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nubes Abl. nube
nubibus. Note 1. The genitive plural of this declension in some words makes um, in others ium, in the termination.
Note 2. Nouns of the neuter gender, of whatever declension, make the nominative, accusative, and vocative alike, and these cases in the plural number end in a; in their other cases they follow the termination of their proper declension.
This note is appended here, because nouns of the neuter gender, with but few exceptions, belong to the second or third declension.
Note 3. When the nominative singular of a noun of the third declension ends in e, if it be of the neuter gender, the ablative will end in i; and the nominative plural of such will be formed by adding a to the ablative; the genitive plural also will end in ium : thus, nominative, hastile ; ablative, hastili; nominative plural, hastilia ; genitive, hastilium.
FOURTH DECLENSION, The genitive singular ends in us,
FIFTH DECLENSION. The genitive singular ends in ei.
Notes on the five Declensions. 1. The nominative and vocative singular of a noun, with few exceptions, which obtain mostly in the second declension (see Notes 1 and 2, Second Declension), are alike, so are also the nominative and vocative plural.
2. The dative and ablative singular of the second declension are alike, so also are the dative and ablative plural of all declensions.
The following table of the terminations of the several cases of nouns may serve in some measure to facilitate the learning thereof:
4 5 N. may terminate in any manner
us es G. æ i is us ei arum orum um, ium uum erum D. æ 0 i ui ei is or abus is
bus ibus ebus Acc. am um em um em as
Us Voc. like the nominative
like the nominative Abl. a
0 e or i u e like the dative.
EXERCISES ON THE DECLENSION OF NOUNS.
Note.-The learner will be careful to attend to the declension and gender of the following nouns: the former will be indicated by the genitive singular, and the latter by the initial letter of the gender of each noun. This, with attention to the notes already given, will be sufficient to ensure accuracy in every instance. Mel, mellis, n.
honey | Mus, muris, m. Cor, cordis, n. the heart Sedes, sedis, f.
a seat Aqua, aquæ, f.
water Glacies, glaciei, f. Poeta, poetæ, m. a poet Imago, imaginis, f. an image Ovum, ovi, n. an egg Sal, salis, m.
salt Agnus, agni, m. a lamb Pes, pedis, m.
a foot Ager, agri, m.
a field Digitus, digiti, m. a finger Tribus, tribus, f. a tribe Leo, leonis, m. Lex, legis, f.
a law Dolor, doloris, m. grief Corpus, corporis, n. a body Mens, mentis, f. the mind Cubile, cubilis, n. a bed Hastile, hastilis, n. a spear Scriba, scribæ, m. a scribe Monile, monilis, n. a necklace Virga, virgæ, f. a rod Marmor, marmoris, n. marble Flatus, flatus, m. a blast Mons, montis, m. a mountain Versus, versus, m. a verse Rex, regis, m.
a king Acus, acus, f. a needle Scurra, scurræ, m. a scoffer Os, oris, n.
a mouth Sponsus, sponsi, m. a bridegroom Fides, fidei, f. faith | Aper, apri, m.
a boar Species, speciei, f. a species Gigas, gigantis, m. a giant
Crinis, crinis, m.
Cato Brachium, brachii, n. an arm Cinis, cineris, m.
ashes Mas, maris, m. a male Athleta, athletæ, m. a wrestler Dens, dentis, m.
Bacchus, Bacchi, m. Bacchus Arbor, arboris, f. a tree Britannia, Britanniæ, f. Britain Vas, vasis, n.
a vessel Conditor, conditoris, m. abuilder Calcar, calcaris, n. a spur Apollo, Apollinis, m. Apollo Ars, artis, f.
a trade Callis, callis, m. a paih Caro, carnis, f.
flesh Eboracum, Eboraci, n. York Res, rei, f.
a thing Eremus, eremi, f. a desert Currus, currus, m.
a chariot Fustis, fustis, m. Facies, faciei, f. a face Literæ, literarum, f. an epistle Macies, maciei, f. leanness Minæ, minarum, f. trifles Pellis, pellis, f.
the skin Nugæ, nugarum, f. threats Lepus, leporis, m. a hare Feriæ, feriarum, f. holidays Lapis, lapidis, m. a stone Rostra, rostrorum, n. a pulpit Græcia, Græciæ, f. Greece a Exta, extorum, n.
entrails Cupressus, cupressi, f. a cypress Athenæ, Athenarum, f. Athens
tree Iter, itineris, n. a journey Annus, anni, m. a year Axis, axis, m. an axle-tree Anna, Annæ, f.
