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one hundred and eight consanguineous marriages, nearly all first cousins, showing the number of children from each union, the health of the children, and their condition in reference to deafness, insanity, idiocy, and blindness.

From his figures it would appear: 1. Regarding fertility; the number of children to cach marriage is quite as great as when the parents are not related : 2. The general health of the children is as good : 3. Insanity--omitting the distinctly hereditary casesis not increased : 4. There seems to have been a slight increase in the number of idiots : 5. Defects of hearing and vision no more frequent than ordinary.

RULES.- Adopted by the Committee appointed by the American Medical Association to arrange for the meeting of the International Medical Congress in Washington, in 1887, for the organization and government of that body-at the meeting of the Committee in New York, September 3d, 1885.

1. The Congress shall consist of members of the regular profession of medicine, and of such other scientific men as the Executive Committee of the Congress may see fit to admit, who shall have inscribed their names on the register and shall have taken out their tickets of admission.

2. The dues for members of the Congress shall be ten dollars each for members residing in the United States. There shall be no dues for members residing in foreign countries. Each member of the Congress shall be entitled to receive a copy of the Transactions" for 1887.

2. The Congress shall be divided as follows, into seventeen sections: I. General Medicinc. II. General Surgery. III. Military and Naval Surgery. IV. Obstetrics. 1. Gynæcology: VI. Therapeutics and Materia Medica. VII. Inatomy. VIII. Physiology IX. l'athology X. Discases of Children. XI. Ophthalmology: XII. Otology and Laryngology. XIII. Dermatology and Syphilis. XIV. l'ublic and International Hygiene. XT. Collective Investigation, Nomenclature, Vital Statistics, and Climatology XVI. Psychological Medicine and Discases of the Nervous System. XVII. Dental and Oral Surgery.

4. The general meetings of the Congress shall be for the transaction of business and for addresses and communications of general 5. Questions and topics that have been agreed upon for discussion in the sections shall be introduced by members previously designated by the titular officers of each section. Members who shall have been appointed to open discussions, shall present in advance statements of the conclusions they have formed as a basis for debate.

tintific interest.

6. Brief abstracts of the papers to be read in the sections shall be sent to the secretaries of the proper sections on or before April 30, 1887. These abstracts shall be treated as confidential communications, and shall not be published before the meeting of the Congress.

Papers relating to topics not included in the lists of subjects proposed by the officers of the sections, may be accepted after April 30, 1887; and any member wishing to introduce a topic not on the regular lists of subjects for discussion, shall give notice of the same to the secretary general, at least twenty-one days before the opening of the Congress, and such notices shall be promptly transmitted by the secretary general to the presidents of the proper sections. The titular officers of each section shall decide as to the acceptance of such proposed communications and the time for their presentation.

7. All formal addresses, scientific communications, and papers presented, and scientific discussions held at the general meetings of the Congress, shall be promptly given in writing to the secre tary-general; and all papers presented and discussions held at the meetings of the sections, shall be promptly given in writing to the secretaries of the proper sections.

No communication shall be received which has already been published, or read before a society.

The Executive Committee, after the final adjournment of the Congress, shall direct the cditing and publication of its "Transactions," and shall have the full power to publish the papers presented and the discussions held thereon, cither in full, in part, or in abstract, as in the judgment of the Committee may be deemed best.

8. The official languages of the Congress shall be English, French, and German.

In the meetings of the sections, no member shall be allowed to speak for more than ten minutes, with the exceptions of the readers of papers and those who introduce subjects for discussion, who may each occupy twenty minutes.

9. The rules and programmes shall be published in English, French, and Gerinan. Each paper and address shall be printed in the “ Transactions " in the language in which it was presented, and preliminary abstracts of papers and addresses also shall be printed, cach in the language in which it is to be delivered. A11 discussions shall be printed in English.

10. The President of the Congress, the Secretary-General, the Treasurer, the Chairman of the Finance Committee, and the Presidents of the Sections, shall together constitute an Executive Committee of the Congress, which Committee shall direct the business of the Congress, shall authorize all expenditures for the immediate purposes of the Congress, shall supervise and audit the accounts of the Treasurer, and shall fill all vacancies in the offices of the Congress and of the Section This Committee shall have power to add to its memburum.Obit Mife anat pumber of members shall not exceed thirty of numer equality one third of the members of the Committealli goni8817c' a quorum for the transaction of business.

1. The Officers of the Oyngre u be a President, VicePresidents, it Secretary General Tait fosciate Secretaries, one of whom shall be the French Secretary, and one of whom shall be the German Secretary, a Treasurer, and the Chairman of the Finance Committee.

