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; of cavalry, at whose head were the cuirassiers, advanced to . charge the Life Guards, and thus save their infantry, but the . Guards received them with the greatest vigour, and the roost sanguinary cavalry fight, perhaps ever witnessed, was the consequence.
"The. French cuirassiers were completely beaten in spite of their cuirasses, by troops who had nothing of the sort, and lost one of their eagles in. this conflict, which ■was taken by the heavy English cavalry called the*Royals."
General Alava next mentions the approach of the Prussian army, '* which," heobserves, " was the more necessary, from the supeTiomumbersof the enemy'sarniy, and from the dreadful loss we had sustained in this unequal .combat, from 11 in the morning till 5 in the afternoon."
"Buonaparte, who did not believe the Prussians to be so near, and who reckoned upon destroying Lord Wellington before their arrival, perceived that he had fruitlessly lost more than five hours, and that in the critical position in which he was then placed, there remained no other resource but that of desperately attacking the weak part of the English position, and thus, if possible, beating the Duke before his right was turned, and attacked by the Prussians. . "Henceforward, therefore, the whole was a repetition of attacks by cavalry and infantry, supported by more than 300 pieces of artillery, which unfortunately li;;ide horrible ravages in our line, and killed and wounded ofliver;., ai'UHcrjsts. and horses,
in the weakest part mi «fae ytion.
"The enemy, aware of *-i destruction, made a charee the whole cavalry of his god which took some pieces af d non that could not be witfcdrs* but the Duke, who wad *: point, charged them with u i battalions of English aostr of Brunswickers, and cotnp; them in a moment to abaodoc artillery, though -we were Ess. to withdraw them for was horses; nor did they dare tot vance to recover them.
"At last, about 7 in the Pc ing, Buonaparte made a Sel C fort, and putting himself at: head of his guards, attacked'. above point of the English no tion with such vigour, that b drove back the BrunswkM* who occupied part of it, and v a moment the victory was ^ decided, and even more tit doubtful.
"The Duke, who felt that iy. moment was most critical, sp*; to the Brunswick troops wt: that ascendancy which every git.: man possesses, made them return to the charge, and purtinr himself at their head, agaw restored the combat, expos:*.' himself to every kind of persofii! danger.
"Fortunately at this lootwr: wc perceived the fire of Marshal Blucher, attacking the raemy's right with his usual impetuosity; and at the moment or decisive attack being come, the Duke put himself at the head c: the English foot-guards, spoke i few words to them, which were replied to by a general burmh. and his Grace lumsclf guiding thcoi
\\\ on 'with his hat, they marchat the point of the bayonet, to ne to close action with the hull Guard. But the latter beii a retreat, which was soon nverted into flight, and the jat complete rout ever exhibited soldiers. The famous rout \ it tenia was not even com.rable to it:"
The General then adds severalflections on the importance of ie victory, and in enumerating »e loss sustained, says :—
"Of those who were by the ide of the Duke of Wellington, nly he and myself remained unouched in our persons and horses, ['he rest were all either Killed, vounded, or lost one or more horses. The Duke was unable to refrain from tears on witnessing the death of so many brave and honourable men, and the loss of so many friends and faithful companions, and which can alone be compensated by the importance of the victor)'."
Report of the Committee of the House of Commons on Parish Apprentices.
The Committee appointed to examine into the number and state of l'arish Apprentices, bound into the country from the parishes within the Bills of Mortality, and to report the same, with their observations thereon, to the House :—Have examined the matter to them referred, and agreed upon the following Report:— Your Committee have to obwve, that the attention of ParliiimentlKisforsoiiiethne been called
to this subject, and that so long ago as the session of 1811, a bill was brought into the House to amend the laws in respect to Parish Apprentices, and to make certain regulations with the view of ameliorating their condition; but was withdrawn, in order that some information might be procured which was conceived to be wanting.
