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to adjust, and for several days the peace was believed to be impracticable. At this juncture it was suddenly reported that the emperor had arrived at Chioza, a town fifteen miles from the capital. The Venetians rose tumultuously, and insisted upon immediately conducting him to the city. The Lombards took the alarm, and departed towards Treviso. The pope himself was apprehensive of some disaster if Frederic should suddenly advance upon him, but was reassured by the prudence and address of Sebastian Ziani, the doge. Several embassies passed between Chioza and the capital, until, at last, the emperor relaxing somewhat of his pretensions, « laid aside his leonine ferocity, and put on the mildness of the lamb.,'
On Saturday the 23d of July, in the year 1177, six Venetian galleys transferred Frederic, in great pomp, from Chioza to the island of Lido, a mile from Venice. Early the next morning the pope, accompanied by the Sicilian ambassadors, and by the envoys of Lombardy, whom he had recalled from the main land, together with a great concourse of people, repaired from the patriarchal palace to Saint Mark's church, and solemnly absolved the emperor and his partisans from the excommunication pronounced against him. The chancellor of the empire, on the part of his master, renounced the anti-popes and their schismatic adherents. Immediately the doge, with a great suite both of the clergy and laity, got on board the galleys, and, waiting on Frederic, rowed him in mighty state from the Lido to the capital. The emperor descended from the galley at the
quay of the Piazzetta. The doge, the patriarch, his bishops and clergy, and the people of Venice, with their crosses and their standarıls, marched in solemn procession before him to the church of Saint Mark. Alexander was seated before the vestibule of the basilica, attended by his bishops and cardinals, by the patriarch of Aquileja, by the archbishops and bishops of Lombardy, all of them in state, and clothed in their church robes. Frederic approached « moved by the Holy Spirit, venerating the Almighty in the person of Alexander, laying aside his imperial dignity, and throwing off his mantle, he prostrated himself at full length at the feet of the pope. Alexander, with tears in his eyes, raised him benignantly from the
"“Quibus auditis, imperator, operante eo, qui corda principum sicut vult et quando vult humiliter inclinat, leonina feritate deposita, ovinam mansuetudineni induit.” Romualdi Salernitani. Chronicon. apud Script. Rer. Ital. Tom. VII. p. 229
ground, kissed him, blessed him; and immediately the Germans of the train sang, with a loud voice, “We praise thee, O Lord.' The emperor then taking the pope by the right hand, led him to the church, and having received his benediction, returned to the ducal palace.' The ceremony of humiliation was repeated the next day. The pope himself, at the request of Frederic, said mass at Saint Mark's. The emperor again laid aside his imperial mantle, and, taking a wand in his hanı, officiated as verger, driving the laity from the choir, and preceding the pontiff to the altar. Alexander, after reciting the gospel, preached to the people. The emperor put himself close to the pulpit in the attitude of listening; and the pontiff, touched by this mark of his attention, for he knew that Frederic did not understand a word he said, coinmanded the patriarch of Aquileja to translate the Latin discourse into the German tongue. The creed was then chanted. Frederic made his oblation, and kissed the pope's feet, and, mass being over, led him by the hand to his white horse. He held the stirrup, and would have led the horse's rein to the water side, had not the pope accepted of the inclination for the performance, and affectionately dismissed him with his benediction. Such is the substance of the account left by the archbishop of Salerno, who was present at the ceremony, and whose story is confirmed by every subsequent narration. It would be Dot worth so minute a record, were it not the triumph of liberty as
of superstition. The states of Lombardy owed to it the confrmation of their privileges ; and Alexander had reason to thank the Almighty, who had enabled an infirm, unarmed old man to subdue a terrible and potenț sovereign.'
Note 7, page 217, stanza xii.
Th’octogenarian chief, Byzantium's conquering foe. The reader will recollect the exclamation of the highlander, Oh for one hour of Dundee! Henry Dandolo, when elected doge, in 1992, eighty-five years
When he commanded the Venetians at
Romualdi. Salernitani. Chronicon. apnd Script. Ital. Tom. VII. page 231. 2 See the above cited Romuald of Salerno. Iu a second sermon which Alexanpreached,
on the first day of August, before the emperor, he compared Frederic to the prodigal son, and himself to the forgiving father.
the taking of Constantinople, he was consequently ninety-seven years old. At this age he annexed the fourth and a half of the whole empire of Romania,' for so the Roman empire was then called, to the title and to the territories of the Venetian doge. The three-eighths of this empire were preserved in the diplomas until the dukedom of Giovanni Dolfino, who made use of the above designation in the year 1357."
Dandolo led the attack on Constantinople in person : two ships, the Paradise and the Pilgrim, were tied together, and a drawbridge or ladder let down from their higher yards to the walls. The doge was one of the first to rush into the city. Then was completed, said the Venetians, the prophecy of the Erythræan sibyl. A gathering together of the powerful shall be made amidst the waves of the Adrialic, under a blind leader; they shall beset the goat-they shall profane Byzantium--they shall blacken her buildings—her spoils shall be dispersed; a new goat shall bleat until they have measured out and run over fifty-four feet, nine inches, and a half.»?