12. The officers of each Section shall be a President, VicePresidents, Secretaries, and a Council.

13. The officers of the Congress and the officers of the Sections shall be nominated to the Congress at the opening of its first session.

14. The Executive Committee shall, at some convenient time before the meeting of the Congress, prepare a list of foreign VicePresidents of the Congress and foreign l'ice-Presidents of the Sections, to be nominated to the Congress at the opening of its first session.

15. There shall be a standing Committee on Finance, composed of one representative from cach State and Territory, the District of Columbia, the Medical Department of the Army, the Medical Department of the Navy, and the Marine Hospital Service.

The Chairman of the Finance (Committee shall report to the Executive Committee of the Congress. Each member of the Finance Committee shall appoint a local Finance Committee for his Statc, Territory:: District, or Government Department, consisting of one or more members from each Government Department or Congressional District. Each local Finance Committee shall report through its Chairman to the Chairman of the Finance Committee of the Congress.

HOSPITAL APPOINTMENTS. —Dr. John Tate, after a long and honorable service in the Obstetrical Wards of the Cincinnati Hospital, has resigned.

The Board of Trustees appointed him to the position of Consulting Physician to the Obstetrical and Gynecological Wards, and passed resolutions expressive of the high appreciation which they have had of his willing and skillful services.

Dr. Geo. M. Allen was appointed to the position.

In this appointment the Board secure the services of a young physician who has already taken a high position in his profession. He has enthusiasm and culture, and will add to the efficiency of the hospital staff, while the very large field of practice opened up to him, leads us to augur for him a most brilliant future.

THE VALUE OF COCAIN AS A LOCAL ANESTHETIC. - To bring before the readers of the Cincinnati Medical and Dental Journal the subject of cocain again. is not for the purpose of reviewing what has been done with this agent or what it will do ; but more for the purpose of showing that the preparation in general use (the muriate of cocain) at the present time is not as efficient as when the drug was first put onto the market. The cause of this deplorable fact is certainly no secret to the manufacturer, and he alone must be held responsible for it.

When the drug was first introduced, pharmaceutists argued that the remedy never could be very cheap on account of the first cost of the coca leaf. In the course of six months the price of what is called and sold for cocain has fallen from one dollar a grain to ten cents per grain. This great decline in price is at the expense of the cousumer. Since adulteration, in the manufacture and sale of cocain, has taken place to such an extent that many preparations purporting to come from reliable dealers even are absolutely inert. Squibbs makes the suggestion that the inefficiency may be apparent and due to an idiosyncrasy of the patient.

But when we make such an assertion as the foregoing, our conclusions have been based on the use of the various salts of cocain employed in hundreds of cases,

Quite recently the firm of Parke, Davis & Co. have placed before the profession the hydrobromatc which was discovered by Dr. Lyons. This new salt seems to possess superior qualities even when compared with a genuine preparation of the hydrochlorate. The employment of the latter preparation in strong Solutions, or in the form of a powder, causes in some cases a superficial keratitis; this drawback has not been noticed in connection with the use of the hydrobromate. Possibly the bromine which enters into the combination exerts a soothing effect on the cornea. There can be no doubt that the hydrobromate will soon supercede the hydrochloratc,

RENAL HEMORRHAGE DURING PREGNANCY.

Dr. John Mulvany, in The British Mal. Jour., Sept. 19. reports a case of renal hemorrhage complicating pregnancy. The hæmaturia was very profuse and lasted for one week (the middle of the eighth month) and was accompanied by pains suggestive of miscarriage. The blood would coagulate in the bladder and he had to use the catheter, and frequently ashed out the bladder with

Water and boracic Solutiou. He gave ten grains of gallic acid every four hours. After the hæmaturia disappeared, pregnancy advanced normally to term, and delivery was in no way complicated, the mother and child both doing well.

Warm

PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION Required by the General Medical Council of Great Britain.

No person will be allowed to be registered as a medical student unless he shall have previously passed (it one or more examinations) a preliminary examination in :

1. English Language, including Graumar and Composition.

2. Latin, including Grammar, Translations from specified authors, and Translation of easy passages into Latin from such authors.

3. Elements of Mathematics, comprising (11) Arithmetic--including Vulgar and Decimal Fractions; (0) Algebra-including Simple Equations; (c) Geometry--including the first book of Euclid, with casy questions on the subject inatter of the same.

4. Elementary Mechanics of Solids and Fluids, comprising the elements of Statics. Dynamics, aud llydrostatics.

5. One of the following optional subjects: (a) Greek: (h) French: (c) German; (v) Italian ; (c) any other modern language; (1) Logic; (g) Botany ; (h) Zoology; (i) Elementary Chemistry: – British Jlcdical Journal.

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