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tive of the existence of the volcano, and therefore all the apprehension that it had formerly in" spired was gradually dissipating. Consequently, its extensive and spa* cious brow had been converted into a highly cultivated and beautiful garden In particular, the inhabitants of Camalig and Budiao had planted upon it many cocoa-trees, and every kind of fruit trees, with a variety of roots and vegetables; •which, while they afforded an agreeable perspective, supplied, by their excellent productions, many industrious families with food.
1 n this state was the volcano on the first day of February last. No person reflected in the slightest degree upon the damages and losses that so bad a neighbour had been in the habit of occasioning. We had become persuaded, in consequence of so long a silence, that it was now completely extinguished, and that all those subterraneous conduits were closed, through which it attracted to itself and kindled the combustible materials, which it had formerly so continually thrown out. Nor had we seen or remarked any signs which might indicate to us beforehand whart was about to take place. In the former eruptions, there were heard, a considerable time previous, certain subterraneous sounds, that were sure presages of them. It also exhaled almost continually a thick smoke, by which it announced them. But upon the present occasion we remarked nothing of all this. It is true, that on the last day of January we perceived some slight shocks; but we scarcely noticed them, on account of their having been very frequent since the earthquake that
we experienced on the 5th of October of the year 1811. On Monday night the shocks increased. At two in the morning we felt one more violent than those we had hitherto experienced. It was repeated at four, and from that hour they were almost continual until the eruption commenced.
Tuesday dawned, and I scarcely ever remarked at Camarines a more serene and pleasant morning, or a clearer sky. I observed, however, that the ridges nearest to the volcano were covered with a nrist, that I supposed to be the smoke of some house thereabouts that had been on fire in the night. At eight o'clock on that fatal morning the volcano began suddenly to emit a thick column of stones, sand, and ashes, which with the greatest velocity was elevated in a moment to the highest part of the atmosphere. At this sight we were astonished, and filled with the utmost dread, and especially when we observed that in an instant the brow of the volcano wa» covered by it. We had never see« a similar eruption, and were im» mediately convinced that a river of fire was coming towards us, and was about to consume us.— The first thing that was done in my village was to secure the holy sacrament from profanation, and betake ourselves to a precipitate flight. The swiftness with which that dreadful tide rolled towards us, did not give us much time either for reflection or conversation. The frightful noise that the volcano made caused great terror, even in the stoutest hearts. We all ran terrified, and rilled with the greatest dismay and consternation, endeavouring to reach the highest highest and most distant places, in order to preserve ourselves from so imminent a danger. The horizon began to darken, and our anxieties redoubled. The noise of the volcano continually increases; the darkness augments; and we continue our flight for the preservation of our lives, removing further and further from an object so terrific. But notwithstanding the swiftness with which we run, we are overtaken in our disastrous flight by a heavy •hower of huge stones; by the violence of which many unfortunate persons are in a moment deprived of life. This unforeseen and cruel circumstance obliges us to make a pause in our career, and to shelter ourselves under the houses; but flames and burnt stones fall from above, which in a short time reduce them to ashes.
In this dreadful situation, we called upon God, in such manner as we could, from the bottom of our afflicted and almost broken hearts, beseeching him for pardon and mercy. It became completely dark, and we remained enveloped and immersed in the most thick and palpable darkness, comparable only to that which in the time of Moses was witnessed in Egypt. From this moment reflection is at an end, advice is no longer given, and no person recognises another. The father abandons his children, the husband his wife, she remembers not her beloved spouse, and the children forget their parents. No one thinks that he can assist his fellows, because all believe that they are about to die.
But as man, even in the most critical and destitute situations,
endeavours by all possible method; to preserve life, each one of », for this interesting object, mike use of all the means and expedients that can be resorted to, i: the terrible condition to which v. are reduced. Of what vanVi' and different methods did not v.: who have escaped with life, and ourselves, that we might not j*rish at that time? In the houx! we now found no shelter. It Wm necessary to abandon them «iu all haste, in order not to perish with them. To go out uncoiere;, was to expose one's self toadaae«: not less imminent; because tk stones that fell were of an enormous size, and fell as thick as rain itself. It is necessary, thai we may not die in the one or tk other manner, to cover oursehe and defend ourselves as well a we can. We do so.—Some cow themselves with hides, others wjih tables and chairs, others »iih boards and tea-trays. Many take refuge in the trunks of trees others among the canes and hedges, and some hide themselves in a care, which the brow of the mountain offered them. Those only of ns survive, who had the good fortune to protect ourselves by one or other of those methods j but those who were in the open air, with nothing at hand with which the? could cover themselves, almost all perished or were wounded.
