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their brethren at home any taste for the splendours which might have excited their own admiration. By the time that our intercourse with those regions was enlarged, our own career of improvement had been prosperously begun: and our superiority in the art, or at least me discipline of war, having given us a signal advantage in the conflicts to which that extending intercourse immediately led, naturally increased the aversion and disdain with which almost all races of men are apt to regard strangers to their blood and dissenters frum their creed. Since that time the genius ol Europe hasbeen steadily progressive, whilst that of Asia has been at least stationary, and mo»! probably retrograde ; and the descendants of the feudal and predatory warriors of the West have at last attained a decided predominancy over those of their elder brothers in the East; to whom, at that period, they were unquestionably inferior in elegance and ingenuity, and whose hostilities were then conducted on the same system with our own. Tkty. in short, have remained nearly where they were; while we, beginning with the improvement of our governments and military discipline, have gradually outstripped them in all th° lesser and more ornamental attainments in which they originally excelled.
This extraordinary fact of the stationary or degenerate condition of the two oldest and greatest families of mankind—those of Asia Md Africa, has always appeared to us a sad obstacle in the way of those who believe in the general progress of the race, and its constant advancement towards a state of perfection. Two or three thousand years ago, those rast communities were certainly in a happier an! more prosperous state than they are now; and in many of them we know that their most powerful and flourishing societies have been corrupted and dissolved, not by any accidental or eitrinsic disaster, like foreign conquest, pestilence, or elemental devastation, but by what appeared to be the natural consequences í that very greatness and refinement which had marked and rewarded their earlier exertion?. In Europe, hitherto, the case has cer^:-i!v been different: For though darkness did fall upon its nations also, after the lights ofRoman civilisation were extinguished, it is tobe remembered that they did not burn out of themselves, but were trampled down by hosts of invading barbarians, and that they blazed out anew, with increased splendour Mid power, when the dulness of that superincumbent mass was at length vivified by their contact, and animated by the fermentation * lhat leaven which had all along been seOftly working in its recesses. In Europe certainly there has been a progress: And the more polished of its present inhabitants have ""' only regained the place which was held of old by their illustrious masters of Greece and Rome, but have plainly outgone them in ¡Se nwt substantial and exalted of their impron-ments. Far more humane and refined Tmm 'he Romans—far less giddy and turbulent
w treacherous than the Greeks, they have P'en a security to life and property that was
unknown to the earlier ages of the world— exalted the arts of peace to a dignity with which they were never before invested ; and, by the abolition of domestic servitude, for tho first time extended to the bulk of the population those higher capacities and enjoyment» which were formerly engrossed by a tew. By the invention of printing, they have made all knowledge, not only accessible, but imperishable: and by their improvements in the art of war, have effectually secured themselves against the overwhelming calamity of barbarous invasion—the risk of subjugation by mere numerical or animal force: Whilst the alternations of conquest and defeat amongst civilised communities, who alone can now be formidable to each other, though productive of great local and temporary evils, may be regarded on the whole as one of the means of promoting and equalising the general civilisation. Rome polished and enlightened all the barbarous nations she subdued—and was herself polished and enlightened by her conquest of elegant Greece. If the European parts of Russia had been subjected to the dominion of France, there can be no doubt that the lose of national independence would have been compensated by rapid advances both in liberality and refinement; and if, by a still more disastrous, though less improbable contingency, the Moscovite hordes were ever to overrun the fair countries to the south-west of them, it is equally certain that the invaders would speedily be softened and informed by the union; and be infected more certainly than by any other sort of contact, with the arts and the knowledge of the vanquished.
