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47. Auctoritate tua nobis opus est.
48. Ubi testimonia rerum adsunt, quid opus est verbis ?
49. Tantummodo " incepto opus est; cetera res expediet.

50. Curius, ubi intellexit quantum periculum consuli impendeat, propere per Fulviam dolum paratum enunciat.

Notes on the foregoing Sentences. 1. Eo modo in this manner. Nouns are frequently governed by prepositions understood ; modo is governed by in, or it may be regarded as the ablative expressing the manner. See Rule 6.

Duo- summi. For the declension of duo, see the Declension of Adjectives; and for the comparison of summi, the Comparison of Irregular Adjectives.

2. Luctus, curæ. The combined subject of posuere.

Cubilia. The object of this verb: nominative singular, neuter, cubile, genitive cubilis. See Note under Third Declension.

4. Desidia. This is the subject of invasit, understood out of invasere, the subject expressed of which are lubido and superbia. The English translation is, “But when instead of labour, idleness (entered), instead of temperance and a sense of justice, passion and tyrannical insolence entered, their (the Romans') good fortune together with their morals became changed.” Immutatur, literally, is changed. This verb is in the present tense, which is very frequently used by historical writers for the past or imperfect.

5. Formidine turpi. This is the cause (Rule 6), and governed by scandunt; in English, “A part scale the horse through (by reason of) base fear."

6. Flammis. The ablative of the means or instrument (Rule 6). It is governed by undantia, which agrees with ahena; in English, “ The caldrons boiling over by the flames.” It should be mentioned that participles govern the same cases as the verbs of which they are parts ; and that adjectives generally in Latin, as in English, are to be taken separately as it were from their nouns, when the adjective has connected with it an expression of limitation : thus we say, “The heated earth ;” but “The earth heated by the rays of the sun;" where “The rays of the sun" express a limitation of heated ; and show the means by which, to the exclusion of all others, the heating took place.

7. At Lentulus—but Lentulus with (and) others had determined that Lucius Bestia, a tribune of the people, should prefer a charge concerning the acts of Cicero, and lay the odium of this most troublesome outbreak on the best consul (the best of consuls). The pluperfect expresses an act prior to some other act


expressed or implied. This other act cannot be gathered here, as the context is wanted.

9. Postremam—the rear rank of the Romans, the Roman last line of men. Acies—a body of men in battle array. Agmen

body in line of march; and exercitus-a body in a state of training or military exercise.

10. Dulce et decorum. The subject of this sentence is pro patri mori, which serves as a noun qualified by these adjectives. The adjective so placed is always in the neuter gender,

13. * To speak of one's self is senile,” i. e. the property of

old age.

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14. Momento, see Note 1. Victoria is the subject of venit.

21. “If I have deserved well from you (at your hands) pity your falling house, and, I beseech you, give up this intention. The object of a verb is frequently understood : thus oro requires te.

22. Et prædæ ducere sortem—and to cast lots for the plunder. 23.


house for (as) your own (house)." 24. “The little ant, as soon as Aquarius saddens the inverted year, never creeps abroad any where; but wise (the ant wisely) uses those things before acquired.” As soon as Aquarius makes sad,” i. e, as soon as winter arrives.

Sapiens. In Latin, as in English, an adjective agreeing with the noun is sometimes equivalent to an adverb qualifying the verb : thus in the text, " A wise ant uses,"=" An ant wisely uses."

Quæsitis. Agreeing as a participial adjective with rebus understood. The participle or adjective is frequently placed alone, the noun being expressed or implied in the context.

29. “Why does it delight you timid (filled with anxiety) to deposit in the ground, secretly excavated, an immense weight of silver and gold ?"

31. Referebat sese--was bringing herself back, i. e, was returning.

Et lætum--and beheld, far off from the sky, joyful Æneas and the Trojan fleet even as far as from the Sicilian Pachynus, she sees them now to build (building) houses, now to trust (put confidence in) the land.

32. Me ne. Ne--whether, an interrogative particle ; this particle need not be translated. “ Whether do you order me?" i. e. Do you order me? “Do you bid me be unacquainted with ?" i.e. Do you think I am unacquainted with ?

Confidere monstro-do you bid me put_confidence in this monster ? i. e. the sea; the meaning is, “I will not put confidence in it."

34. Nunquam—will you never permit us to be relieved from this blockade ? Will an enemy once again hang over the walls of rising Troy? i, e, Troy once again being built.

35, “I would not now be ever separated from your sweet embrace, my son. Nor would the neighbouring Mezentius, in, sulting this person of mine, have ever exhibited so many cruel deeds of slaughter with the sword.”

36. Soliti. It will have been observed that certain portions of the passive verb are made up of the past participle of the verb itself, and some portion of the verb esse. This portion of esse is determined by the part of the verb required; the participle in such case is declined like an adjective of three terminations and agrees with the subject, like an adjective, in gender, number, and case. It is to be remarked, moreover, that the portion of esse required is, frequently understood : thus, in the present instance, sunt is understood, to agree with patres in number and person.

