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The following adjectives are irregular in their comparison :
Note.-Some adjectives having no superlative of their own, procure it by a combination of words : thus, senex, old, makes maximus natu, the greatest by age, i. e. oldest; juvenis, young, minimus natu, least by age, i. e. youngest.
EXERCISES ON THE DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES.
Durus, a, um, hard
Impubis, e, beardless
ON THE PRONOUN. A pronoun (pro, for, nomen, a name) is a word used instead of
Pronouns admit of person, gender, number, and case. They are usually classified into personal, possessive, demonstrative, and relative; and, unlike the noun and the adjective, are not reducible as to their inflexion to any heads or classes.
The personal pronouns are ego, tu, sui, and are thus declined: SING.
SING. Nom. ego
tu Gen. mei nostrum, nostri tui
vestrum, vestri Dat. mihi nobis
tibi vobis Acc.
te Voc. wanting wanting
tu Abl. nobis.
Acc. se and sese
Abl. se and sese. The possessive pronous are meus, tuus, suus, cujus, noster, vester ; they are declined like bonus, except that meus makes mi in the vocative singular, masculine gender ; and that all the others, except noster, want the vocative.
Note.—Nostras, vestras, and cujas are declined like an adjective . of one termination : thus, nominative, nostras ; genitive, nostratis, &c. &c.
The demonstrative pronouns are hic, ille, iste, and ipse ; and are thus declined :
Iste is similarly declined, and also ipse, except that the latter makes ipsum in the nominative, accusative, and vocative singular.
In like manner is declined idem (for isdem), a compound of is, except that in the accusative singular, masculine gender, it makes eundem.
The relative pronoun qui is thus declined :
PLUR. Nom. qui quæ quod qui
quæ quæ Gen. cujus
quorum quarum quorum Dat.
quibus or queis Acc. quem quam
quos quas quæ Voc. wanting
quo qua quo or quî l quibus or queis. The compounds of qui are similarly declined : quidam, a certain person ; quivis and quilibet, any one ; and quicunque, who
The interrogative quis, who, or what, is declined like qui, except that it makes quid or quod in the neuter.
Aliquis, some one, is declined like quis, except that its nominative singular, feminine gender, is aliqua.
ON THE VERB. A verb expresses the action of, or the receiving of an action by its subject : when the subject acts, the verb is called active ; when it receives an act, the verb is called passive. These are the two great subdivisions of the verb family. Some verbs are called by other names indicative of some property connected therewith ; these will be considered hereafter.
Verbs are inflected with number, person, mood, and tense.
The number and person of the verb are the same as the number and
of the noun and pronoun. As far as inflexion is concerned, there are but four moods—the indicative, imperative, potential, and infinitive.
Note.-The subjunctive is the same as the potential, and is attached dependently to another verb to express some condition or limitation thereof.
The tenses are five-present, imperfect, perfect, pluperfect, and future,
Active verbs are classified into four heads, called conjugations, distinguished one from the other by the vowel and its quantity which precedes re, the termination of the infinitive mood.
The first conjugation has a long before re, as amāre.
The radical parts of an active verb, i. e. the parts from which the others are formed, are the present indicative, the perfect indicative, and the first supine.
The radical parts of the active verb in the several conjugations are as follows:1 amo
amatum 2 doceo
doctum 3 lego
lectum 4 audio
auditum. The following will serve as a model of the conjugation of active verbs in the several conjugations.
FIRST CONJUGATION.- Amo.
am-at, Plur, am-ámus,
1. Present Tense.
I love, am loving, or do love
they love, are loving, or do love. 2. Imperfect Tense.
I did love, or was loving
am-ábat, Plur. am-abámus,
3. Perfect Tense. Sing. amáv-i,
I loved, or have loved amav-ísti,
thou lovedst, or hast loved amav-it,
he loved, or hath loved Plur. amav-imus,
we loved, or have loved amav-ístis,
ye loved, or have loved amav-érunt, vel -ére, they loved, or have loved.
amay-erat, Plur. amav-erámus,
4. Pluperfect Tense.
I had loved
am-ábit, Plur. am-abimus,
5. Future Tense.
I shall, or will love