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Sing. reg-erem,


reg-eret, Plur, reg-erémus,


Sing, rex-erim,


rex-erit, Plur, rex-erimus,


2. Imperfect Tense.

I might, or could rule
thou might'st, or could'st rule
he might, or could rule
we might, or could rule
ye might, or could rule

they might, or could rule,
3. Perfect Tense.

I should have ruled
thou should'st have ruled
he should have ruled
we should have ruled
ye should have ruled

they should have ruled.
4. Pluperfect Tense.

I would have ruled
thou would'st have ruled
he would have ruled
we would have ruled
ye would have ruled

they would have ruled.
5. Future Tense.

I shall have ruled
thou shalt have ruled
he shall have ruled
we shall have ruled
ye shall have ruled
they shall have ruled.

Sing. rex-íssem,


rex-ísset, Plur. rex-issémus,


Sing. rex-ero,


rex-erit, Plur, rex-erímus,


[blocks in formation]

rect-um, to rule.


rect-u, to be ruled.

Present Tense.

Future in rus.
reg-ens, ruling.

rectú-rus, about to rule.



Sing. aud-io,


aud-it, Plur. aud-ímus,


1. Present Tense.

I hear, am hearing, or do hear
thou hearest, art hearing, or dost hear
he heareth, is hearing, or doth hear
we hear, are hearing, or do hear
ye hear, are hearing, or do hear

they hear, are hearing, or do hear. 2. Imperfect Tense.

I did hear, or was hearing
thou didst hear, or wast hearing
he did hear, or was hearing
we did hear, or were hearing
ye did hear, or were hearing
they did hear, or were hearing.

Sing, audie-bam,


audié-bat, Plur, audie-bámus,


3. Perfect Tense. Sing. audiv-i,

I heard, or have heard audiv-isti,

thou heard'st, or hast heard audiv-it,

he heard, or hath heard Plur. audiv-imus,

we heard, or have heard audiv-ístis,

ye heard, or have heard audiv-érunt, 0. -ére, they heard, or have heard.

Sing. audiv-eram,


audiv-erat, Plur. audiv-erámus,


4. Pluperfect Tense.

I had heard
thou hadst heard
he had heard
we had heard
ye had heard
they had heard.

5. Future Tense. Sing. audi-am,

I shall, or will hear audi-es,

thou shalt, or wilt hear audi-et,

he shall, or will hear Plur. audi-émus,

we shall, or will hear audi-étis,

ye shall, or will hear audi-ent,

they shall, or will hear. IMPERATIVE MOOD.

No first Person Sing. aud-i, aud-íto, hear thou, or do thou hear

aud-iat, aud-íto, hear he, or let him hear Plur. aud-iámus,

hear we, or let us hear aud-íte, aud-itóte, hear ye, or do ye

hear aud-iant, aud-iúnto, hear they, or let them hear.


1. Present Tense. Sing, audi-am,

I may, or can hear audi-as,

thou may'st, or canst hear audi-at,


may, or can hear Plur. audi-ámus,

we may, or can hear audi-átis,

ye may, or can hear audi-ant,

they may, or can hear.

2. Imperfect Tense. Sing. audi-rem,

I might, or could hear audi-res,

thou might'st, or could'st hear audi-ret,

he might, or could hear Plur, audi-rémus,

we might, or could hear audi-rétis,

ye might, or could hear audi-rent,

they might, or could hear.

3. Perfect Tense. Sing. audiv-erim,

I should have heard audiv-eris,

thou should'st have heard audiv-erit,

he should have heard Plur. audiv-erimus,

we should have heard audiv-eritis,


should have heard audiv-erint,

they should have heard.

4. Pluperfect Tense. Sing. audiv-íssem,

I would have heard audiv-ísses,

thou would'st have heard audiv- ísset,

he would have heard Plur. audiv-issémus, we would have heard audiv-issétis,

ye would have heard audiv-íssent,

they would have heard.

Sing. audiv-ero,


audiv-erit, Plur. audiv-erimus,


5. Future Tense.

I shall have heard thou shalt have heard he shall have heard we shall have heard ye shall have heard they shall have heard.


Present, and Imperfect Tense.

to hear.
Perfect, and Pluperfect Tense.

to have heard.

Future Tense. auditú-rum esse,

to be about to hear.

GERUNDS. audien-di,

of hearing audien-do,

in hearing audién-dum,

to hear.


audit-um, to hear. audit-u, to be heard.


Present Tense. audi-ens, hearing.

Future in rus. auditú-rus, about to hear.

Formation of the several parts (not radical) of Active Verbs.

From the perfect indicative are formed the pluperfect indicative, amaveram ; perfect, pluperfect, and future potential, amaverim, amavissem, amavero ; and perfect infinitive, amavisse.

From the present indicative are formed the imperfect and future indicative, amabam, amabo; the imperative mood; present and imperfect potential, amem, amarem ; present infinitive, amare; and present participle, amans.

From the first supine in um are formed the second supine, · amatu ; future participle (in rus), amaturus ; and perfect or past participle, amatus.

Note.-The mode of transition from the radical to the derived part in each conjugation may be easily seen by inspection.

The Latin esse serves the same purpose as the English verb to be, by uniting with the past participle to form several tenses of the passive voice ; its inflection, therefore, is necessarily learned before that of the passive verb.

I am

we are

ye are

I was

we were


1. Present Tense. Sing. sum, es,

thou art est,

he is Plur. sumus,

estis, sunt,

they are. 2. Imperfect Tense. Sing. eram, eras,

thou wast erat,

he was Plur. erámus, erátis,

ye were erant,

they were.

3. Perfect Tense. Sing. fui,

I have been fuisti,

thou hast been fuit,

he hath been Plur, fuimus,

we have been fuistis,

ye have been fuérunt, vel fuére, they have been.

4. Pluperfect Tense. Sing. fueram,

I had been fueras,

thou hadst been fuerat,

he had been Plur. fueramus,

we had been fuerátis,

ye had been fuerant,

they had been.

5. Future Tense. Sing. ero,

I shall, or will be eris,

thou shalt, or wilt be erit,

he shall, or will be Plur. erimus,

we shall, or will be eritis,

ye shall, or will be erunt,

they shall, or will be.


No first Person. Sing. sis, es, esto,

be thou sit, esto,

be he, or let him be Plur. simus,

be we, or let us be
sitis, este, estote,
sint, sunto,

be they, or let them be.

be ye

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