38. "Oking, illustrious descendant of Faunus, neither has the dark storm forced us, driven by the waves, to enter your territories, nor has a star or shore deceived us in (drawn us out of) the track of our way.”

39. “Before they engaged, a league was struck up between the Romans and Albans on the following conditions—that of whatever state the subjects should conquer in that conflict, that should rule over the other state in good (firm or honourable) peace.” This is the literal translation; the Latin text is according to a form of expression which cannot be explained at

this stage.

40. “He buries from above (by striking down) his sword in the throat of him (ei) badly scarcely) supporting able to support) his arms.” In Latin every word is not expressed, as it is in English; pronouns are frequently understood, as here ; so are the Latin equivalents for man and thing, of which more will be said hereafter.

42. Visum. Est is understood. See latter part of Note 36.

43. • Seven nymphs are to me," i. e, I have seven nymphs, The verb esse is frequently used for habere, the construction, of which more hereafter, being different.

44. Propriamque dicabo-and will assign (her to you as) your own.

46. Antrum--there is a cave. The subject of est understood. Aquæ, subject of sunt; as also sedilia. Vivo saxo - seats of living (natural) stone.

47. There is need to us,” &c. &c., i. e. we have need. See Note 43.

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49. “There is need only of a beginning, every thing else will expedite itself,” i. e. push itself on after once set going.

50. Per Fulviam-through the agency of Fulvia. Per with an accusative after it denotes agency in such accusative, and is thus equivalent to the ablative of the instrument.

Questions on the foregoing Sentences. 1. Decline duo and se. Account for the case of modo.

2. What is the subject of this sentence? Decline cubilia. Morbi is the subject of habitant; express the verbs with each of the remaining subjects. Decline metus and senectus.

4. Decline æquitate. Why is invasere plural? What part of the verb is it? Give its principal parts. Decline moribus.

5. What case is formidine in, and why? What part of the verb is conduntur ?

6. What word in this line shows the gender of latices ? Why? 7. What may be regarded as the subject of constituerant ? When is the pluperfect used? What part of the adjective is gravissimi? How found?

9. Decline peditibus. The radical parts of invadunt ?
10. Why are dulce and decorum neuter ?
14. What case is momento in, and by what governed ?
17. Why is eramus plural ? Why in the first person ?

18. Account in the same way for the number and person of eritis.

19. The subject of impositi sunt? What part of the verb? Why is impositi in the masculine gender? State generally the principle involved here.

21. What case is domus in? Why? What rule is this an exception to ?

22. The subject of contigerit? What part of the verb is it? 28. What is the subject of juvat? Decline locos.

29. According to the translation what does furtim qualify? Timidum ? What does defossa agree

with ? 32. What is the exact use of ne? Decline fluctus and monstro, and account for the case of both.

33. Whether does temere qualify solebat or irasci ?
35. Decline funera. What part of the verb is divellerer?

36. What part of the verb is soliti ? What part of the verb is omitted? What case is mensis ? Why? 38. Decline genus.

What case is it in? Why? What is Auctibus governed by? What case is terris in ? Why? Decline sidus, and give the radical parts of fefellit. 39. What part of the verb is vicissent ? Give its radical

parts. What case is populo in? Why?

40. What does sustinenti agree with? What principle is involved here? What does jacentem agree with ?

42. What is understood with visum? What case is facto in, and why?

43. Why is corpore in the ablative ? Also prole ? 46. What is aquæ the subject of ? Decline sedilia.

Rules. 7. The infinitive mood takes before it an accusative instead of a nominative as a subject. This accusative is translated into English with the word that prefixed.

8. Any transitive may be changed into a passive verb. The following changes taking place necessarily in the construction of the sentence :

1. The object of the transitive verb becomes the subject of the passive verb.

2. The subject of the transitive verb becomes the ablative of the agent. This ablative is introduced with or without a or ab, and is sometimes expressed in the dative.

3. The number and person of the passive verb are determined by those of its own subject.

9. Esse for habere requires a dative case. The following changes necessarily take place in the construction of the sentence :

1. The object of habere becomes the subject of esse.

2. The subject of habere becomes the dative, the number remaining the same.

3. The number and person of esse are determined by those of its subject.

Note.—The mood and tense of the two verbs are always the


10. The comparative degree is followed by an ablative case, which is translated into English by the prefix than.

Note. This ablative is equivalent to quam, than, and such case of the noun or pronoun following as the construction of the sentence would naturally require.

11. The relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in gender, number, and person. Note.- Sometimes they agree


but this is not essential, and depends altogether on the construction of the sentence; that is, on the position which they both occupy therein.

12. The relative is the nominative to the verb when no nominative comes between them.

Note.-The case of the relative is in all instances the case

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