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THE WAR WITH THE SOUTII:
A HISTORY OF THE
GREAT AMERICAN REBELLION,
CHA PTE R I.
Position of Kentucky.—A great Battle-field.—Expectations of both Antagonists.-The Secessionists balked by a
Loyal Legislature.—The Secessionists form an independent Government.—Meeting of Secessionists at Russellville.— Declaration of Grievances.—A Convention called.—Meeting of Convention.—Declaration of Independence and Ordinance of Secession.—Provisional Government.—Commissioners to Southern Confederacy.—Kentucky admitted as a Confederate State.-The only solution through Civil War.—The United States prepared.—Position of its Forces.—Don Carlos Buell.—Life of Buell.—Military Education and Services.-Gallantry and Promotion.—A Brigadier-General.—Noticed by McClellan.—In command of the Department of the Cumberland.—Buell busy in organizing.—The Position of the Enemy. —Invasion of Kentucky.—Zollicoffer at Cumberland Gap.–General Buckner at Bowling Green.—General Johnston —Life of A. Sydney Johnston.—Military Education and Services.—Resigns his Commission.—A Private in the Texan War.— Secretary of War in Texas.-In the Mexican War.—Retirement.— Paymaster in the United States Army.—Appointed Colonel of Cavalry by Pierce on the recommendation of Jefferson Davis.-Chief of the Expedition to Utah. —Johnston exciting to Rebellion in California — Escape.—In command under the Confederacy.—Character of Johnston.—The Struggle begun in Kentucky.—Zollicoffer's attack on Camp Wild Cat.—His Defeat.—The hopes of the Unionists of East Tennessee.—Flight of Zollicoffer.—Difficulties of pursuit.—Disappointment.—General Position in Kentucky of opposing Forces.—Engagement at Ivy Mountain.—The Enemy driven from Eastern Kentucky.—Position of Buell and Johnston.—Advance of Forces by Buell. —Retirement of the Enemy.—The Engagement at Green River.—The Results.-Feeble attempt of Humphrey Marshall.—Success of Colonel Garfield.—A forced Retreat acknowledged, but a success claimed by the Enemy. Comparative Losses.
course between the northern lakes and the Gulf of Mexico. Both antagonists, conscious of the importance of holding the supremacy in a State thus situated,
KENTUCKY was destined to become the chief battle-field from its position as a border State—bounded on the
north by the loyal States of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, and on the east, south, and west by Virginia, Tennessee, Arkansas, and Missouri, more or less within the power of the enemy—from the conflict of opinion among its own citizens and its relation geographically to the
Mississippi, the great channel of inter
made great efforts to secure it.
government. The insurrectionary lead
ers accordingly met at Russellville, a 0ct, small town in the southern part of 29, Kentucky, and after drawing up a declaration of grievances, and denouncing the loyal action of the Legislature, called a convention, “to be chosen, elected, or appointed in any manner by the people of the several counties of the State,” to meet at the same place. This hybrid convention, composed of some 200 persons, accordingly met at Now, Russellville at the time appointed. 18. They immediately proceeded to pass a “Declaration of Independence and an Ordinance of Secession,” to establish a provisional government consisting of a governor with a legislative council of ten, and to appoint three commissioners to the Southern Confederacy.” The Congress of the Confederate States eagerly welcomed the arrival of the representatives of Kentucky secession, and without delay passed an act by which that State was admitted a member “on an equal footing with the other States of the Confederacy.” The great question, however, was not to be settled in Kentucky by conventions and political manifestoes. The only solution was through war, and both parties now prepared to wage it with the utmost vigor. The Federal Government had not only,
° The following were the officers of this new State government:
Gover Nor. —George W. Johnson.
LEGISLATIVE Council.—William B. Machen, John W. Crockett, James P. Bates, James S. Critman, Philander R. Thompson, I. P. Burnside, H. W. Bruce, I. W. Moore, E. M. Bruce, and George B. Hodge.
by the possession of Cairo, in Illinois, Bird's Point, in Missouri, and Paducah, secured important bases of operations upon the Mississippi and Ohio from which to command these rivers and the western part of Kentucky, but had concentrated a large army at Louisville, to operate within the interior of the State. The command was given to General Don Carlos Buell, who succeeded, as will be recollected, General Sherman, the successor of General Anderson, of Fort Sumter fame. Don Carlos Buell was born in Ohio in 1819. He was admitted into the West Point Military Academy as a cadet in 1837, and in graduating in 1841 was appointed a second lieutenant of the Third Infantry. In June, 1846, he was promoted to a first lieutenancy, and on the 23d of September, 1846, was brevetted a captain for his services at Monterey. During 1847 and 1848 he acted as adjutant of his regiment, and bore a distinguished part in the battle of Cerro Gordo. His gallant conduct subsequently at Contreras and Churubusco won for him the brevet rank of major. In 1848 he was appointed assistant adjutantgeneral. In 1851 he relinquished his rank in line, but continued to act as assistant adjutant-general until the commencement of the war, when he was at once promoted to a lieutenant-colonelcy. Congress soon after created him a brigadier-general of volunteers. His first service in the present conflict was as the commander of a division under General McClellan, who was so impressed by his soldierly qualities that he induced the