All these great advantages, however—this apparently irrepressible impulse to improvement—this security against backsliding and decay, seems peculiar to Europe,* and not capable of being communicated, even by her, to the most docile races of the other quarter» of the world: and it is really extremely difficult to explain, upon what are called philosophical principles, the causes of this superiority. We should be very glad to ascribe it to our greater political Freedom :—and no doubt, as a secondary cause, this is among the most powerful ; as it is to the maintenance of that freedom that we are indebted for the selfestimation, the feeling of honour, the general equity of the laws, and the substantial security both from sudden revolution and from capricious oppression, which distinguish our portion of the globe. But we cannot bring ourselves to regard this freedom as a mere accident in our history, that is not itself to be accounted for, as well as its consequences: And when it is said that our greater stability
* When we speak of Europe, it will be understood that we speak, not of the land, but of the people—and include, therefore, all (he settlements and colonies of lhat favoured race, in whatever quarter of the globe they may now be established. Some situations seem more, and some less, favourable to the preservation of the original character. The Spaniards certainly degenerated in Peru—and the Dutch perhaps in Baiavia;—but the English remain, we trust, unimpaired in America.
and prosperity is owing to our greater freedom, we are immediately tempted to ask, by what that freedom has itself been produced? In the same way Wb might ascribe the superior mildness and humanity of our manners, the abated ferocity of our wars, and generally our respect for human life, to the influence of a Religion which teaches that all men are equal in the sight of God, and inculcates peace and charity as the first of our duties. But, besides the startling contrast between the profligacy, treachery, and cruelty of the Eastern Empire after its conversion to the true faith, and the simple and heroic virtues of the heathen republic, it would still occur to inquire, how it has happened that the nations of European descent have alone embraced the sublime truths, and adopted into their practice the mild precepts, ol Christianity, while the people of the East have uniformly rejected and disclaimed them, as alien to their character and habits—in spite of all the efforts of the apostles, fathers, and martyrs, in the primitive and most effective periods of their preaching? How, in short, it has happened that the sensual and sanguinary creed oi Mahomet has superseded the pure and pacific doctrines of Christianity in most of those very regions where it was rirst revealed to mankind, and first established by ihe greatest of existing governments? The Christian revelation is no doubt the most precious of all Heaven's gifts to the benighted world. But it is plain, that there was a greater aptitude to embrace and to profit by it in the European than in the Asiatic race. A free government, in like manner, is unquestionably ihe most valuable of all human inventions—thf great safeguard of all other temporal blessings, and the mainspring of all intellectual and moral improvement :—But such a government is not the result of a lucky j thought or happy casualty ; and could only be! established among men who had previously learned both to relish the benefits it secures, i and to understand the connection between the ¡ means it employsand the ends at which it aims, j We come then, though a little reluctantly, to the conclusion, that there is a natural and inherent difference in the character and temperament of the European and the Asiatic races —consisting, perhaps, chiefly in a superior capacity of patient and perseverins thought in the former—and displaying itself, for the most part, in a more sober and robust understanding. and a more reasonable, principled, and inflexible morality. It is this which has led us, at once to temper our political institutions with j prospective checks and suspicious provisions! against abuses, and, in our different orders and degrees, to submit without impatience to those checks and restrictions;—to extend our reasonings by repeated observation and experiment, to larger and larger conclusion?—• and thus gradually to discover the paramount importance of discipline and unity of purpose in war, and of absolute security to person and property in all peaceful pursuits—the folly of all passionate and vindictive assertion of supposed rights and pretensions, and the certain recoil of long-continued injustice on the heads
of its authors—the substantial advantage« <f. honesty and fair dealing over the most ingenious systems of trickery and fraud ;—and even—though this is the last and hardest as well as the most precious, of all the lesstra of reason and experience—that the toleraría: even of religious errors is not only prudent and merciful in itself, and most becommg» fallible and erring being, but it the sures and speediest way to compose religion« differences, and to extinguish that most formidable bigotry, and those most pernicious errore, which are fed and nourished by persecul•<;.,. It is the want of this knowledge, or rather ь the capacity for attaining it. that constituí« the palpable inferiority of the Eastern гасет: and, in spite of their fancy, ingenuity, a..: restless activity, condemns them, it would appear irretrievably, to vices and sufferings, from which nations in a far ruder conditi« are comparatively free. But we are wandering too far from the magnificent Baber аЫ his commentators,—and must now leave th-vague and general speculations for the u;and details that lie before us.