The horrid and frightful noiM of the volcano increases to its utmost; the shower of stones aeti thick sand augments; the hurting stones and meteors coutinw to fall, and in a very short tinx reduce to ashes the most beautiful villages of the province of Ca« marines. Would you have sign
rhore analogous to those that are to take place at the last judgment? The animals of the mountain descend precipitately to the villages, to seek in them a secure asylum. The domestic animals run terrified with the greatest disorder and affright, uttering cries that indicate their approaching end. Nothing interested us in those dreadful moments but the preservation of our own lives. But, alas ! Divine justice has already marked and pointed out, with the finger of Omnipotence, a great number of victims, who are to perish in this day of wrath and fury, in every respect very similar to what we read in the holy Scriptures concerning the day of the last judgment.
At about ten in the forenoon it ceased to rain heavy stones, and each one endeavoured to remain in the situation he then was, waiting until the rain of thick sand •which succeeded it should also cease, or until some new and unforeseen calamity should terminate the existence of us all.
We thus continued until halfpast one in the afternoon, at which hour the noise of the volcano began to diminish, and the horizon to clear a little, at sight of which there was revived in us the hope of life, which until then had been almost wholly extinguished. At about two in the afternoon it became entirely clear, and we began to perceive distinctly the lamentable and dreadful ravages that the darkness had hitherto concealed from us. We saw with terror the ground covered with dead bodies, part of whom had been killed by the stones, and the others consumed by the fire. Two hundred
of those perished in the church of Budiao; thirty-five in a single house in that village. The joy that all felt at having preserved life through such imminent dangers, was in many instantly converted into the extremity of sorrow at finding themselves deprived of their relations, friends, and acquaintances. There, a father finds his children dead; here a husband his wife, and a wife her husband; particularly in the village of Budiao, where there are very few who have not lost some of their nearest connexions. In another place, at every step one meets innumerable other unhappy wretches extended upon the ground, who, though not deprived of life, are wounded or bruised in a thousand ways. Some with their legs broken,' some without arms, some with their sculls fractured, and others with their whole bodies full of wounds. Such were the mournful objects that presented themselves to us during the remainder of that afternoon, many of whom died immediately, and others on the following days; the rest remaining abandoned to the most melancholy fate, without physicians, without medicines, and in want even of necessary food.
The sad result of the misfortunes of that day has been the total ruin of five villages in the province of Camarines, and the principal part of Albay; the death of more than twelve hundred unfortunate persons, and many others severely wounded; the loss of every thing that the survivors possessed in the world, being left without houses, without clothing, without animals, without the pros
2 L | pect pect of a harvest, and without a morsel fit to eat; the mournful and unhappy fate of many, who have been left orphans, abandoned to Divine Providence; others widows, with the loss of four, five, and even more children; the total destruction of their churches and parochial houses, with every thing that they contained; in consequence of which the sacraments could not be administered to such as died of their wounds the succeeding days, and who were buried without any pomp or ceremony} and the many infants who have since been born, have, from necessity, been baptized with common water, because the circumstances in which we were placed did not permit it to be otherwise. The present appearance of the volcano is most melancholy and terrific. Its side, which was formerly so cultivated, and which afforded a prospect the most picturesque, is now nothing but an arid and barren sand. The stones, sand, and ashes, which cover it, are so astonishing in quantity, that in some places they exceed the thickness of 10 and 12 yards; and in the very spot where lately stood the village of Budiao, there are places in which the cocoa-trees at e almost covered. In the ruined villages, and almost through the whole extent of the eruption, the ground remains covered with sand to the depth of half a yard, and scarcely a single tree is left alive. The crater of the volcano has lowered, as I judge, more than twenty fathoms; and on the south side discovers a spacious and horrid mouth, which it is frightful to look at. Three new ones are opened at a considerable distance
from the principal crater, throupi which also smoke and ashes weu incessantly emitted. In short, th-: most beautiful villages of Camarines and the principal part of that province are converted into a barren sand.
