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Note 8, page 61, stanza xiv.
Where was thine Ægis, Pallas ! that appalld

Stern Alaric and havoc on their way? According to Zozimus, Minerva and Achilles frightened Alaric from the Acropolis; but others relate that the Gothic king was nearly as mischievous as the Scottish peer.—See Cuandler.

Note 9, page 63, stanza xvii.

-the netted canopy, etc. The netting to prevent blocks or splinters from falling on deck during action.

Note 10, page 66, stanza xxix.

But not in silence pass Calypso's isles, etc.
Goza is said to have been the island of Calypso.

Note 11, page 69, stanza xxxvIII.
Land of Albania! let me bend mine eyes

On thee, thou rugged nurse of savage men !
Albania comprises part of Macedonia, Illyria, Chaonia, and Epirus.
Iskander is the Turkish word for Alexander; and the celebrated
Scanderbeg (Lord Alexander) is alluded to in the third and fourth
lines of the thirty-eighth stanza.

I do not know whether I am correct in making Scanderbeg the countryman of Alexander, who was born at Pella in Macedon, but Mr Gibbon terms him so, and adds Pyrrhus to the list, in speaking of his exploits.

Of Albania Gibbon remarks, that a country « within sight of Italy is less known than the interior of America. » Circumstances, of little consequence to mention, led Mr Hobhouse and myself into that country before we visited any other part of the Ottoman dominions; and, with the exception of Major Leake, then officially resident at Joannina, no other Englishmen have ever advanced beyond the capital into the interior, as that gentleman very lately assured me. Ali Pacha was at that time (October, 1809) carrying on war against Ibrahim Pacha, whom he had driven to Berat, a strong fortress which he was then besieging : on our arrival at Joannina we were invited to

Tepaleni, his highness's birth-place, and favourite serai, only one day's distance from Berat: at this juncture the vizier had made it his head-quarters.

After some stay in the capital, we accordingly followed; but though furnished with every accommodation, and escorted by one of the vizier's secretaries, we were nine days (on account of the rains) in accomplishing a journey which, on our return, barely occupied four.

On our route we passed two cities, Argyrocastro and Libochabo, apparently little inferior to Yanina in size; and no pencil or pen can ever do justice to the scenery in the vicinity of Zitza and Delvinachi, the frontier village of Epirus and Albania proper.

On Albania and its inhabitants I am unwilling to descant, because this will be done so much better by my fellow-traveller, in a work which may probably precede this in publication, that I as little wish to follow as I would to anticipate him. But some few observations are necessary to the text.

The Arnaouts, or Albanese, struck me forcibly by their resemblance to the Highlanders of Scotland, in dress, figure, and manner of living. Their very mountains seemed Caledonian with a kinder climate. The kilt, though white; the spare, active form; their dialect, Celtic in its sound, and their hardy habits, all carried me back to Morven. No nation are so detested and dreaded by their neighbours as the Albanese : the Greeks hardly regard them as Christians, or the Turks as Moslems; and in fact they are a mixture of both, and sometimes neither. Their habits are predatory; all are armed; and the redshawled Arnaouts, the Montenegrins, Chimariots, and Gegdes are treacherous ; the others differ somewhat in garb, and essentially in character. As far as my own experience goes, I can speak favourably. I was attended by two, an Intidel and a Mussulman, to Constantinople and


part of Turkey which came within my observation; and more faithful in peril, or indefatigable in service, are rarely to be found. The Infidel was named Basilius, the Moslem, Dervish Tahiri; the former a man of middle age, and the latter about my owo. Basili was strictly charged by Ali Pacha in person to attend us; and Dervish was one of fifty who accompanied us through the

forests of Acarnania to the banks of Achelous, and onward to Messalunghi in Ætolia. There I took him into my own service, and never had occasion to repent it till the moment of any departure.

When in 1810, after the departure of my friend Mr H. for England, I was seized with a severe fever in the Morea, these men saved my life by frightening away my physician, whose throat they threatened to cut if I was not cured within a given time. To this consolatory assurance of posthumous retribution, and a resolute refusal of Dr Romanelli's prescriptions, I attributed my recovery. I had left my last remaining English servant at Athens; my dragoman was as ill as myself, and my poor Arnaouts nursed me with an attention which would have done honour to civilization.

They had a variety of adventures; for the Moslem, Dervish, being a remarkably handsome man, was always squabbling with the husbands of Athens; insomuch that four of the principal Turks paid me a visit of remonstrance at the Convent, on the subject of his having taken a woman from the bath—whom he had lawfully bought however -a thing quite contrary to etiquette.

