Gemand for this gas made upon the atmosphere, for the vegetation of the world. Henceforth let no one twit the smoker with idleness and unimportance. Every pipe is an agricultural furnace-every smoker a manufacturer of vegetation, the consumer of a weed that he may rear more largely his own provisions.

PROGRESS OF BRITISH MANUFACTURES. The increase of manufacturing industry in Great Britain in sixty years, is shown by the following table of the raw materials (in pounds) used in that kingdom :

Wool.

Silk.
Hernp.
Flax,

Cotton. In 1790

3,245,352 1,253,445 592,306 257,222 30,574,374 In 1849

76,756,173 6,881,861 1,061,273 1,806,786 758,841,650 Increase in 60 years 73,488,821 5,628,416 468,967 1,548,564 728,267,276

STATISTICS OF THE MANUFACTURES OF THE UNITED STATES. The subjoined summary of the manufacturing industry of the United States is derived from the report of Mr. Kennedy, the Superintendent of the Census, at Washington. The statistics of population will be found under their appropriate department, in another part of the present number of the Merchants Magazine :

The period which has elapsed since the receipt of the returns has been so short as to enable the office to make but a general report of the facts relating to a few of the most important manufactures.

If in some instances the amount of " capital invested” in any branch of manufacture should seem too small, it must be borne in mind, that when the pruduct is of several kinds, the capital invested, not being divisible, is connected with the product of greatest consequence. This, to some extent, reduces the capital invested in the manufacture of bar iron in such establishments where some other article of wrought iron predominates—sheet iron, for example.

The aggregate, however, of the capital invested in the various branches of wrought iron will, it is confidently believed, be found correct.

The entire capital invested in the various manufactures in the United States on the 1st of June, 1850, not to include any establishments producing less than the annual value of $500, amounted, in round numbers, to

$530,000,000 Value of raw material....

550,000,000 Amount paid for labor...

240,000,000 Value of manufactured articles.

1,020,300,000 Number of persons employed...

1,050,000 The capital invested in the manufacture of cotton goods amounted to. 74,501,031 Value of raw material.....

34,835,056 Amount paid for labor.

16,286,304 Value of manufactured articles

61,869,184 Number of hands employed.....

92,286 The capital invested in the manufacture of woolen goods amounted to 28,118,650 Value of raw material....

25,755,988 Amount paid for labor..

8,399,280 Value of product

43,207,555 Number of hands employed..

39,252 The capital invested in the manufacture of pig iron amounted to... . . 17,346,425 Value of raw material..

7,005,289 Amount paid for labor.

5,066,628 Value of product...

12,748,777 Number of hands employed..

20,448 In making these estimates, the Assistant Marshals did not include any return of works which had not produced metal within the year, or those which had not commenced operations. The same is applicable to all manufactures enumerated. The capital invested in the manufacture of castings amounted to.... $17,416,361 Value of raw material.......

10,346,355 Amount paid for labor....

7,078,920 Value of product....

25,108,155 Number of hands employed...

23,589 The capital invested in the manufacture of wrought iron amounted to 13,995,220 Value of raw material....

9,518,109 Amount paid for labor...

4,196,628 Value of product....

16,387,074 Number of hands employed.

13,057 16,500 170

MANUFACTURE OF COTTON GOODS IN THE UNITED STATES.

A TABLE SHOWING THE CAPITAL INVESTED, THE BALES OF COTTON AND TONS OF COAL CONSUMED, THE NUMBER OF HANDS EMPLOYED, AND THEIR WAGES,

IN THE MANUFACTURE OF COTTON GOODS IN THE UNITED STATES, TOGETHER WITH THE VALUE OF THE RAW MATERIAL AND THE ENTIRE PRODUCT.

Value of
Capital Bales Tons

all raw
States.

invested. cotton. Coal. material. Maine

3,329,700 3,531 2,921 1,573,110
N. Hamp'e. 10,950.500 83,026 7,679 4,839,429
Vermont..
202,500 2,243

114,415
Massachus. 23, 5,630 223,607 46,545. 11,289,309
R. Island.. 6,675,100 50,713 13,116 3,484,379
Connecticut 4,219,100 39,483 2,866 2,500,062
New York.. 4,176,920 33,775 1,539 1,985,973
N. Jersey.

