Page images
PDF
EPUB

POSITIVE.

Agilis
Facilis
Gracilis
Humilis
Docilis
Similis

SUPERLATIVE.
agillimus
facillimus
gracillimus
humillimus
docillimus
simillimus.

The following adjectives are irregular in their comparison :

SUPERLATIVE.

POSITIVE
Bonus
Malus
Magnus
Parvus
Multus
Dives
Nequam
Exterus
Inferus
Posterus
Superus

COMPARATIVE.
melior
pejor
major
minor
plus
ditior
nequior
exterior
inferior
posterior
superior
interior
junior
senior
prior
propior
ulterior
deterior
anterior.

optimus
pessimus
maximus
minimus
plurimus
ditissimus
nequissimus
extremus
infimus, imus
postremus
supremus, summus
intimus

Juvenis
Senex

primus
proximus
ultimus
deterrimus

Note.-Some adjectives having no superlative of their own, procure it by a combination of words : thus, senex, old, makes maximus natu, the greatest by age, i. e. oldest; juvenis, young, minimus natu, least by age, i. e. youngest.

EXERCISES ON THE DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES.

Durus, a, um, hard
Tener, a, um, tender
Pulcher, chra, chrum, beautiful
Gelidus, a, um, cold
Squalidus, a, um, filthy
Facillimus, a, um, most easy

like bonus.

like tristis.

Impubis, e, beardless
Humilis, e, low or humble
Agilis, e, nimble
Facilis, e, easy
Gravis, e, weighty
Iners, Gen. inertis, sluggish
Anceps, ancipitis, doubtful
Amans, amantis, loving
Audax, audacis, daring
Ferox, ferocis, fierce
Inops, inopis, poor
Durior, us, Gen. durioris, harder
Puchrior, us, oris, fairer
Humilior, us,
Facilior, us,

easier
Agilior, us,

like prudens.

more humble

like tristior.

more nimble

ON THE PRONOUN. A pronoun (pro, for, nomen, a name) is a word used instead of

a noun.

PLUR.

PLUR.

nos

VOS

me

nos

VOS

VOS

Pronouns admit of person, gender, number, and case. They are usually classified into personal, possessive, demonstrative, and relative; and, unlike the noun and the adjective, are not reducible as to their inflexion to any heads or classes.

The personal pronouns are ego, tu, sui, and are thus declined: SING.

SING. Nom. ego

tu Gen. mei nostrum, nostri tui

vestrum, vestri Dat. mihi nobis

tibi vobis Acc.

te Voc. wanting wanting

tu Abl. nobis.

te vobis.
Sui has only some cases, and is the same in both numbers,
Gen. sui

Acc. se and sese
Dat. sibi

Abl. se and sese. The possessive pronous are meus, tuus, suus, cujus, noster, vester ; they are declined like bonus, except that meus makes mi in the vocative singular, masculine gender ; and that all the others, except noster, want the vocative.

Note.Nostras, vestras, and cujas are declined like an adjective . of one termination : thus, nominative, nostras ; genitive, nostratis, &c. &c.

me

The demonstrative pronouns are hic, ille, iste, and ipse ; and are thus declined :

[blocks in formation]

Iste is similarly declined, and also ipse, except that the latter makes ipsum in the nominative, accusative, and vocative singular.

[blocks in formation]

In like manner is declined idem (for isdem), a compound of is, except that in the accusative singular, masculine gender, it makes eundem.

The relative pronoun qui is thus declined :

cui

quod

SING.

PLUR. Nom. qui quæ quod qui

quæ quæ Gen. cujus

quorum quarum quorum Dat.

quibus or queis Acc. quem quam

quos quas quæ Voc. wanting

wanting Abl.

quo qua quo or quî l quibus or queis. The compounds of qui are similarly declined : quidam, a certain person ; quivis and quilibet, any one ; and quicunque, who

The interrogative quis, who, or what, is declined like qui, except that it makes quid or quod in the neuter.

soever.

Aliquis, some one, is declined like quis, except that its nominative singular, feminine gender, is aliqua.

ON THE VERB. A verb expresses the action of, or the receiving of an action by its subject : when the subject acts, the verb is called active ; when it receives an act, the verb is called passive. These are the two great subdivisions of the verb family. Some verbs are called by other names indicative of some property connected therewith ; these will be considered hereafter.

Verbs are inflected with number, person, mood, and tense.

The number and person of the verb are the same as the number and

person

of the noun and pronoun. As far as inflexion is concerned, there are but four moods—the indicative, imperative, potential, and infinitive.

Note.-The subjunctive is the same as the potential, and is attached dependently to another verb to express some condition or limitation thereof.

The tenses are five-present, imperfect, perfect, pluperfect, and future,

Active verbs are classified into four heads, called conjugations, distinguished one from the other by the vowel and its quantity which precedes re, the termination of the infinitive mood.

The first conjugation has a long before re, as amāre.
The second has ē long, as docēre.
The third has ě short, as legěre.
The fourth has 7 long, as audīre.

The radical parts of an active verb, i. e. the parts from which the others are formed, are the present indicative, the perfect indicative, and the first supine.

The radical parts of the active verb in the several conjugations are as follows:1 amo

amavi

amatum 2 doceo

docui

doctum 3 lego

legi

lectum 4 audio

audivi

auditum. The following will serve as a model of the conjugation of active verbs in the several conjugations.

FIRST CONJUGATION.- Amo.

INDICATIVE MOOD,

Sing. am-o,

am-as,

am-at, Plur, am-ámus,

am-átis,
am-ant,

1. Present Tense.

I love, am loving, or do love
thou lovest, art loving, or dost love
he loveth, is loving, or doth love
we love, are loving, or do love
ye love, are loving, or do love

they love, are loving, or do love. 2. Imperfect Tense.

I did love, or was loving
thou didst love, or wast loving
he did love, or was loving
we did love, or were loving
ye did love, or were loving
they did love, or were loving.

Sing. am-ábam,

am-ábas,

am-ábat, Plur. am-abámus,

am-abátis,
am-ábant,

3. Perfect Tense. Sing. amáv-i,

I loved, or have loved amav-ísti,

thou lovedst, or hast loved amav-it,

he loved, or hath loved Plur. amav-imus,

we loved, or have loved amav-ístis,

ye loved, or have loved amav-érunt, vel -ére, they loved, or have loved.

Sing. amav-eram,

amav-eras,

amay-erat, Plur. amav-erámus,

amav-erátis,
amav-erant,

4. Pluperfect Tense.

I had loved
thou hadst loved
he had loved
we had loved
ye had loved
they had loved.

Sing. am-abo,

am-ábis,

am-ábit, Plur. am-abimus,

am-abitis,
am-ábunt,

5. Future Tense.

I shall, or will love
thou shalt, or wilt love
he shall, or will love
we shall, or will love
ye shall, or will love
they shall, or will love.

« PreviousContinue »