A committee was in consequence appointed, which set on foot an inquiry. This inquiry has since been prosecuted with as much perseverance as was required by a subject of so much importance to the happiness and well-being of a large class of the community, though hitherto but little made an object of the attention of Parliament.
Jt would have been obviously an impracticable task to have attempted to ascertain the number of parish apprentices bound, from various parts of England, to a distance from their parents; and the Committtee were therefore under the necessity of limiting their inquiry to those points which were capable of being ascertained till the parishes, which are comprehended in the Bills of Mortality, would afford a tolerable criterion to enable a judgment to be formed, as to the comparative number of parish apprentices bound near home and at a distance, and astothe advantages or disadvantages resulting from the hitter plan.
This was the more practicable, as by the act passed in the 2d and 7th years of his present Majesty, some humane regulations were made in the management of Parish Apprentices in those parishes;
.and and by the latter act, in certain of tho9e parishes, namely, the seventeen parishes without the walls of London, the twenty-three in Middlesex and Surrey, being within the Bills of Mortality, and the liberty oF the Tower of London, and the ten parishes within the city and liberty of Westminster, a list of poor children bound apprentices was directed to be delivered annually from each parish to the clerk of the company of Parish-clerks, to be bound up and deposited with that company. To those lists your Committee have hfid access, an abstract having been made by the clerk of the Committee; and it appears from them that the whole number of apprentices bound, from the beginning of the year 1802 to the end of the ye:ir 1S11, from these parishes, amounts to 581.r>; being 3446 males, and 2369 females. Of these were bound to trades, watermen, the sea-service, and to household employment, 242S males; and 130" 1 females, in all 3789; fifteen of •whom were bound under eight years of age, 493 between eight and eleven years, 483 between eleven and twelve, 165G between twelve and fourteen, and 1102 between fourteen and eighteen. Though not immediately applicable to the subject of inquiry, it may not be altogether irrelevant to mention, that of this gross number of children amounting to 3789, there were bound to the sca-scrvice, to watermen, lightermen, and fishermen, 484; to household employments, 528; and to various trades and professions 2772: the remaining ahlldren amounting to 2026, bc
inglOI8males, and looefcaar were bound to persons m it 1 country; of these, 58 were «afc eight years of age. 1006 betw: eight and eleven, 316 bet»« eleven and twelve, 435 betwes twelve and fourteen, and 207 between fourteen and eighteen, besides two children whose ages an not mentioned in the_returas free their parishes.
Before they enter on the sabject of what has become of tfct* children, your Committee te leave to observe, that from aH th parishes within the city of Ixbdon.only eleven apprentices fair been sent to masters at a distant} in the country; that of the frt parishes in Southwark, only act (St. George's) has sent any eo..siderable number ; that in Wts~ minster, the parish of St. Abb* has not sent any since the yea 1802; those of St. Margaret 3.% St. John, since the year 1S03: ati the largest and most populous parish of St. Pancras has discontinued the practice since the yes: 1S0G. From those of Xevringtac. Shadwell, Islington, and seven! others, no children have at any lime been sent.
The Committee directed precepts to be sent to the varioupersons in the country to whom the parish apprentices, to the amount of 2026", were bound, directing them to make return*, stating what had become of them, to the best of their knowledge. These returns hare in general been complied with, bat in some instances have not, owing probably to the bankruptry or discontinuance in business of the parties to whom these children were apprenticed; and in
ne-adaes the information reired has been furnished by tbe cseer of tbe poor, to whom e; charge of assigning the ap. iitic-L's devolved, on tbe failure tbe master.
ie general Classification may be
may be made as follows: o\v serving imder indenture 644 ;vved their time, and now
in the same employ 108
erved, and settled elsewhere 99
filiated in the army or navy. b(i Quitted their service, chiefly
run away 166
»ol bound to the person mentioned in the return kept by the company of Parishclerks 68
sent back to their friends... 57 l'ransfered totradesmen in different parts of the kingdom 246
Incapable »f service 18
Not accounted for or mentioned 5
In parish work-houses 26
Not- satisfactorily or intelligibly accounted for by the persons to whom they were bound, or by the overseers where the masters have become bankrupts 433
2026 Of the number com prised under the last head, consisting of 433, some few of the masters have sent a return, but without giving an aceount of the whole of the apprentices; so that it may be fairly judged that one-third of these cannot be accounted for at all.