Basili also was estremely gallant amongst his own persuasion, and had the greatest veneration for the church, mixed with the highest contempt of churchmen, whoin he cuffed upon occasion in a most heterodox manner. Yet he never passed a church without crossing himself; and I remember the risk he ran in entering St Sophia, in Stamboul, because it had once been la place of his worship. On remonstrating with him on his inconsistent proceedings, he invariably answered, « our church is holy, our priests are thieves; » and then he crossed himself as usual, and boxed the ears of the first « papas » who refused to assist in any required operation, as was always found to be necessary where a priest had any influence with the Cogia Bashi of his village. Indeed a more abandoned race of miscreants cannot exist than the lower orders of the Greek clergy.


When preparations were made for my return, my Albanians we summoned to receive their pay. Basili took his with an awkward show of regret at iny intended departure, and marched away to his quarters with his bag of piastres. I sent for Dervish, but for some time he was not to be found; at last he entered, just as Signor Logoi heti, father to the ci-devant Anglo-consul of Athens, and some other of my Greek acquaintances, paid ne a visit. Dervish took the money, but on a sudden dashed it to the ground; and, clasping his hands, which he raised to his forehead, rushed out of the room weeping bitterly. From that moment to the hour of my embarkation, he continued his lamentations, and all our efforts to console him only produced this answer, « Mé çever, » « He leaves me.» Signor Logotheti, who never wept before for any thing less than the loss of a para, melted; the padre of the convent, my attendants, my visitors—and I verily believe that even Sterne's a foolish fat scullion, » would have left her « fish-kettle, » to sympathize with the unaffected and unexpected sorrow of this barbarian.

For my own part, when I remembered that, a short time before my departure from England, a noble and most intimate associate had excused himself from taking leave of me because he had to attend a relation a to a milliner's, » I felt no less surprised than humiliated by the present occurrence and the past recollection.

That Dervish would leave me with some regret was to be expected: when master and man have been scrambling over the mountains of a dozen provinces together, they are unwilling to separate; but his present feelings, contrasted with his native ferocity, improved my opinion of the human heart. I believe this almost feudal fidelity is frequent amongst them.

One day, on our journey over Parnassus, an Englishman in my service gave him a push in some dispute about the baggage, which he unluckily mistook for a blow; he spoke not, but sat down leaving his head upon his hands. Foreseeing the consequences, we endeavoured to explain away the affront, which produced the following answer:–« I have been a robber, I am a soldier; no captain ever struck me; you are my master, I have eaten your bread, but by that bread! (an usual oath) had it been otherwise, I would have stabbed the dog your servant, and gone to the mountains. » So the affair ended, but from that day forward he never thoroughly forgave the thoughtless fellow who insulted him.

Dervish excelled in the dance of his country, conjectured to be a remnant of the ancient Pyrrhic: be that as it may, it is manly, and

Para, about the fourth of a farthing.

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requires wonderful agility. It is very distinct from the stupid Romaika, the dull round-about of the Greeks, of which our Athenian party had so many specimens.

The Albanians in general (I do not mean the cultivators of the earth in the provinces, who have also that appellation, but the mountaineers) have a fine cast of countenance; and the most beautiful women I ever beheld, in stature and in features, we saw levelling the road broken down by the torrents betwen Delvinachi and Libochabo. Their manner of walking is truly theatrical; but this strut is probably the effect of the capote, or cloak, depending from one shoulder. Their long hair reminds you of the Spartans, and their courage in desultory warfare is unquestionable. Though they have some cavalry amongst the Gegdes, I never saw a good Arnaout horseman ; my own preferred the English saddles, which, however, they could never keep. But on foot they are not to be subdued by fatigue. •

Note 12, page 70, stanza xxxix.

-and pass'd the barren spot, Where sad Penelope o’erlook'd the wave; etc.


Note 13, page 70, stanza XL.

Actium, Lepanto, fatal Trafalgar ; etc. Actium and Trafalgar need no further mention. The battle of Lepanto, equally bloody and considerable, but less known, was fought in the Gulf of Patras: here the author of Don Quixote lost his left hand.

Note 14, page 70, stanza XLI.

And hail'd the last resort of fruitless love, etc: Leucadia,, now Santa Maura. From the promontory (the Lover's Leap) Sappho is said to have thrown herself.

Note 15, page 72, stanza xlv.

--many a Roman chief and Asian king, etc. It is said that, on the day previous to the battle of Actium, Anthony had thirteen kings at his levee.

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