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3. Perfect Tense.
erint Malu-erim Ed-erim Tul-erim sim, sis, sit,
sint, v. V.
V. Lat-us fue-rim ris rit fuerimus fueritis fuerint
4. Pluperfect Tense.
essem, esses, esset, i essemus, essétis, essent,
V. Lat-us fu-issem isses isset fuissémus fuissétis fuissent
5. Future Tense.
eris erit erimus eritis erint Malu-ero Ed-ero Tul-ero ero,
eris, erit, Fact-us
erimus, eritis, erunt, V. v.
0. Lat-us fue-ro ris rit fuerimus fueritis fuerint
Present, and Imperfect Tense. posse
edere, vel esse velle
factum esse, vel fuisse maluisse
latum esse, vel fuisse
Future Tense. esúrum esse
factum iri latúrum esse
latum iri Possum, colo, nolo, malo, have no future tense of the infinitive mood.
Ire, to go, is irregular in some of its parts; in others it is formed regularly.
The radical parts of this verb are-present indicative, eo; perfect indicative, ivi; supine, itum.
Of this verb, those parts which are formed from the perfect indicative and first supine are regular. The irregular formations are as follow :
eundum PARTICIPLE, iens (gen. euntis). Note. The compounds of eo are similarly conjugated ; also queo, to be able, and nequeo, to be unable, except that the two latter have no imperative mood and no gerunds.
DEFECTIVE VERBS. Verbs are called defective, that have only some particular tenses and persons : as,
Aio, I say.
INDICATIVE MOOD. Present. aio ais ait
aiunt Imperf. aiébam aiébas aiébat aiebámus aiebátis aiébant Perfect. aisti
IMPERATIVE MOOD. ave, aveto
-1 avéte, avetóte
Salve! God save you !
Faxo, or faxim (for faciam), I will, or may do it.
INDICATIVE OR POTENTIAL MOOD. vel
faxis faxit faximus faxitis faxim
Quæso, I pray.
Present. quæso quæsis quæsit qæsumus
quæsere. PARTICIPLE, quæsens.
Perfect, odi odisti odit
oderunt Memini, remember. This verb has the tenses only that are formed from the perfect tense of the indicative mood : as from it are formed memin-eram, -erim, -issem, -ero, -isse.
In like manner coepi and odi also form these tenses.
THE ADVERB. The adverb modifies the force of the word with which it is connected in Latin, as in English : as, magnopere cupio discere, I am very anxious to learn; wherein magnopere modifies the signification of the word cupio.
Note.—Some adverbs in Latin admit of comparison : thus, bene, well; comparative, melius, better; optime, best. The comparative of the adverb, in such cases, is the comparative neuter of the adjective agreeing with a noun understood, which is governed by some preposition also understood.
THE PREPOSITION, CONJUNCTION, AND INTERJECTION.
The preposition connects words: as, exivit ex urbe, he departed from the city; wherein ex is the preposition, and connects ille, the subject of exivit, or exivit itself, with urbe.
Prepositions require after them a noun, or its representative,
Such noun or pronoun, except the preposition be in composition, that is, form a part of another word, will always be in either the accusative or ablative case.
Some prepositions govern the accusative, and others the ablative case, and some govern both cases; but a preposition governing different cases varies its signification according to the case it governs.
The following are the principal prepositions which govern the ablative case :-A, ab, abs, absque, coram, clam, cum, de, e, ex, præ, pro, sine, tenus.
The following are the principal prepositions which govern the accusative :-Ad, adversus, adversum, ante, apud, circa, circum, circiter, cis, citra, contra, erga, extra, infra, inter, intra, juxta, penes, per, pone, post, præter, prope, propter, secundum, supra, trans, ultra, usque, versus.
In, sub, subter, and super are the principal prepositions which, varying their significations, govern the accusative and ablative.
THE CONJUNCTION. The conjunction is a particle which unites words or clauses together; when clauses, the preceding one is modified by the latter in some particular of time, place, manner, &c. &c.: as, eram miser, cum amarem, I was wretched when I loved ; wherein the cum connects the latter with the former clause, the state expressed therein being asserted only of the time in which the act took place expressed in the latter clause.
Any word or particle which is used to express a sudden feeling of passion or emotion is called by the name interjection : thus, ah! oh!
In the Latin, as in the English language, nouns, adjectives, and verbs are frequently used interjectionally: as, nefas ! miserabile! &c. &c.