Zehir-ed-din Muhammed, sumamed Babe-, or the Tiger, was one of the descendant' Zengiskhan and of Tamerlane: and though inheriting only the small kingdom of Fe^hana in Bucharia, ultimately extended te dominions by conquest to Delhi and i.V. greater part of Hindostán; and transmitted to his famous descendants, Akber and Aurer.szebe, the magnificent empire of the Mogu's He was bom in 1482, and died in 1530 Though passing the greater part of hi« u in desperate military expeditions, he «г-, educated and accomplished man: an elepr! poet; a minute and fastidious critic in all Ш? niceties and elegances of diction; a curiocs and exact observer of the statistical рЬдаmena of every region he entered ; в great ¡Ímirer of beautiful prospects and tine flu«fand, though a devoted Mahometan in his way, a very resolute and jovial drinker of wine. Good-humoured, brave, munifictósagacious, and frank in his character, he might have been a Henry IV. if hi* trailing had been in Europe :—and even as he:; • less stained, perhaps, by the Asiatic vicesof cruelty and perfidy than any other in th-'..-' of her conquerors. The work before us;f; faithful translation of hi» own account of ki life and transactions; written, with eomecirsiderable blanks, up to the year 1508, in ihi form of a narrative—and continued >flf'wards, as a journal, till 1529. It is he* illustrated by the most intelligent, learno and least pedantic notes we Ьате етег ееез annexed to such a performance j and by tw> or three introductory dissertations, morec.ea", masterly, and full of instruction than any-1 has ever been our lot to peruse on the history or geography of the East. The transía:..'• was brinm by the late тегу learned and enterprising Dr. Leyden. It has been con pleted, and the whole of the valuable cammentary added by Mr. W. Erskiiif, or. !• solicitation of the Hon. Mountstewart Е^Ь:" stone and Sir John Malcolm, the two »»• vklnals in the vrorld best qualified to judge nf the value or execution of such a work. The greater part of the translation was finished and transmitted tu this country in 1817; but was only committed to the press in the course of last year.
The preface contains a learned account of the Turki language, (in which these memoirs wore written.) the prevailing tongue of Central Asia, and of which the Constantinopolitan Tnrkisa is one of the most corrupted dialects, —some valuable corrections of Sir William Jones'notices of the Institutes of Taimur,— and а тегу clear explanation of the method employed in the translation, and the various helps by which the great difficulties of the teak were relieved. The first Introduction, however; contains much more valuable mattere: It is devoted to an account of the great Tartar tribes, who, under the denomination of the Turki, the Moghul, and the Mandshur races, may be said to occupy the whole vast •"vient of Asia, north of Hindostán and part of Persia, and westward from China. Of these, the Mandshurs. who have long been the sovereigns of China, possess the countries immediately to the north and east of that ancient empire—the Turki, the regions immediately to the north and westward of India and Persia Proper, stretching round the Caspian, and advancing, by the Constantinopolitan tribes, considerably to the southeast of Europe. The Moghuls lie principally between the other two. These three tribes ?peak, it would appear, totally different lancnagea—the name of 'Tartar or Tatar, by which they are generally designated in Europe, not being acknowledged by any of them, and appearing to have been appropriated only toa small clan of Moghuls. The Huns, who desolated the declining empire under Attila*, •'.'<• thought by Mr. Erskme to have been of the Moghul race; and Zengiskhan, the mighty conqueror of the thirteenth century, was certainly of that family. Their princesj however, were afterwards blended, by family alliance«, with those of the Turki: and several of them, reigning exclusively over con':ui.TOil tribes of that descent, came gradually •ji'iujh of proper Moghul ancestry, to reckon themselves as Turki sovereigns. Of this description was Taimur Beg. or Tamerlane, *hoee family, though descended from Zengis, n И long been settled in the Turki kingdom of Samarkand: and from him the illustrious raber, the hero of the work before us, a decided Turki in language, character, and prejudices, was lineally sprung. The relative condition of these enterprising nations, and their more peaceful brethren in the south. ''*Mot be more clearly or accurately described «M in the words of Mr. Erskme :—
ГНе learned translator conceives that the supГ^о name of this famous barbarian was truly only 'be d'nominaiion of his office. It is known that he Mccwdíd his uncle in the government, though '•hire were children of his alive. It ia probable, "•refore, that he originally assumed authority in "chancier of their guardian ; and the word Ata«.laTinir, signifie« guardian, or ¡ii«t parent.
