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almost perpendicular, and generally covered with wood where the slope will admit of it, which is not always the case. Notwithstanding the difficulty of ascent, General Wolfe, with infinite labour, contrived to carry his little army, and a few small field pieces, to the top of the bank, and took his stand on the plains of Abraham.
The French were astonished, on looking out in the morning, to find him there; they came out of the city and gave him battle. He beat them, and followed them close up to the walls of the town.
It was very unaccountable that the French should resolve to come out of a strong fortification (where they might long have resisted the assailants) and put themselves on a footing with their enemies. Besides the troops in the city of Quebec, the French had ten thousand men encamped at Beauport, within a few miles of Quebec. If an arrangement had taken place with those troops, that they should attack Wolfe at the moment the garrison sallied forth, his little army must have been cut to pieces. To this error we owe Quebec*.
* They were less to blame, perhaps, than General
The French general Montcalm, as well as the brave Wolfe, fell in the engagement; very different however must have been their feelings in their last moments. The conduct of the Frenchman in rashly sacrificing his troops and the interests of his country could not bear reflection. Wolfe saw his troops triumphant; they had beaten the enemy: he died in the arms of victory.
How sleep the brave, who sink to rest,
By fairy hands their knell is rung,
I have been on the spot where Wolfe
Murray afterwards was, who, notwithstanding the example of the French having suffered by it, left the fortifications, went out on the plain in the face of a superior army, under the command of the French general Mr. Levi. He was beaten, and obliged to retreat to the city with the loss of his artillery and near a third of his army.
fell, and a stone is shewn on which it is said he was laid. It is very much mutilated, from the curiosity of strangers who wish to carry off a bit of it, as a kind of relic. One cannot help feeling a good deal interested in traversing a field of battle;—the glory which we attach to the death of the hero who falls in his country's cause, sanctifies the ground on which he fell.
The upper town of Quebec being on a very elevated situation, enjoys fine air, and a commanding view of the surrounding country, which affords the most sublime scenery in nature. I have seen most of the fine views in Europe; and 1 can safely say, they do not surpass, perhaps they do not equal, that from the flagstaff of Quebec on Cape Diamond.
The majestic St. Lawrence under your feet, receiving the waters of the river St. Charles, and forming the bason of Quebec, from three to four miles across;—further on you see the river dividing itself into two branches, forming the beautiful island of Orleans:—on the opposite side of the great river, a finely wooded country, terminating at Point Levi, conceals the course and bed of one of the branches of thfe river,—the island of Orleans, the falls of Montmorency, strike the observer; and the villages of Beauport, Charlebourg, and Lorette, appear at a distance, and render the woods in which they are embosomed more interesting. The eye follows the northern branch of the St Lawrence till it is lost amongst the distant mountains. To the southward you look over a level country for upwards of sixty miles, till the view is bounded by mountains. This extensive tract is still in a great measure in a state of nature;—nothing to be seen but the stately forest in all its majesty.
Amongst the fine views which I have beheld with delight, and which combine in them objects sufficiently striking to entitle them to be compared with the view from Quebec, I recollect that from the Rock of Gibraltar,—from the pass of Bellegarde in the Pyrenees,—from the Place de Peru at Montpellier,—from Kingsweston near Bristol,—from Edinburgh Castle,—from Cintra near Lisbon,—and from man/other places which I could mention; but the view from Quebec is equal to any of them, perhaps I
might even venture to say, that it Surpasses them all. It is difficult to imagine ajparore happy blending of aft and nature;—-villages, country houses, cottages, corn fields, —are combined with primeval woods, fine rivers, beautiful islands, magnificent waterfalls, towering hills, and lofty mountains.
From the scenery which surrounds Cape Diamond let me return to the Cape itself. —I had heard that Cape Diamond, and the country in the neighbourhood of Que-, bee, abounded with marble. I am no great mineralogist; but, from every thing I can observe (and I have taken some pains to examine), I do not find any species of calcareous rock in the whole extent of the ridge, from Cape Diamond to Cape Rouge. What generally prevails, is a coarse incomplete sort of schistus, the laminae of which, when exposed to the operation of the atmosphere, moulder into a dark brown coloured earth; it never can be used for building to any advantage, unless it is defended from the action of the air.
Cape Diamond abounds with very fine specimens of quartz, or rock crystals.—I have myself, in walking on the banks of