1,483,500 14,437 4,467 666,645
Pennsylv'a. 4,528,925 44,162 24,189 3,152,530
Delaware. 460,100 4,730 1,920 312,068
Maryland

2,236,000 23,325 2,212 1,165,579
Virginia 1,908,900 17,785 4,805 828,375
N. Carolina. 1,058,800 13,617

531,903
S, Carolina. 857,200 9,929

295,971
Georgia... 1,736,156 20,230 1,000 900,419
Florida
80,000 600

30,000
Alabama.. 657.900 5,208 237,081 237,086
Mississippi..
38,000 430

21,500
Arkansas...

8,975
Tennessee. 669,600 6,411 3,010 297,500
Kentucky.. 239,000 3,760

720

180,907 Ohio.

297,000 4,270 2,152 237,060 Indiana

43,000 675 300 28,220
Missouri.... 102,000 2,160 1,658

86,446
Dis. of Col. 85,000 960

67,000

Number of hands
Entire wages Average wages

Value of
employed.

per month.
per month.

entire Yards sheeting,
Male, Female. Male. Female. Male. Female. product. &C., &c.

Sundries.
780 2,959 22,895 35,973 $29 35 $12 15 2,596,356 32,852,556
2,911 9,211

75,713 124,131 25 45 13 47 8,830,619 113,106,247 149,700
94 147

1,460 18,061 15 55 12 67 596,100 1,651,004 *53,050
9,283 19,437 212,892 264,514 23 01 13 55 19,712,461 298,751,392 *353,660
4,959 5,916 92,282 76,656 18 61 12 95 6,447,120 96,725,612 +1,902,980
2,708 3,478

51,679 41,060 19 08 11 81 4,257,522 61,780,700 +950,000
2,632 3,688 48,244 35,699 18 33 9 68 3,591,989 44,901,475 +2,180,600
616

1,096 11,078 10,487 17 98 9 56 1,109,524 8,129,580 +2,000,000
3,564 4,099 63,642 40,656 17 26 9 91 5,322,262 45,746,790 65,380,561

413 425 6,326 4,926 15 55 11 59 538,439 3,551,636 +533,000
1,008 2,014 15,546 19,108 15 42 9 53 2,120,504 27,883,923 +46,000
1,275 1,688 12,983 11,791 10 15 6 98 1,486,384 15,640,107 +1,755,915
442 1,177 5,153 7,216 11 66 6 13 831,342 2,470,110 62,267,000
399 620 5,565 5,151 13 94 8 30 748,338 6,563,737 +1,348,343
873 1,399 12,725 10,352 14 57 7 39 2,135,044 7,209,292 +4,198,351
28 67

900

335 32 14 5 00 49,920 624,000
346 369 4,053 2,946 11 71 7 98 382,260 3.081,000 +790,000
19
17
270
101 14 21
5 34 30,500

7171,000
13
18
190
106 14 61 5 88 16,637

781,250
310 681 3,394 3,730 10 95 6 42 510,624 363,250 62,326,250
181 221 2,707 2,070 14 62 9 36 273,439 1,003,000 7725,000
132 269

2,191 2,534 16 60 9 05 394,700 280,000 +433,000
38 57

495
386 13 00 6 77 44,200

+300,000
75 80

820
800 10 94 10 00 142,900

+13,260 41 103 576

825 14 02

8 01 100,000 1,400,000

Total... 74,501,031 641,240 121,099 34,835,056 33,151 59,136 653,878 703,414

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• Pounds of yarn.

MANUFACTURE OF WOOLEN GOODS IN THE UNITED STATES.

