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NOTE XL., page 379.

MODERN FRENCH PANTHEISM.

The philosophy of Cousin has been treated of by Damiron, by Alaux, by Secretan, by Janet, &c. In the work already several times referred to I have examined what may be held to be the pantheistic principles and consequences involved in his theory of history. On the question whether he can be correctly described as a pantheist or not, see Dr Henry's preface to the fourth edition of his translation of the ' Elements of Psychology' (N. Y., 1856), and an article of Dr Hodge, entitled “The Princeton Review and Cousin's Philosophy,” reprinted from the ‘Princeton Review' in the Brit. and For. Ev. Rev., vol. v., No. xvii. (1856).

The Saint-Simonian religion and polity rested on the pantheistic conception that God is all that is, and that matter and spirit are not separate existences, but the two sides or aspects of the Divine substance. On this subject, see pp. 58-68 of the previously mentioned Étude of M. Ferraz.

In M. Caro's 'L'Idée de Dieu' the views of M. Renan and of M. Vacherot regarding God are subjected to a thorough and decisive criticism.

NOTE XLI., page 379.

MODERN ENGLISH PANTHEISM.

Pantheism is advocated by Mr Charles Bray in “Illusion and Delusion; or, Modern Pantheism versus Spiritualism," and by F. W. J., in ‘Spiritual Pantheism. Both tracts are undated, and both were published at the press of the late Mr Scott of Norwood.

In Mr J. Allanson Picton's "Mystery of Matter' (1873) there is an eloquent essay on what is called “Christian Pantheism;" and in the ‘Sermons' (1875) of the late Rev. Peter S. Menzies of Melbourne there is an eloquent discourse bearing the same title. This socalled “Christian pantheism” is represented as distinct from, and opposed to, the pantheism “which absorbs in a mechanically-ruled, eternal universe the free personality of God," and the pantheism “which represents moral good and moral evil as equally agreeable to God, and equally the direct creation of His will."

Much has been written about the pantheism of Mr Carlyle. Some would, perhaps, class Mr Matthew Arnold as a pantheist, in virtue of his faith in a “stream of tendency which makes for righteousness.”

Pantheism has been unfortunate in Britain ; indeed, it has not been presented in a form worthy of discussion. It has displayed itself to rather more advantage in America. See “Transcendentalism in New England: A History. By Octavius B. Frothingham (New York, 1876).

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