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cause.

clemency and compassion ; austerity of manner had imparted dignity to the latter (huic). When hic and ille are so used, hic signifies the latter ; ille, the former.

His genus – their family extraction, or rank, age, (and) eloquence were nearly (things) equal. His is the dative for the genitive complement. See Observation 9, under Rule 5. Æqualia is the nominative plural of the adjective, and neuter as qualifying three nouns all neuter.

Clarus, magnus. For the syntax of these words consult Rules 13 and 15.

49. “ At the death of Numa the government returned to an interregnum.” Morte may be regarded as the ablative of the

See Rule 6. Inde - after that the people elected as king Tullus Hostilius, the grandson of (that) Hostilius, whose stand (pugna) against the Sabines at the bottom of the citadel had been well known.

Patres auctores facti (sunt)—the fathers became approvers (of the act); i. e. gave their assent. For the syntax of auctores consult Rule 13.

50. Confecto prælio-the battle being finished. See Rule 14.

Fuisset. See Observation 1, under Rule 1. The principle enunciated in this observation with regard to two singular nouns copulatively connected is more frequently neglected in Latin than in English.

Quem quisque. Both quisque and locum are out of their own clause. This also is a species of attraction: the order should be, Nam fere quisque tegebat eum locum corpore, amissa anima, quem ceperat pugna. Amissa anima—his life being lost. “When he had lost his life.” Paullo diversius-a little farther asunder.

Adversis vulneribus—with adverse wounds. « Wounds in their front."

A suis-- from his men (militibus).
Quam habuerat vivus--which he (when) alive had possessed.

51. “Having thus spoken he dismissed him with a letter, which he should deliver (to deliver, in English) to Micipsa.” Literæ, in the plural, signifies an epistle ; litera, in the singular, a letter of the alphabet.

Earum sententia hæc erat—this was (is, in English) a copy of it.

Longe maxima—the valour of your Jugurtha shone forth conspicuous (was by far the greatest).

Summa ope nitemur—we (I) shall endeavour with all my power that he be the same to the senate, &c. &c. i. €, that he be in equal estimation, &c. &c.

Pro nostra amicitia-in regard of our friendship.

Ita essewhen he understood that those things (ea) which he had heard by report were so (as he had heard them). Esse. The subject is ea=eas res, the antecedent of quæ.

Cum -- tum. These are correlative terms, and when so related the former signifies, as well, the latter, as.

Filiis. The ablative, which, though plural, is in apposition with Adherbale and Hiempsale, both together making a plural.

Rules. 16. An adjective in the neuter gender is followed sometimes by the genitive of the noun which it qualifies.

17. Adjectives which signify desire, knowledge, remembrance, ignorance, care, fear, guilt, and various affections of the mind are followed by a genitive.

18. Adjectives and verbs which signify profit or loss, likeness and unlikeness, &c. &c. are followed by a dative.

19. Verbal adjectives ending in ax are followed by a genitive; and verbal adjectives ending in bilis, and participles in dus, are followed by the dative.

20. Adjectives and verbs signifying plenty or want, govern, sometimes the genitive, sometimes the ablative: the verbs, however, most frequently the ablative.

21. The adjectives dignus, indignus, præditus, captus, contentus, fc. &c., require an ablative.

22. The verb esse, implying possession, property, or duty, is followed by a genitive ; which, however, is not governed by esse itself, but is the complement of some noun understood.

23. Verbs of accusing, condemning, acquitting, warning, &c. &c., are followed, in the active voice, by an accusative expressing the person accused, &c. &c., and by a genitive expressing the crime, &c. &c. In the passive voice this genitive only is retained.

24. All verbs used acquisitively, that is, expressing something done for, or to a person or thing, require the dative of such person or thing. Some of such verbs take after them, in addition, an accusative, as being transitive verbs.

25. Verbs of asking, teaching, clothing, concealing, admonishing, &c. &c., govern two accusatives—one of the person, another of the thing. In the passive voice the accusative of the thing only is retained.