Dandolo died on the first day of June, 1205, having reigned thirteen years, six months, and five days, and was buried in the church of St Sophia, at Constantinople. Strangely enough it must sound, that the name of the rebel apothecary who received the doge's sword, and annihilated the ancient government, in 1796-7, was Dandolo.
Mr Gibbon has omitted the important æ, and has written Romani instead of Romaniæ. Decline and Fall, cap. Isi. note 9. But the title acquired by Dandolo runs thus in the Chronicle of his namesake, the Doge Andrew Dan. dolo. Ducali titulo addidit. Quartæ partis et dimidiæ totius imperii Romaniæ.” And. Dand. Chronicon. cap. iii. pars xxxvii. ap. Script. Rer. Ital. tom.' xii. page 331. And the Romaniæ is observed in the subsequents acts of the doges. Indeed the continental possessions of the Greek empire in Europe were then generally known by the name of Romania, and that appellation is still seen in the maps of Turkey as applied to Thrace.
* See the continuation of Dandolo's Chronicle, ibid. page 498. Mr Gibbon appears not to include Dolfino, following Sanado, who says, a il qual titolo si usò fon al Doge Giovanni Dolfino." See Wite de' Duchi di Venezia. ap. Script. Rer. Ital. tom. xxii. 53o. 641.
3 « Fiet potentium in aquis Adriaticis congregatio, cæco præduce, Hircum ambigent, Byzantium prophanabunt, ædificia denigrabunt; spolia dispergentur, Hircus novus balabit usque dum LIV pedes et 18 pollices, et semis præmensurati discurrant. » [Chronicon, ibid. pars xxxiv.]
Note 8, page 217, stanza Xll.
Are they not bridled? etc.
to give up
I will not have them : take them back; for, in a few days hence, I shall come and let them out of prison myself, both these and all the others, .' In fact, the Genoese did advance as far as Malamocco, within five miles of the capital; but their own danger and the pride of their enemies gave courage to the Venetians, who made prodigious efforts, and many individual sacrifices, all of them carefully recorded by their historians. Vettor Pisani was put at the head of thirty-four galleys. The Genoese broke up from Malamocco, and retired to Chioza in October; but they again threatened Venice, which was reduced to extremities. At this time, the Ist of January, 1380, arrived Carlo
Alla fè di Dio, Signori Veneziani, non baverete mai pace dal Signore di Padoua, nè dal nostro commune di Genova, se primieramente non mettemo le briglie a quelli vostri cavalli sfrenati, che sono su la rcza del vostro evangelista S. Marco. Imbrenati che gli havremo, vi faremo stare in buona pace. questa e la intenzione nostra, e del nostro commune. Questi miei fratelli Genovesi che avete menati con voi per donarci, non li voglio; rimanetegli in dietro perche io inuendo da qui a pochi giorni venirgli a riscuoter dalle vostre prigioni, e loro e gli altri. VOL. I.
Zeno, who had been cruising on the Genoese coast with fourteen galleys. The Venetians were now strong enough to besiege the Genoese. Doria was killed on the 22d of January by a sto ne bullet, 195 pounds weight, discharged from a bombard called the Trevisan. Chioza was then closely invested: 5000 auxiliaries, amongst whom were some English Condottieri, commanded by one Captain Ceccho, joined the Venetians. The Genoese, in their turn, prayed for conditions, but none were granted, until, at last, they surrendered at discretion; and, on the 24th of June, 1380, the Doge Contarini made his triumphal entry into Chioza. Four thousand prisoners, nineteen galleys, many
smaller vessels and barks, with all the ammunition and arms, and outfit of the expedition, fell into the hands of the conquerors, who, had it not been for the inexorable answer of Doria, would have gladly reduced their dominion to the city of Venice. An account of these transactions is found in a work called the War of Chioza, written by Daniel Chinazzo, who was in Venice at the time.'
Note 9, page 218, stanza xiv.
The « Planter of the Lion, etc. Plant the Lion—that is, the Lion of St Mark, the standard of the republic, which is the origin of the word Pantaloon—Piantaleone, Pantaleon, Pantaloon.
Note 1o, page 218, stanza xv.
Too oft remind her who and what enthrals, etc. The population of Venice at the end of the seventeenth century amounted to nearly two hundred thousand souls. At the last census, taken two years ago, it was no more than about one hundred and three thousand, and it diminishes daily. The commerce and the official employments, which were to be the unexhausted source of Venetian grandeur, have both expired. Most of the patrician
' «Chronica della guerra di Chiosa,» etc. Script. Rer. Italic. tom. xv. pp. 699 to 804.
« ? Nonnullorumè nobilitate immensæ sunt opes, adeo ut vix æstimari possint : id quod tribus è rebus oritur, parsimoniâ, commercio, atque iis emolumentis, quæ è Repub. percipiunt, quæ hanc ob causam diuturna fore creditur. »-. See de Principatibus Italiæ, Tractatus. edit. 1631.