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sentence, therefore, is thus translated: “A report goes (is spread) immediately through the great cities of Africa."
9. Proniores, from the positive pronus, declined like bonus, is the comparative degree (see Comparison of Adjectives), and qualifies homines. This sentence, rendered into English, is, Men are more prone to pleasure than (they are) to virtue."
10. Mors is evidently the subject, and pallida can agree with no other word in the sentence. Pulsat is a transitive verb, and has for its object (see Definition 3) tabernas and turres, connected by que, the genitive complement of tabernas being pauperum, and of turres, regum.
The translation is, “Pale death knocks at the huts of the poor and the towers of kings with an equal (impartial) foot.” Pede expresses the manner or instrument (Rule 6). 11. This is a complex sentence, and has in it three simple
Nox erat, night was, i.e. it was night; et connecting this with the succeeding sentence, the verb of which is plural, and the only subject in which is corpora, qualified by fessa. The verb is transitive, and requires an object, which is found in soporem, qualified by placidum. The next sentence has two subjects, silvæ and æquora, the latter qualified by sæva; and the verb quierant is syncopated for quieverant. The English is, “It was night, and wearied bodies were enjoying peaceful sleep throughout the earth (or world), and the woods and boisterous seas had become quiet (had been hushed in silence).”
12. Nothing is required to be said here but that the verb narrat is understood in the first clause to the subject navita, and that the preposition de signifies of, in the sense of concerning or about.
13. Nothing is required to be said as to the construction of this sentence, the meaning of which is, that a traveller having nothing to lose is not afraid to attract the attention of robbers.
14. The subject of urget evidently is Eurus; and the line itself shows, apart from its context, that tres (three) must have some noun, as naves (ships), agreeing with it understood. In in this sentence signifies into, and governs the accusative, which is brevia and syrtes, connected by et. The English is, “The east wind drives three (ships) into shoals and quicksands.”
Questions on the Analysis of the foregoing Sentences. 1. What tense and mood is fudit? What number, and why? What conjugation, and how known? Give its radical parts. Why is copias in the accusative, and Annibalis in the genitive ?
2. Decline vis. What is its complement? What is the object of rapuit, and what of rapiet?
3. Show that citæ mors would violate some grammatical principle.
4. Why is carmine in the ablative ? Decline it.
5. Show that parvæ and maximæ are not the genitives singular. Give the radical parts of crescunt, its mood and tense. What kind of verb is dilabuntur ? Explain this name as applied to a verb.
6. Decline tenax.
7. What case is ventis, and why? What conjugation is implevit? Give its principal parts.
8. What word is Libyæ the complement of ? Compare magnas.
9. Compare proniores. What does it qualify?
10. Show that pallida does not qualify pede. What is pauperum governed by? Regum? Why is pede in the ablative ?
11. Would placidam be good Latin? What is the subject of carpebant? Decline it. Give the principal parts of carpebant. Decline æquora.
13. Why is latrone in the ablative case? What are the principal parts of cartabit ?
14. Decline brevia. What does tres agree with? What does in signify here? What nouns are governed by in ? is alto ? Decline it.
Give the principal parts of urget. What conjugation is it? How known? What does et connect? Observations on the foregoing Rules.
Rule 1. 1. Plurality of idea in the subject constitutes the necessity of the plural construction of the verb. The subject is plural when it consists of one or more plural nouns, or two or more singular nouns copulatively connected; it is also plural when it consists of a noun in the singular conveying plurality of idea, (generally called a noun of multitude,) or of a single noun associated with a formula of words, of some of which, though not in the nominative case, the verb affirms.
2. The infinitive mood, or part, or the whole of a sentence, supplies the place of a nominative.
3. Two singular nouns disjunctively connected have a verb singular. When two nouns, one singular, the other plural, are disjunctively connected, it is manifest that, though the verb affirms of both, it can agree in number only with one ; this one is usually that next to the verb. It may also be the other without any violation of philosophical grammar.
4. When two or more nominatives of different persons are copulatively connected, the verb in the plural will agree in person
with the first rather than the second, and with the second rather than with the third.
Rule 2. 5. If there be several nouns of different genders qualified by one adjective, it cannot agree in gender with them all. It is made in such case to agree with the masculine rather than the feminine, and with the feminine rather than the neuter.
Rule 3. 6. To this the construction of many verbs exhibits an exception : misereor and miseresco govern the genitive, potior and utor govern the genitive or ablative. Verbs expressing profit or hurt to any one (except lado, juvo, adjuvo, offendo, and delecto), verbs of commanding and obeying, or resistance, verbs of trusting, those which express threats and anger, and many verbs compounded with ad, con, sub, ante, post, ob, in, inter, præ, super, satis, bene, and male, govern the dative case.
Rule 4. 7. The preposition tenus, if the noun after it be plural, is usually followed by a genitive case.