Ann Cyprus, Cypri, f. the island Anus, anus, f. an old woman
Cyprus Capra, capræ, f. a she-goat Caulis, caulis, m.
Notes. a. Proper names have no plural, except such as want the singular. b. When a noun has no singular, its declension
be ascertained by its genitive plural.
c. Consult note a.
Note also, some nouns are not declined ; that is, have the same form in whatever case they may be used. Such nouns are mostly, if not always, used as nominatives and accusatives, as fas, nefas, nihil, &c. &c.
Some nouns, moreover, are used in some cases and not in others: as, genitive, spontis ; ablative, sponte, of one's own accord. Nominative, vis, force ; accusative, vim; ablative, vi (the latter noun has all the cases in the plural number, and is regularly declined thus :
Nom. vires Gen. virium Dat. viribus
ON THE ADJECTIVE.
The adjective expresses the state or quality of the noun.
The English adjective is not inflected; the Latin adjective is inflected in gender, number, and case.
The Latin adjective is declined according to the declension of
The adjective in Latin is declined with three, two, and one termination.
An adjective whose nominative case singular has three terminations, is declined like the first and second declension of nouns ; the adjective in the feminine form is declined like the first, in the masculine and neuter form like the second declension.
An adjective whose nominative has two terminations or one, is inflected like the third declension of nouns.
When an adjective in any of its cases has three terminations, the first is masculine, the second feminine, and the third neuter; when it has two terminations, the first is masculine and feminine, and the second neuter; and when it has only one termination, it is of all genders.
DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES.
bonis. Nom. tristis
tristes Gen. tristis
tristium Dat tristi
tristibus Acc. tristem
tia Voc. tristis
tia Abl. tristi
tristibus. Nom. prudens
prudentes tia Gen. prudentis
prudentium Dat. prudenti
prudentibus Acc. prudentem prudens prudentes Voc. prudens
prudentes tia Abl. prudente or i
prudentibus. Note 1. Ambo and duo have no singular, and have a declension peculiar to themselves.
ambo amborum ambobus ambo ambo ambobus.
Note 2. Some adjectives of three terminations, as unus, totus, solus, ullus, nullus, alter, uter, neuter, unlike bonus, make the genitive in ius and the dative in i : thus, unus, una, unum ; genitive, unius; dative, uni. In their other cases they follow the declension of bonus.
COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.
Adjectives have three degrees of comparison—the positive, the comparative, and the superlative.
The positive is the adjective in its simple state, as tristis.
The comparative is formed from the first case of the positive which ends in i, by adding thereto or to make the masculine and feminine, and us for the neuter: thus, dative, tristi; comparative, tristior, tristius.
Note 1. The first case of an adjective of one or two terminations which ends in i is the dative, of an adjective of three terminations is the genitive. The superlative is formed by adding ssimus to the same part; as, tristi, tristissimus.
Note 2. The superlative degree is declined like bonus. The following is a model of the declension of the comparative :
PLUR. Nom, tristior tristius
tristiores tristiora Gen. tristioris
tristiorum Dat. tristiori
tristioribus Acc. tristiorem tristius
tristiores tristiora Voc. tristior tristius
tristiores tristiora Abl. tristiore or tristiori
tristioribus. Note 3. If a vowel precede us in the positive, the degrees are formed usually by prefixing the adverb magis for the comparative, and maxime for the superlative: as, pius, magis pius, maxime pius.
Note 4. If the positive end in er, the superlative is formed by adding thereto rimus : as, teter ; superlative, teterrimus.
The following adjectives have a peculiar formation in the superlative :