A TABLE SHOWING THE CAPITAL INVESTED, THE NUMBER OF POUNDS OF WOOL AND TONS OF COAL CONSUMED, THE NUMBER OF HANDS EMPLOYED, AND

THEIR WAGES, IN THE MANUFACTURE OF WOOLEN GOODS IN THE UNITED STATES-TOGETHER WITH THE VALUE OF THE RAW MATERIAL AND THE ENTIRE

PRODUCT.

Value of

No, of hands

Entire wages

Average wages

Value of
entire

Y’ds of cloth

Pounds or

all raw

per month.

Capital
invested,

States.

Tons

wool used, of coal. material. Maine..

467.00 1,436,484 495,910 N. Hamp'e. 2,437,700 3,604,103 3,600 1,267,329

employed.

per month Male, Female

, Malc. Female.
Male Female Miles Female products, manufaciured. Sundries

.
310 314

6,098 3,697 $12 57 $11 77 153,300 1,023,020 *1,200
926 1,201 21,177 17,451 22 84 14 51 2,127,745

2,127,745 9,712,840 105,200

.

683
6,167

987
2,907
4,262

411
3,490

122

Vermont..
Massachu's
R. Islaud
Connectic't
New York.
N.Jersey..
Pennsylv'a.
Delaware.
Maryland.
Virginia...
N. Carolina
Georgia
Texas
Tennessee.
Kentucky.
Ohio
Michigan ..
Indiana..
Illinois
Missouri...
Iowa....
Wisconsin.
Dis. of Col.

886,300 2,228,100
9,089,342 22,229,952 15,400
1,013,370 4,103,370 2,032
3,773,950 9,414,100 7,912
4,459,370 12,538,786

494,274 1,510,289 1,889
3,005,064 7,560,379 10,777

148,500 393,000 45
244,000 430,300 100
392,640 1,554,110 357
18,000 30,000
68,000 153,816

8,000 30,000
10,900

6,200
249,820 673,900
870,220 1,657,726 2,110

94,000 162,250
171,545 413,350 90
154,500 396,964 987
20,000 80,000 1,071
10,000 14,500
31,225 134,200
700

5,000

830,684
8,671,671
1,463,900
3,325,709
3,838,292

548,367
3,282,718

204,172
165,565
488,899

13,950
30,392
10,000

1,675
205,287
578,423

43,402
120,486
115,367
16,000

3,500
32,630
1,630

262
478
15
40

4
15
266
903

78
189
124
15

7
25
2

710 16,712
4,963 141,533

771 20,431
2,581 70,141
2,412 85,147

487 10,367
2,236 67,138

18 2,293
100 4,875
190 8,688
15

270
38 1,099
4

80
2

265
62 3,915
298 18,191
51 1,689
67

4,122
54

2,728
10 480

78
562
60

8,388 24 50 11 80 1,579,161 2,830,400
70,581 22 95 14 22 12,770,565 25,865,658 749,550
11,708 2070 15 18 2,381,825 8,612,400 46,000
33,216 24 12 13 25 6,465,216 9,408,777
28,377 21 46 11 61 7,030,604 7,924,252 261,700

4,192 25 02 8 59 1,164,446 771,100 350,000
23,279 19 20 10 40 5,321,866 10,099,234 1,941,621

312 18 79 17 33 251,010 152,000
1,189 18 60 11 89 295,140 373,100
1,883 18 50 9 90 841,013 2,037,025 398,705

105 18 00 7 00 23,750 34,000
536 27 47 14 10 88,750 340,660
80 20 00 20 00 15,000 14,000 +4,000
12 17 66 6 00

6,310

122,200
689 15 29 11 11 318,819 878,034
3,250 20 14 10 94 1,111,027 1,374,087 *65,000

585 21 65 11 47 90,242 141,570
630 21 81 11 05 205,802 235,500 104,000
676 22 00 12 52 206,572 306,995 137,000
65 32 00 6 50 56,000 12,000 16,000
11 42

13,000 14,000
22 45

87,992 36,000 *74,350
30 00

2,400 10,000

Total... 28,118,650 70,862,829 46,370 25,755,988 22,678 16,574 489,039 210,901

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