DESCENDANTS OP THE MCTISEEK5 OF HIS MAJESTY'S SniPBODXTT.
(From the Quarterly Retries J It is well known that in the year 1789, his Majesty's armed vessel the Bounty, 'while «nplov« in conveying the bread-fruit-tiw from Otaheite to the West Indkr, was run away with by her met), and the Captain and some of his officers put on board a boat, which, after a passage of 1,200 league.-, providentially arrived at a Dntu settlement on the island of Timor. The mutineers, 25 in • number, were supposed, from some expressions which escaped them when the launch was turned »drift, to have made sail towards Otaheite. As soon as this circumstance was known to the Admiralty, Captain Edwards was ordered to proceed in the Pandon. to that Island, and endeavour to discover and bring to England the Bounty, with such of the crew as he might be able to seuurt. On his arrival in March, 1791, at Matavai-bay, in Otaheite, four of the mutineers came \ohirtarily on board the Pandora to surrender themselves; aad from information given by them, ten others (the whole number alive upon the island) were, ie the, course of a few days, taken: and with the exception of four, who perished in the wreck of the Pandora, nearEndeavourStraigfct. conveyed to England for trial bt
fore a CoUrt-martial, which adjudged six of them to suffer death, and acquitted the other four.
from the accounts given by these men, as well as from some documents that were preserved, it appeared that as soon as Lieutenant Bligh had been driven from the ship, the 25- mutineers proceeded with her to Toobouai, where they proposed to settle; but the place being found to hold out little encouragement, they returned to Olaheite, and having there laid in a large supply of stock, they once more took their departure for Toobouai, carrying rvith them eight men, nine wouen, and seven boys, natives of >taheite. They commenced, on heir second arrival, the building >f a fort, but by divisions among hemselves and quarrels with the latives, the design was abandond.. Christian, the leader, also cry soon discovered that his auhority over his accomplices was t an end; he therefore proposed lint they should return to Otaeite; that a* many as chose it lieu Id be put on shore at that •land, and that the rest should roceed in the ship to any other lace they might think proper, ccordingly they once more put > sea, and reached Matavai on le 20th September, 1789. Here 16 of the 25 desired to be tided, 14 of whom, as already tentioned, were taken on board le Pandora; of the other two, as ported by Coleman (the first ho surrendered himself to Capin Eld wards), one had been made chief, killed his companion, and as shortly afterwards murdered mself by the natives. Christian, with the remaining ;ht of the mutineers, having
taken on board several of the natives of Otaheite, the greater part women, put to sea on the night between the 21st and 22d September, 1789; in the morning the ship was discovered from Point Venus, steering in a north-westerly direction; and here terminate the accounts given by the mutineers who were either taken or surrendered themselves at Matavai-bay. They stated, however, that Christian, on the night of his departure, was heard to declare, that he should seek for some uninhabited island, and having established his party, break up the ship; but all endeavours of Captain Edwards to gain intelligence either of the shiporher erew at any of the numerous islands visited by the Pandora, failed.
From this period, no information respecting Christian or-his companions reached England for 20 years; when, about the beginning of the year 1809, Sir Sidney Smith, then Commander-inChief on the Brazil station, transmitted to the Admiralty a paper, which he had received from Lieutenant Fitzmaurice, purporting to be an " Extract from the logbook of Captain Folger, of the American ship Topaz," and dated "Valparaiso, 10th Oct. 1808."
About the commencement of the present year, Rear Admiral Hotham, when cruising off New London, received a letter addressed to the Lords of the Admiralty, of which the following is a copy, together with the azimuth compass, to which it refers :—
"Nantucket, March I, 1813.
"My Lords,—The remarkable circumstance which took place on' my last voyage to the Pacific
2 L 2 Ocean