'' The whole of A sia may be considered as divided inio two parts by the great chain of mountains which runs from China and (he Birman Empire on the east, to the Black Sea and the Mediterranean on the west. From the eastward, where it ie of great breadth, it keeps a north-westerly course, rising in height as it advances, and forming the hill countries of Assam, Bootan, Nepal, Sirinagar, Tibet, and Ladâk. It encloses the valley of Kashmir, near which it seems to have gained its greatest height, and thence proceeds westward, passing to the north of Peshâwér and Kabul, after which it appears to break into a variety of smaller ranges of hills that proceed in a westerly and south-westerly direction, generally terminating in the province of Khorasan. Near Herat, in that province, the mountains sink away; but the range appears to rise again near Meshhed, and is by some considered as resuming its course, running to the south of the Caspian and bounding Mazenderân, whence it proceeds on through Armenia, and thence into Asia Minor, finding us termination in the mountains of ancient Lycia. This immense range, which some consider as terminating at Herat, while it divides Bengal, Hindustan, the Penjàb, Afghanistan, Persia, and part of the Turkish territory, from the country of the Moghul and Turki tribes, which, with few exceptions, occupy the whole extent of country from the borders of China to the sea of Azof, may also be considered as separating in its whole course, nations of comparative civilisation, from uncivilised tribes. To the south of this range, if we perhaps except some part of the Afghan territory, which, indeed, may rather be held as part of the range itself than as south of it, there is no nation which, at some period or other of its history, has not been the seat of a powerful empire, and of all those arts and refinements of life which attend a numerous and wealthy population, when protected by a government that permits the fancies and energies of the human mind to follow their natural bias. The degrees of civilisation and of happiness possessed in these various regions may have been extremely different; but many of the cornions of wealth and abundance, and no small share of the higher treasures of cultivated judgment and imagination, must have been enjoyed by nation» that could produce the various systems of Indian philosophy and science, a drama so polished as the Sokontnla, a poet like Ferdousi. or a moralist like Sadi. While to the south of this ranee we every where see flourishing cities, cultivated fields, and all the forms of a regular government and policy, to the north of it, if we except China and the countries to the south of the Sirr or Jaxartes, and along its banks, we find tribes who, down to the present day, wander over their extensive regions as their forefathers did, little if at all more refined lhan they appear to have been at the very dawn of history. Their flocks are still their wealth, their camp their city, and the same government exists of separate chiefs, who are not much exalted in luxury or information above the commonest of ihcir subjects around them."
These general remarks are followed up by an exact and most luminous geographical enumeration of all the branches of this great northern family,—accompanied with historical notices, and very interesting elucidations of various passages both in ancient and modem writers. The following observations are of more extensive application :—
"The general elate of society which prevailed n the age of Baber, wilhin the countries that have been described, will be much betler understood From a perusal of the following Memoirs than from any prefatory observations that could be offered. It is evident that, in consequence of the protection which had been afforded to the people of Mawenlnahtr by their regular government«, a considerable degree of comfort, and perhaps still more of elegance and civility, prevailed in the towns. The whole age of Baber, however, was one of great confusion. Nothing contributed so much to produce the constant wars, and eventual devastation of the country, which the Memoirs exhibit, as the want of tome fixed rule of Sucretiion to the Throne. The ideas of regal descent, according to primogeniture, were very indistinct, as is the case in all Oriental, and, in general, in all purely despotic kingdoms. When the succession to the crown, like every thing else, is subject to the will of the prince, on his death it necessarily becomes the subject of contention ;—since the will of a dead king is of much less consequence than the intrigues of an able minister, or the sword of a successful commander. It is the privilege of liberty and of law alone to bestow equal security on the rights of the monarch and of the people. The death of the ablest sovereign was only the signal for a general war. The different parties at court, or in the harem of the prince, espoused the cause of different competitors, and every neighbouring potentate believed himself to be perfectly justified m marching toseize his portion of the spoil. In the course of the Memoirs, we shall find thai the grandees of the court, while they take their place by the side of the candidate of their choice, do not appear to believe that fidelity to him is any very necessary virtue. The nobility, unable to predict the events of one twelvemonth, degenerate into a set of selfish, calculating, though perhaps brave partizans. Rank, and wealth, and present enjoyment, become their idols. The prince feels the influence of the general want of stability, and is himself educated in the loose principles of an adventurer. In all about him he sees merely the instruments of his power. The subject, seeing the prince consult only his pleasures, learns on his part to consult only his private convenience. In such societies, the steadiness of principle that flow» from the love of right and of our country can have no place. It may be questioned whether the prevalence of the Mahommedan religion, by •wallowing up civil in religious distinctions, has not a tendency to increase this indifference to country, wherever it is established."