Your Committee liavmg abstracted the whole list of parish apprentice) boundinto the country, might make this Report more full, by cuumerating tlic particular re
turns made by each master, or by the overseer, as well as the names of such masters as have not given any answers at all, or unsatisfactory ones; but they conceive that it might be invidious to do so, especially as those details would make no difference in the state of the question which it is their object to bring before tbe consideration of the House. They therefore abstain from inserting any such returns in their Appendix, satisfied that tbe House will give them credit for the reason of such omission. They think it right, however, to state generally, that of the children bound in ten years, the following is the proportion of tbe different trades sndemploymenls:
Silk Throwsters 118
Silk Manufacturers.... 26
Flax Dressers 21
Flax Spinners 59
Flax Manufacturer*.... 88
Woollen Manufacturers 24
Frame-work Knitters.. 9 Earthenware Manufacturers 3
Cotton Spinners 353
Cotton Weavers 6?
Cotton Manufacturers.. 771
Calico Weavers 198
Fustian Manufacturers 71
Manufactures (supposed to be Cotton... 28
It appears by the returns from the metropolis, that the children bound to manufacturers in the •ountry have generally been apprenticed on the same day, in numbers of from five or six to forty or fifty. They have not linfrequently been taken back to their parents, and sometimes after having been bound, have been assigned to another master. In the parish of Bermondsey, out of twenty-five apprenticed to manufacturers, sixteen, it is said, did not go, but no reason is given for it; and in several instances, after the children have been taken into the country, they have been returned to the parish, in consequence of the surgeon having pronounced them unsound. It appears also, that of the whole number of parish apprentices, included in the above returns, no less a proportion than threefourths have been bound to masters connected with the cottonmanufacture. Most of the remarks, therefore, which they conceive it their duty to make, will be more directly applicable to that branch of employment j though many of their general observations, as to the impolicy of removing children to a considerable distance from their parents, as well as from those whose duty it is to see that they are properly taken care of and treated, areequally applicable to all professi»ns.
In considering this subject, it is necessary to advert more particularly to the causes and circumsanccs attending the original appointment of "a committee. A Bill having been brought into the House four sessions ago, at the desire and under the direction of one of the most populous manu
facturing districts of tfcfa kiar doni, the professed object; which was to prohibit the ingof parish apprentices toi a certain distance from the abofr of their parents, and makzk: other regulations in the mt nagement of them, some of the parishes of the metropolis mt naced an opposition to thefidi.y takingfrom them the mean? of d posing of the children of the po->. belonging to them, in the waaac in which they had before been * customed to do. It was therefor judged expedient to ascertain u* extent of the practice which hx prevailed, in order to formajodimentof the necessity of continarc it; and with that view, as well * for the reasons before mentions these returns wore called fa There was also another reasoa fa confining the returns to the n* tropolis and its vicinity, exchai" of the facility which the registerkept as above-mentioned, aferded for that purpose.
In the populous districts a England, whether that pop_lation is caused by manufe.tures or by other employment-. the same causes which prodose it provide support for the inhabitants of all ages, by various occupations adapted to their mracThus in manufacturing districts. the children are early taught tu gain their subsistence by the «fif ferent branches of thor-e man. faotures. In districts where eateries or other mines abound, they are accustomed almost Awn their infancy to employments under ground, which tend to traia and iaure them to the occupatio.': of their ancestors: but in Loadon the lower class of the powulajiap is net of that nature, be.