26. A preposition in a compound word requires after it the case which the preposition governs when not in a compound.

27. Natus, satus, creatus, ortus, editus, take after them an ablative, with or without the prepositions, e, ex, fc. fic.

28. The supine in um follows verbs implying motion, and the supine in u follows adjectives; the former has an active, the latter a passive signification.

29. The part affected is put in the accusative, which, as grammarians lay down, is governed by quoad or secundum, prepositions implying as to.

30. The gerund in di serves as a genitive case, the gerund in do as a dative or ablative, and the gerund in dum as an accusative.

31. The word which expresses the price of an article is put in the ablative case, except the adjectives tanti, quanti, pluris, minoris, tantivis, quantilibet, quanticunque, which are expressed in the genitive.

32. The name of a town (if of the first or second declension and singular number) is put in the genitive, which answers to the question-where?

Note.--In like manner are used the genitives humi, domi, belli, militiæ.

33. If the noun be of the third declension, or of the plural number, it is put in the ablative.

34. T'he name of the place towards which motion is directed is put in the accusative, with or without a preposition governing such case.

Sentences. 1. Postremo, omnes quos flagitium, egestas, conscius animus exagitabat; i Catilinæ proximi familiaresque erant. Quod si quis etiam a culpa vacuus in amicitiam ejus inciderat, quotidiano usu atque illecebris facile par similisque ceteris efficiebatur.

2. Ubi satis explorata sunt, quæ voluit, in unum omnes convocat, quibus maxima necessitudo et plurimum audaciæ.

3. Ceterum juventus sed maxime nobilium, Catilinæ inceptis favebat. Quibus in otio vel magnifice, vel molliter vivere copia erat, incerta pro certis, bellum, quam pacem malebant. Fuere item ea tempestate, qui crederent Marcum Licinium Crassum non ignarum consilii fuisse ; quia Cneius Pompeius, invisus ipsi, magnum exercitum ductabat, cujusvis opes voluisse contra illius potentiam crescere, simul confisum, si conjuratio valuisset, facile apud illos principem se fore.

4. Fuere ea tempestate, qui dicerent, Catilinam, oratione habita, humani corporis sanguinem, vino permixtum, in pateris circumtulisse ; inde cum post exsecrationem omnes degustavissent, sicuti in solemnibus sacris fieri consuevit, aperuisse consilium suum, atque eo, dictitare, fecisse, quo inter se fidi niagis forent, alius alii tanti facinoris conscii. Nonnulli ficta hæc, multa præ

terea, existimabant, ab iis, qui Ciceronis invidiam, quæ postea orta est, leniri credebant atrocitate sceleris eorum, qui pænas dederant.

5. His rebus comparatis, Catilina nihilominus in proximum annum consulatum petebat; sperans, si designatus foret, facile se ex voluntate Antonio usurum. Neque interea quietus erat, sed omnibus modis insidias parabat Ciceroni. Neque illi tamen ad cavendum dolus, aut astutiæ deerant, namque, a principio consulatus sui, multa pollicendo per Fulviam, effecerat, ut Quintus Curius, de quo paullo ante memoravi, consilia Catilinæ sibi proderet. Ad hoc, collegam suum Antonium, pactione provinciæ perpulerat, ne contra rempublicam sentiret ; circum se præsidia amicorum atque clientium occulte habebat.

Postquam dies comitiorum venit, et Catilinæ neque petitio, neque insidiæ, quas consulibus fecerat prospere cessere, constituit bellum facere et extrema omnia experiri.

6. Igitur, perterritis ac dubitantibus ceteris, Cornelius, eques Romanus, operam suam pollicitus, et cum eo Lucius Vargunteius, senator, constituere, ea nocte paullo post cum armatis hominibus introire ad Ciceronem ac imparatum confodere. Curius, ubi intelligit quantum periculi consuli impendeat, propere per Fulviam, dolum, qui parabatur, enunciat. Interea Manlius in Etruria plebem sollicitare, egestate simul ac dolore injuriæ novarum rerum cupidam.

