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citizens of Maine, thus to be admitted upon the British waters of the St. John, is to be accompanied, if required, by reasonable evidence that it was grown upon some part of the territory now conceded to the United States, which is watered by the St. John, or by its tributaries; so that a complete check is provided, not only against any disorders with which the transit of this produce might be accompanied through British territory, but also against any fraudulent introduction into it of produce raised without the limits prescribed by the Treaty. The produce thus to be admitted is limited to the raw material of the forest, and the unmanufactured articles of agriculture, so that flour in barrels, the only form in which manufactured wheat could be introduced, is altogether excluded. And as to wheat in bulk—the only form in which under the Treaty it can be introduced—finding its way through that channel to the port of St. John's, and reaching England, as some have apprehended, without paying a foreign duty, it would be attended with so much expense and waste before it reached the St. John, on account of the difficulties of the navigation, that the cost of it would far exceed the price it could be sold for. But there is a more conclusive reason to be given against the sup— position that this Treaty has opened such a
door for the evasion of our own laws. Wheat is not, and will never be grown in this conceded territory. The patches of land applicable to its culture are very rare, and not more than adequate to the consumption of the scattered population that can ever find subsistence there, if even the climate were favourable to its growth and harvest; but in a country where the rigour of winter does not permit the ground to be tilled until the month of May, and where the frosts in the early part of September compel the farmer to trust only to such scanty crops of rye and oats as he can snatch from the ground, often in an immature state, the whole time of the settler is consumed in securing these coarse grains together with his potatoes, in sufficient quantities to provide his family for a tedious winter of seven months, during which his agricultural labours are suspended, and he is driven to the forest to add to his scanty means, by cutting a few logs for the speculator who is to pay him for them in the month of May, when the waters are high enough to float them down the stream. In a severe climate of this kind, and with such a soil, it may safely be asserted that the inhabitants will for ever be condemned to precarious, scanty, and limited crops; and that, far from having an agricultural surplus to export, all their industry will be
required to pay for that which they are unable to produce themselves, and which must be drawn from a distance. The wheat flour, therefore, to be hereafter consumed on that territory will have to be imported, as it is now done, from a wheat-producing country; and if it is imported by way of the River St. John it must pay the same duty at a British custom-house that it has always been liable to before the Treaty of Washington was made.
This being the case, the only article which the Treaty practically opens a free transit to is the raw material of the forest, in those various forms enumerated in the Treaty, being those in which it is usually sent to market. And here it will not be difficult to show that the Treaty introduces nothing that is new, and changes nothing in the accustomed channel of business connected with the supply of timber. In fact, all that the Treaty does is to give some regularity to a branch of industry which stood in great need of it, and to save that small portion of the forest timber which still remains from the indiscriminate waste and destruction which invariably accompanied the cutting of it down, when no one had a settled title to the land upon which it grew. Whilst the country was in dispute the forests were a prey to speculators living under both Governments, who sent parties of coarse woodmen to pass the winters there, and to cull the finest timber wherever it was to be found. The logs being marked were committed to the stream as soon as the waters of the Roostuc were high enough to float them down, and were not unfrequently seized by the authorities appointed to prevent waste, and were either left to rot on the ground, or were sold for what they would bring. Latterly the loss sustained by such operations suggested to these speculators a method of avoiding it to a certain extent. A British subject residing in New Brunswick would form a partnership in these transactions with a citizen of Maine, and so the property was proved to be British or American, as the case might require. The Treaty has now put a stop to this destructive and unprofitable way of carrying on the business; the boundary being settled, every tree has an owner, public or private, and will be taken care of, and conducted either in the form of logs, or as shingles, or staves, &c. &c., to the best market. There it is sure to go, and the best market will always be the flourishing city of St. John, at the mouth of the river, which is the place provided by the Treaty for it to go to”.
* It is very well known that her Majesty's subjects in New Brunswick are fully aware of the advantages they are to derive from this part of the Treaty, and that the friendly arrangement which has been made is, on account of its tendency to promote the regular business of the province, extremely popular there.
The effect, therefore, of that provision of the Treaty which permits the citizens of Maine to carry their forest stuffs to St. John's, will be to introduce a more peaceful and less wasteful mode of continuing a branch of trade which will be more profitable to her Majesty's subjects in New Brunswick than to anybody else, but which will not be of very great importance hereafter, for the reason before given—that very little timber of the first quality now remains standing in any part of the disputed territory.
It is manifest from this statement that any surplus products of the territory now ceded to Maine, not consisting of rude logs, must—if ever there should be any—either be sent to the St. John by the waters of the Roostuc, or to an American port by way of the Penobscot; for nothing can bear the expense of being sent north to where the St. John is the boundary between the two countries. And in respect to the restrictive clause concerning provincial regulations mentioned in the Third Article of the Treaty, it is to be observed that although the Article provides that the produce grown in the part ceded to Maine is privileged to pass “to and round the Falls of the said river (St. “ John's) either by boats, rafts, or other con“Veyance,” yet no similar provision is made in