Rule 5. 8. The genitive complement must express something different from that which governs it.
9. This genitive is frequently changed into the dative.
10. Nouns which are names for the same thing are put in the same case: this is usually called apposition by grammarians.
11. Should the latter of two nouns (one being the complement of the other) have an adjective of praise or dispraise, or, in fact, any qualification joined with it, such noun is more usually expressed in the ablative than the genitive.
12. Opus and usus, when they signify need, are followed by the ablative.
Note. In the following sentences the foregoing observations will be illustrated, and the figure over each word will refer to the number of the observation thereby illustrated.
1. Eo modo inter se duo imperatores, summi * viri, . "certabant. 2. Vestibulum ante ipsum, primisque in faucibus orci, Luctus et ultrices?
posuere cubilia curæ ;
3. Plotius, et Varius, Virgiliusque 'occurrunt,
4. Verum ubi, pro labore, desidia, pro continentia et æquitate, lubido atque superbia 'invasere, fortuna simul cum moribus immutatur.
5. Pars ingentem formidine turpi 'scandunt rursus equum, et nota 'conduntur in alvo.
6. Pars calidos latices et ahena undantia flammis 'expediunt.
7. At Lentulus cum ceteris constituerant uti Lucius Bestia, 10 tribunus plebis, quereretur de actionibus Ciceronis, bellique gravissimi invidiam optimo consuli imponeret.
8. Ipse dux cum aliquot principibus 'capiuntur.
9. Bocchus cum peditibus postremam Romanam aciem 'invadunt.
10. Dulce et decorum est 'pro patria mori. 11. · Prodere patriam est peccatum. 12. Suave est ? ex magno tollere acervo. 13. ' Dicere de se ipso est senile. 14. Horæ momento cita mors : venit, aut victoria læta. 15. Aut Brutus, aut Triumviri victores . erunt. 16. Aut Triumviri, aut Brutus victor 3 erit. 17. Et ego et amicus * eramus consules. 18. Tu et Valerius * eritis consules. 19. Multi filii et filiæ impositi sunt in rogum. 20. Arcadii, quæso, miserescite ® regis, et patrias audite preces.
21. Si bene quid de te merui, miserere domus labentis, et istam, oro, exue mentem.
22. Si vero 'capere Italiam, sceptrisque 'potiri contigerit victori, et ’ prædæ ducere sortem.
23. Utere domo mea pro tua.
24. Parvula formica, simul inversum contristat Aquarius annum, non usquam prorepit, et illis utitur ante quæsitis sapiens.
25. Quàm metui, ne Libyæ tibi regna nocerent!
26. Quid tantùm te insano juvat indulgere ® dolori, on dulcis conjux !
27. Cave, te ne frigora lædant.
28. Juvat 6
nos aire, et Dorica castra, desertosque videre locos, littusque relictum.
29. Quid juvat immensum o te & argenti pondus et & auri furtim defossa timidum deponere terra ?
30. Imperat aut servit collecta pecunia o cuique.
31. Ecce autem sæva & Jovis conjux sese referebat ab Argis, et lætum Æneam classemque ex æthere longè Dardaniam Siculo prospexit ab usque Pachyno. Moliri jam tecta videt, jam fidere
32. Me ne salis placidi vultum fluctusque quietos
Ignorare jubes ? Me ne huic confidere monstro? 33. Octavius non solebat temere irasci 6 amicis. 34. Nunquamne levari obsidione sines ? muris iterum imminet hostis nascentis Trojæ?
35. Non ego nunc dulci amplexu divellerer usquam, nate, tuo; neque finitimus Mezentius unquam, huic o capiti insultans, tot ferro sæva dedisset funera.
36. Hic perpetuis soliti patres considere o mensis. 37. Jamque ascendebant collem ® urbi imminentem.
38. Rex, genus egregium Fauni, nec Auctibus actos atra subegit hyems vestris succedere o terris, nec sidus regione viæ, littusve fefellit.
39. Priusquam dimicarent, foedus ictum inter Romanos et Albanos est his legibus, ut, cujusque populi cives eo certamine vicissent, is alteri populo cum bona pace imperitaret.
40. Male 'sustinenti arma gladium superne jugulo defigit, jacentemque spoliat.
41. Movet feroci juveni animum comploratio sororis, in victoria sua tantoque gaudio publico.
42. Atrox visum id facinus Patribus plebique: sed recens meritum facto obstabat.
43. Sunt mihi bis septem præstanti " corpore nymphæ.
44. Deiopeiam connubio jungam stabili, propriamque dicabo, omnes ut te cum meritis pro talibus annos exigat et pulchra faciat te "prole parentem.
45. Homines infima " fortuna historia delectantur.
Intus aquæ dulces, vivoque sedilia " saxo,