"Tint the fashions of the East are unchanged, is, in general, certainly true; because the climate and the despotism, from the one or other of which a very large proponion of them arises, have continued the same. Yet one who observes the way in which a Mussulman of rank spends his day, will be led to suspect that the maxim has sometimes been adopted with too little limitation. Take the example of his pipe and his coffee. The Kalliùn, or Hukkâ, is seldom out of hi» hand; while the coffee-cup makes its appearance every hour, as if it contained a necessary of life. Perhaps there are no enjoyments the loss of which he would feel more severely; or which, were we to judge only by the frequency of the call for them, we should suppose to have entered from a more remote period into the system of Asiatic life. Yet we know that the one (which has indeed become a necessary of life to every class of Mussulmans) could not have been enjoyed before the discovery of America; and there is every reason to believe that the other was noi introduced into Arabia from Africa, where coffee is indigenous, previously to the sixteenth century ;* and what marks the circumstance more strongly, both of these habits have forced thfir way, in spite of the remonstrances of the rigoriste in religion. Perhaps it would have been fortuna.e tor Baber had they prevailed in his age, as they might have diverted him from the immoderate use first of wine, and afterwards of deleterious drugs, which ruined his constitution, and hastened on his end."
La Roque, Traite Historique de i' Origine et du Progrès du Café, te. Parie, 1716,13mo.
The Yâsi, or institutions of Cbengiz, are often mentioned.
"They seem," says Mr. Erskine, "lohaTebtío a collection of the old usages of the Moghul tribti comprehending some rules of state anacereniory, and some injunctions for the punishment of paru-nlar crimes. The punishments were only twodeath and the bastinado*; the number of blu»s «• tending from seven to seven hundred. There :* something very Chinese in the whole of the ,M<ghul system of punishment, even pnnces advai.cri in years, and in command of large armies, being punished by bastinado with a stick, by their taih-r'.orders.t Whether they received their usage m : j respect from the Chinese, or communicated it to them, is not very certain. As the whole boar of their laws or customs was formed before ihc uraoduction of the Mussulman religion, and was pro:: hly in many respects inconsistent with the Kunn, as, for instance, in allowing the use of the blood of animals, and in the extent of toleration granted v> other religions, it gradually fell into decay."
The present Moghul tribes, it is added, punish most offences by fines of cattle. Thart of war in the days of Baber had not been very greatly matured ; and though matciiloo».and unwieldy cannon had been recently introduced from the West, the arms ch;?n relied on were still the bow and the spear, the sabre and the battle-axe. Mining «as practised in sieges, and cavalry seems to t¿i> formed the least considerable patt of the army.
Títere is a second Introduction, containing a clear and brief abstract of the history of those regions from the time of Tamerlane to that of Baber,—together with an eicellent Memoir on the annexed map, and an aciw' of the hills and rivers of Bokara, of which il would be idle to attempt any abstract.