7. Deos hominesque testamur, nos arma neque contra patriam cepisse, neque quo periculum homini faceremus, sed uti corpora nostra ab injuria tuta forent, qui miseri, egentes, violentia atque crudelitate foeneratorum, plerique patriæ, sed omnes fama atque fortunis expertes sumus ; neque cuiquam nostrum licuit, more majorum, lege uti, neque amisso patrimonio, liberum corpus habere ; tanta sævitia foeneratorum atque prætoris fuit.

8. Igitur Publio Umbreno cuidam negotium dat, uti legatos Allobrogum requirat, eosque, si possit, impellat ad societatem belli; existimans, publice privatimque ære alieno oppressos, præterea, quod natura gens Gallica bellicosa esset, facile eos ad tale consilium adduci posse. Umbrenus, quod in Gallia negotiatus, plerisque principibus notus erat, atque eos noverat ; itaque sine mora, ubi primum legatos in foro conspexit, percunctatus pauca de statu civitatis, et quasi dolens ejus casum, requirere coepit, "quem exitum tantis malis sperarent ?" Postquam illos videt queri de avaritia magistratuum, accusare senatum, quod in eo auxilii nihil esset, miseriis suis remedium mortem expectare : " At ego," inquit, “vobis, si modo viri esse vultis, rationem ostendam, qua tanta ista mala effugiatis.” Hæc ubi dixit, Allobroges, in maximam spem adducti, Umbrenum orare, uti sui misereretur: nihil tam asperum, neque tam difficile, quin cupidissime facturi essent, dum ea res civitatem ære alieno liberaret. Ille eos in domum Decimi Bruti perducit, quod foro propinqua, neque aliena consilii, propter Semproniam ; nam tum Brutus ab Roma aberat. Præterea Gabinium arcessit, quo major auctoritas sermoni inesset : eo præsente conjurationem aperit ; nominat socios, præterea multos cujusque generis, quo legatis animus amplior esset ; dein eos pollicitos operam suam dimittit.

9. Postquam, Cæsar dicendi finem fecit, ceteri verbo, alius alii, varie adsentiebantur; at Marcus Porcius Cato, rogatus sententiam, hujuscemodi orationem habuit.

10. Postquam, ut dixi, senatus in Catonis sententiam discessit, consul, optimum factum ratus, noctem, quæ instabat, antecapere, ne quid eo spatio novaretur, triumviros, quæ supplicium postulabat, parare jubet; ipse, dispositis præsidiis, Lentulum in carcerem deducit: idem fit ceteris per prætores. Est locus in carcere, quod Tullianum adpellatur, ubi paullulum ascenderis ad lævam. Eum muniunt undique parietes. In eum locum postquam demissus Lentulus, quibus præceptum erat, laqueo gulam fregere. Ita ille patricius, ex clarissima gente Corneliorum, qui consulare imperium habuerat, dignum moribus factisque suis exitum vitæ invenit.

11. Interea Catilina cum expeditis in prima acie versari, laborantibus succurrere, integros pro sauciis arcessere, omnia providere, multum ipse pugnare, sæpe hostem ferire, strenui militis et boni imperatoris officia simul exsequebatur. Petreius, ubi videt Catilinam, contra ac ratus erat, magna vi tendere, cohortem prætoriam in medios hostes inducit ; eos perturbatos atque alios alibi resistentes interficit. Postquam fusas copias, seque cum paucis relictum videt Catilina, memor generis atque pristinæ dignitatis, in confertissimos hostes incurrit, ibique pugnans confoditur.

12. At Jugurtha manifestus tanti sceleris, non prius omisit contra verum niti quam animadvertit supra. gratiam atque pecuniam suam invidiam facti esse. Igitur, quamquam in priore actione ex amicis quinquaginta vades dederat, regno magis, quam vadibus consulens, clam in Numidiam Bomilcarem dimittit, veritus, ne reliquos populares metus invaderet parendi sibi, si de illo supplicium sumtum foret. Et ipse paucis diebus profectus est, jussus ab senatu Italia decedere. Sed postquam Roma egressus

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