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1. If it were required to give the Latin for they will condemn, the first thing to be determined is the mood and tense, the voice, number, and person of the English verb. In the present instance, it is the future tense, indicative mood, third person plural, and the active voice. Next, damno is the first conjugation, and must be treated like amo, the future of which is amabo, and is found by changing the o of the present into abo : thus, the future of damno is damnabo, the third plural of which, according to the inodel of the inflexion of the persons of this tense in the first conjugation, is damnabunt, which, as the nominative of the pronoun is not expressed in Latin, except for emphasis' sake, is the literal representative of the English expression, they will condemn.
2. They would be given.-Here is the passive voice, potential mood, imperfect tense, third plural. Compare the model, amo, which, like do, is the first conjugation, and observe the formation
of this part:
Passive, Indic. Pres. Poten, Pres. Poten. Imperf. same Mood and Tense. Amo amem
amarer Do dem darem
darer Inflect darer in the persons, and the third plural will be found darentur.
3. They would have been provoked.-The passive voice, potential mood, pluperfect tense, third plural. Observe the formation of the part in question : 1st Supine. Past Part.
Pluperf. Poten. Pass. Auditum
auditus auditus essem, vel fuissem Incessitum incessitus incessitus essem, vel fuissem.
Inflect the latter according to the model, and the third plural will be incessiti essent, vel fuissent, the part required.
By comparing the models of the four conjugations of the active or passive regular verbs, and observing the formation of the several parts, any part required may be found.
The following are to be translated into Latin :1 I might have been 7 I have been taught. demned.
8 To have been condemned. 2 They would command. 9 Let us lead. 3 Ye might be understood. 10 They would have been 4 He might have given.
given. 5 They would be leading. 11 He might understand. 6 Let them understand. 12 Let us be taught.
13 I was giving.
44 Let us be drawn up. 14 He had been condemned. 45 I am leading. 15 To be given.
46 To lead (1st supine). 16 Lead ye.
47 To lead infinitive). 17 I would draw up.
48 Let us be understood. 18 Let them be commanded. 49 I was given. 19 I would be teaching. 50 They would have drawn up. 20 To have been drawn up. 51 To have been drawn up. 21 To have been given.
52 Draw ye up. 22 To have condemned,
53 I would have been led. 23 I might teach.
54 I did give (imperfect). 24 'They would draw up. 55 Be
condemned. 23 Let them provoke.
56 To understand (1st supine). 26 We might command. 57 I have been teaching. 27 We might have commanded. 58 Ye have been taught. 28 Let them be commanded. 59 To be teaching. 29 We understand.
60 Let them be commanded. 30 They teach.
61 I had been leading. 31 Let them provoke.
62 To be leading (infinitive). 32 I have commanded,
63 To be condemned. 33 To be commanded.
64 Condemn ye. 34 To have provoked.
65 Do ye condemn. 35 They would give.
66 Let them draw up. 36 I was understood.
67 I was drawn up. 37 They were given.
68 I would be led. 38 He was taught.
69 Ye would lead. 39 Let him be leading.
70 Ye would be led. 40 They would lead.
71 To have been leading. 41 I had been led.
72 Let him understand. 42 To have been condemned. 73 I have been provoking. 43 I am commanded.
74 Ye have been given.
Key to the foregoing. Note.—The following answers are given, not to obviate the necessity of close and anxious study on the part of the pupil,nothing can supply the place of such study, - but to assist in some cases, and encourage in all; the learner having the power to ascertain whether his efforts have been successful.
Answers. 1 Damnatus essem, vel fuis- 5 Ducerent.
6 Intelligant, intelligunto. 2 Juberent.
7 Doctus sum, vel fui. 3 Intelligeremini.
8 Damnatum esse, vel fuisse. 4 Dedisset.
10 Dati essent, vel fuissent, 11 Intelligeret. 12 Doceamur. 13 Dabam. 14 Damnatus erat, vel fuerat. 15 Dari. 16 Ducite, ducitote. 17 Haurirem. 18 Jubeantur, jubentor. 19 Docerem. 20 Haustum esse, vel fuisse. 21 Datum esse, vel fuisse. 22 Damnavisse. 23 Docerem. 24 Haurirent. 25 Incessant, incessunto. 26 Juberemus. 27 Jussissemus. 28 See answer 18. 29 Intelligimus. 30 Docent. 31 See 25. 32 Jussi. 33 Juberi. 34 Incessivisse. 35 Darent. 36 Intelligebar. 37 Dabantur. 38 Docebatur. 39 Ducat, ducito. 40 Ducerent. 41 Ductus eram, vel fueram. 42 Damnatum esse, vel fuisse.
43 Jubeor. 44 Hauriamur. 45 Duco. 46 Ductum. 47 Ducere. 48 Intelligamur. 49 Dabar. 50 Hausissent. 51 Haustum esse, vel fuisse. 52 Haurite, hauritote. 53 Ductus essem, vel fuissem. 54 Dabam. 55 Damnamini, damnaminor. 56 Intellectum. 57 Docui. 58 Docti estis, vel fuistis. 59 Docere. 60 Jubeantur, jubentor. 61 Duxeram. 62 Ducere. 63 Damnari. 64 Damnate, damnatote. 65 The same. 66 Hauriant, hauriunto. 67 Hauriebar. 68 Ducerer. 69 Duceretis. 70 Duceremini. 71 Duxisse. 72 Intelligat, intelligito 73 Incessivi. 74 Dati estis, vel fuistis.
IRREGULAR VERBS. Irregularities prevail in the conjugation of certain Latin verbs, as in the verbs of other languages. The following is an analysis of the conjugation of the principal irregular verbs of the Latin tongue:Posse, to be able.
Edere, to eat. Velle, to be willing.
Ferre, to bear. Nolle, to be unwilling.
Fieri, to be made. Malle, to be more willing.
Ferri, to be carried. Note.- Malle is compounded of magis, more, and velle, to be willing ; and edere in some parts is conjugated like esse.
1. Present Tense, SING.
possunt Volo vis
vult volumus vultis volunt Nolo
nonvis nonvult nolumus nonvultis nolunt Malo mavis mavult malumus mavultis malunt Edo edis, v. es
edit, v. est edimus editis, v. estis edunt Fero fers
ferunt Fio fis
fiunt Feror ferris,v.ferre fertur ferimur ferimini ferúntur
2. Imperfect Tense. SING.
PLUR. Pot-eram eras
erat eramus erátis erant Volé-bam Nolé-bam Malé-bam
bat bámus bátis bant Edé-bam Feré-bam Fié-bam Feré-bar báris, v. báre bátur | bámur bamini bántur
3. Perfect Tense.
érunt, vel ére Malu-i Ed-i Tul-i Fact-us sum es
est i sumus, estis, sunt, fuérunt, v. v.
4. Pluperfect Tense.
eras erat erámus erátis erant
V. Lat-us fueram -eras
-erat fueramus fuerátis fuerant
Possum, volo, and malo have no imperative mood.
nolíte, nolitóte. Ede, edito, vel es, esto; edámus; edite, editóte vel este, edat, edito, vel esto
estóte; ed-ant, -unto Fer, ferto; ferat, ferto ferámus; ferte, fertóte; fer-ant, -unto Fi,
fiámus'; fite, fitóte; fiant, fiunto Fer-re, tor; ferátur, fertor ferámur; ferimin-i, -or; -antur, -untor