As to the Memoirs themselves, we fc¡r" already said that we think it in vain to recommend them as a portion of History ».': which our readers should be acquainted.— or consequently to aim at presentinc th-a with any thing in the nature of an abstract, or connected account of the events they » minutely detail. All that we propose to ¿o, therefore, is, to extract a few of ihe traits which appear to us the most striking a:..i characteristic, and to endeavour, in а тегу short compass, to give an idea of whatever curiosity or interest the work possesses. The most remarkable thing about it, or at leart that which first strikes us. is the simple» of the style, and the good sense, varied knowledge, and extraordinary industry of the пч>1 author. It is difficult, indeed, to believe that it is the work of an Asiatic, and a soverti.:: Though copiously, and rather diffusely я:-ten. it is perfectly free from the ornamental verbosity, the eternal metaphor, and pueril« exaggerations of most Oriental compositi«-and though savouring so far of royalty a'I0 abound in descriptions of dresses anil «'r'monies, is yet occupied in the main nitb l'":' cems greatly too rational and humble u> I* much in favour with monarchs.
men of the adventurous life of the
of those days, and of Babere manner of detcribiiig it, we may pass at once to his account of ilia being besieged in Samarkand, and the particulars of his flight after he was obliged lo abandon it :—
"During the continuance of the siege, the rounds of the rmmpart were regularly gone, once every m¿hi.sometimes by Kàtsun Beg, and sometimes by other Begs ind captains. From the Firozeh gate to ih? Sheikri-Zadeh gate, we were able logo along ibe rampirrs on horseback; everywhere else we were obliged to go on foot. Setting out in the beginning of the night, il waa morning before we bid completed our rounds.
"One day Sheibàni Khan made sn attack between the Iron gate and that of the Sheikh-Zâdeh. As I was with the reverse, I immediately led them 10 ihe quarter that was attacked, without attending :o the Washing-green gate or (he Needlemakers fM'e. That «ame day, from ihe top of the SheikhZijeh's gateway, I struck a palish white coloured hone in excellent shot with my cross-bow: it fell ia¿ the moment my arrow touched it; but in ihe rncviwhue they had made such a vigorous attack, nor the Camel's Neck, that they effected a lodgment close under the rampart. Being hotly engaged in repelling the enemy where I was, I had entertiined no apprehensions of danger on the other side, •here they had prepared and brought with them r*in:y-five or twenty-six scaling-ladders, each of '•hem M broad that two and three men could mount i-breaer. He had placed in ambush, opposite to Ae drr-wall, seven or eight hundred chosen men "nth these ladders, between the Ironsmiths' and Netd'.emakers' gates, while he himself moved to tbe other tide, and made a false attack. Our attention was entirely drawn off 10 this attack; and ihe пет in ambush no sooner saw the works opposite ч> them empty of defenders, by the watch having lilt them, than they rose from the place where they bid Ып in ambush, advanced with extreme speed, ä'iJ applied iheir scaling-ladders all at once between tie two gates lhat have been mentioned, exactly ra>»sne to Muhammed Mazîd Terkhan'e house. The Begs who were on guard had only two or three of iheir servants and attendants about them. N'venheless Kuch Beg, Muhammed Kuli Kochin, ?Hah Sen, and anotherorave cavalier, boldly assail*dthem. and displayed signal heroism. Some of the enemy had already mounted the wall, and «v«il others were in the act of scaling it, when tbe four persons who have been mentioned arrived «"bespül, fell upon them sword in hand, with the g'rs'e« bravery, and dealing out furious blows wound them, drove the assailants back over the »«IL and pat them to flight. Kuch Beg distini'sfcrd himself above all the rest; and this was *>uploii for ever to be ciled to his honour. He "«during this siege performed excellent service •> hi» valour.
