Page images
PDF
EPUB

the writer, of a large and important educational institution, numbering 270 pupils, together with other professional engagements, will probably cause some imperfections to attach to the work ; but it is hoped that those for whose use it is specially designed will see in it, if no more, the one merit of making a step in a right direction, and of, at all events, seeking to aid the great cause of popular education.

T. G.

GREENWICH, May, 1854.

CONTENT S.

PAGE INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

1 ON THE Noun....

ib. First Declension

2 Second Declension

ib. Third Declension

3 Fourth Declension....

ib. Fifth Declension

ib. Exercises on the Declension of Nouns

4 ON THE ADJECTIVE..

6 Declension of Adjectives

ib. Comparison of Adjectives..

7 Exercises on the Declension of Adjectives

8 ON THE PRONOUN

9 ON THE VERB

11 First Conjugation Second Conjugation

14 Third Conjugation .

16 Fourth Conjugation

19 Conjugation of Verbs Passive-First Conjugation.

24 Second Conjugation

26 Third Conjugation

28 Fourth Conjugation

30 Exercises on the Verbs..

32 Irregular Verbs..

35 Defective Verbs.

39 TAE ADVERB

41 THE PREPOSITION

42 THE CONJUNCTION

ib. THE INTERJECTION

ib. Definitions and Explanations of Terms used in the Latin Construction and Translation

43 LATIN CONSTRUCTION AND TRANSLATION

44 First Set of Rules thereon

ib. Sentences illustrative thereof

45 Instructions

ib. Questions on the Analysis of the foregoing Sentences

[ocr errors]

PAGE

49

50

53

56

57

Observations

Notes thereon....

Third Set of Rules ...,

Sentences illustrative thereof

Notes thereon.....

DICTIONARY OF WORDS..

58

62

69

70

82

97

LATIN GRAMMAR.

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.

1. All the words of the Latin language are subdivided, for the sake of convenience, into eight heads, called classes of words, or parts of speech.

2. These are—noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, interjection.

3. Of these the four first admit of inflexion; the adverb, in some instances, admits of comparison ; and the three last named are not modified in any form whatever.

4. The inflexion of a word is the change, generally of termination, it undergoes in order to the expression of a difference of idea.

5. This change, when the noun, pronoun, or adjective is referred to, is usually called declension; when the verb, conjugation. On the Noun, i.e. the name for any being or thing which

may serve as the subject of discourse. 6. To nouns belong gender, number, person, and case.

7. The genders of nouns are three-masculine, feminine, and neuter.

8. Some nouns, the names of animals, which may be masculine or feminine, are called common, as parens, a parent.

Note.—The doubtful gender has no existence in reality, and only means that a particular word is treated by one writer as masculine, by another as feminine.

9. The number of nouns is twofold, singular and plural; the former is used when one object is denoted, the latter when two or

more.

10. The persons of nouns are three-first, second, and third. A noun standing for the speaker is said to be of the first, and for the

B

person spoken to, of the second person ; all other nouns, however used, are said to belong to the third person.

11. The case of a noun, pronoun, or adjective is the form it takes in its declension.

12. There are six cases in the Latin language-nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, vocative, and ablative.

Note.—The participle is sometimes regarded as a distinct class of words, but, practically considered as to its functions and declension, belongs to the class adjective.

13. The nouns of the Latin language, as regards their declension, are subdivided into five classes, distinguished by the termination of their genitive singular.

FIRST DECLENSION. The genitive singular ends in @.

[blocks in formation]

mensa

mensæ

mensa

mensa

mensa

Nom.

mensæ Gen.

mensarum Dat.

mensis Acc. mensam

mensas Voc.

mensæ Abl.

mensis. Note 1. The nouns of this declension, with few exceptions, are of the feminine gender.

Note 2. Filia, nata, anima, socia, serva, and asina make the dative and ablative plural to end in is or abus; and dea, mula, equa, and liberta terminate in these cases in abus only.

SECOND DECLENSION.
The genitive singular ends in i.

PLUR.
Nom. magister

magistri
Gen. magistri

magistrorum
Dat. magistro

magistris
Acc.
magistrum

magistros
Voc. magister

magistri
Abl.
magistro

magistris. Note 1. When the nominative singular of this declension ends in us, the vocative will end e: as, nominative, dominus ; vocative, domine. Deus, however, makes deus in the vocative.

Note 2. Proper names, that is, the names of particular individuals, ending in ius, form the vocative by omitting the us : as, Virgilius; vocative, Virgili. Filius and genius follow this rule in the formation of their vocative.

SING.

« PreviousContinue »