;h was now ihe season of the ripening of ihe pan, and nohodv hud brought in nny new corn. ^* 'he siege had drawn out lo great length, the inbtbitanu were reduced to extreme distress, and 'iir?ara:netosuchapass, that the poor and meaner »•r. »ere forced lo feed on dogs' and asses' flesh. Gnin for the horses becoming scarce, they were y'ouged to be fed on the leaves of trees; and it was trained from experience, thai the leaves of the íji'ilV-Tíy and blnckwond answered best. Many ;<s*d liie shavings and raspings of wood, which 'hty eoakcd in water, and gave lo their horses. b<t »bree nr four months Sneihani Khan did nol •Pfroaeh the fortress, but blockaded it at some dis'^i.i'e on all sides, changing his ground from lime to line.
'The ancients have said, thai in order lo main'»n » forirees. a head, two hands, and two feet a're firessiry. The head is a captain, the two hands Mmwo friendiy forces that must advance from opIwtii Mijej; the two feet are water and stores of
provision within the fort. I looked for aid and assistance from the princes my neighbours; but each of them had his attention fixed on some other object. For example, Sultan Hussain Mirza was undoubtedly a brave and experienced monarch, yet neither did he give me assistance, nor even sund an ambassador to encourage me."
He is obliged, in consequence, to evacuate the city, and moves off privately in the night. The following account of his flight, we think, is extremely picturesque and interesting.
"Having entangled ourselves among the great branches of the canals of the Soghd, during the darkness of the night, we lost our way, and after encountering many difficulties we passed Khwajeh Dîdàr about dawn. By the lime of early morning prayers, we arrived al the hillock of Karbogh, and passing it on the north below the village of Kherdek, we made for llôn-ûiî. On the road, I had a race with Kamber Ali and Kâsim Beg. My horse got ihe lead. As I turned round on my seat to nee how far I had left them behind, my saddle-girth being slack, the saddle turned round, and I came to the ground right on my head. Although I immediately sprang up and mounted, yet I did not recover ihe full possession of my faculties till the evening, and the world, and all that occurred at the lime, passed before my eyes and apprehension like a dream, or a phantasy, and disappeared. The time of afternoon prayers was past ere we reached Ilàn-ûit, where we alighted, and having killed a horse, cut him up, and dressed slices of his flesh; we stayed a little lime to rest our horses, then mounting again, before day-break we alighted at the village of Khalileh. From Khalileh we proceeded lo Dizak. At thai lime Tâher Dûldai, the son of Hafez Muhammed Beg Dûldai, was governor of Dizak. Here we found nice fat flesh, bread of fine flour well baked, sweet melons, and excellent grapes in great abundance; thus passing from the exireme ol famine to plenty, and from an estate of danger and calamity to peace and ease.
"In my whole life. I never enjoyed myself so much, nor at any period of it felt so sensibly the pleasures of peace and plenty. Enjoyment after suffering, abundance alier want, come with increased relish, and afford more exquisite delight. I have four or five times, in the course of my life, passed in a similar manner from distress lo ease, and from a slate of suffering to enjoymem : but this was the first lime that 1 had ever been delivered at once from the injuries of my enemy, and the pressure of hunger, and passed lo the ease of security, and ihe pleasures of plenty. Having rested and enjoyed ourselves two or three days in Dizak, we proceeded on to Uratippa.
"Dekhat is one of the hill-districts of Uratippa. It lies on the skirts of a very high mountain, immediately on passing which you come on the country of Masîkha. The inhabitants, though Sorts, have large flocks of sheep, and herds of mares, like ihe Turks. The sheep belonring lo Dekhat may amount lo forty thousand. We took up our lodgings in the peasants' houses. I lived at the house of one of the head men of the place. He was an aged man, seventy or eighty years old. His mother was still alive, and haa attain« il an extreme old age, being at this lime a hundred and eleven year» old. One of ihis lady's relations had accompanied ihe army of Taimur Beg, when it invaded Hindustan. The circumstances remained fresh in her memory, and she often lold us stories on ihai subject. In the district of Dekhal alone, there still were of this lady's children, grandchildren, grea'erandchildren, and great-great-grandchildren, to the number of ninety-six persons; and including those deceased, the whole amounted to two hundred. One of her great-grandchildren was at thi» lime a young man of twenty-five or twenty-six years of age, wilh a fine black beard. While I