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dual completion of the works of defence, both fixed and flouting, on our maritime frontier, and an adequate provision for guarding our inland frontier against dangers to which ceitain portions of it may continue to be exposed.

As an improvement on our military establishment, it will deserve the consideration of Congress, whether a corps of invalids might not be so organized and employed, as at once to aid in the support of meritoriousindividuals, excluded by age or infirmities from the existing establishment, and to preserve to the p;i!>lic the benefit of their stationary services, and of their exemplary discipline. I recoiiimmd also, an enlargement of the military academy already established, and the establishment of others in other sections of the union. And 1 cannot press too much on the attention of Congress, such a classification and organization of the militia, as will most effectually render it the safeguard of u free state. If experience has shewn in the late splendid achievements of the militia, the value of this resource for the public defence, it has shewn also the importance of that skill in the use of arms, anil that familiarity with the essential rides of discipline, which cannot be expected from the regulations now in force. With this subject is ultimately connected the necessity of accommodating the laws, in every respect, to the great object of enabling the political authority of the union to employ, promptly and effectually, the physical power of the union, in the cases designated by the constitution.

The signal services which have been rendered by our navy,

and the capacities it has developed for the successful co-opemrion in the national defence, will grve to that portion of the public fort* its full value in the eyes of Congress, at an epoch which calls for the constant vigilance of all Governments. To preserve the ship* now in a sound state; to complete those already contemplated; to provide amply theunperishable materials for prompt augmentations, and to improve the existing arrangements into more advantageous establishments, for the construction, the repairs, and the security to vessels of war, is dictated by the soundest policy.

In adjusting the duties on imports to the object of revenue, the influence of the tariff on manufactures will necessarily present itself for consideration. However wise the theory may be, which leaves to the sagacity and interest of individuals the application of their industry ami resources, there are in this, as in other cases, exceptions to the general rule. Besides the condition which the theory itself implies, of a reciprocal adoption by other nations, experience teaches that so many circumstances must occur in introducing and maturing manufacturing establishments, especially of the more complicated kinds, that a country may remain long without them, although sufficiently advanced, and in *ome respects even peculiarly fitted for carrying them on with success. Under circumstances giving a ]xiwerful impulse to manufacturing industry, it has made among us a progress, and exhibited an efficiency, which justify the belief, that with a protection not more than is due to the enterprizing

prizing citizens whose interests are now at stake, it will become at an early day not only safe against occasional competitions From abroad, but a source of domestic wealth, and even of exterternal commerce. In selecting the branches more especially entitled to the public patronage, a preference is obviously claimed by such as will relieve the United States from a dependence on foreign supplies, ever subject to casual failures, for articles necessary for the public defence, or connected with the primary wants of individuals. It will be an additional recommendation of particular manufactures, where the materials for them are exclusively drawn from our agriculture, and consequently impart and ensure to that great fund of national prosperity and independence, an encouragement which cannot fail to be rewarded.

Among the means of advancr ing the public interest, the occasion is a proper one for recalling the attention of Congress to the great importance of establishing throughout our country the roads and canals which can best be executed under the national authority. No objects within the circle of political economy so richly repay the expense bestowed on them: there are none, the utility of which is more universally ascertained and acknowledged: none that do more honour to the Government, who?e wise and enlarged patriotism duly appreciates them. Nor is there any country which presents a field, where nature invites more the art of man, to complete her own work for his accommodation and benefit. These

considerations are strengthened, moreover, by the political effect of these facilities for intercommunication, in bringing and binding more closely together the various parts of our extended confederacy. Whilst the States, individually, with a laudable enterprise and emulation avail themselves of their local advantages, by new roads, by navigable canals, and by improving the streams susceptible of navigation, the general Government is the more urged to similar undertakings, requiring a national jurisdiction, and national means, by the prospect of thus systematically completing so inestimable a work. And it is a happy reflection, that any defect of constitutional authority which may be encountered, can be supplied in a mode which the constitution itself has providently pointed out.

The present is a favourable season also for bringing ae^iin into view the establishment of a national seminary of learning; within the district of Columbia, and with means drawn from the property therein subject to the authority of the general government. Such an institution claims the patronage of Congress, as a monument of their solicitude for the advancement of knowledge, without which the bless,ings of liberty cannot be fully enjoyed, or long preserved; as a model instructive in the formation .of other seminaries; as a nursery of enlightened preceptors; as a central resort of youth and genius from every part of their country, diffusing on their return examples of those national feelings, those liberal sentiments,


and those congenial manners, which, contribute cement to our union, and strength to the great political fabric, of which that is the formation.

Inclosing this communication, I ought not to repress a sensibility, in which you will unite, to the happy lot of our country, and to the goodness of a superintending Providence to which we are indebted for it. Whilst other portions of mankind are labouring under the distresses of war, or struggling with adversity in other forms, the United States are in the tranquil enjoyment of prosperous and honourable peace. In reviewing the scenes through which it has been attained, we can. rejoice in the proofs given, that our political institutions, founded in human rights, and framed for their preservation, are equal to the severest trials of war, as well as adapteitto the ordinary periods of repose. As fruits of this experience, and of the reputation acquired by the American arms, on the land and on the water, the nation finds itself possessed of a growing respect abroad, and of a just confidence in itself, which are among the best pledges for its peaceful career.

Under other aspects of our country, the strongest features of its flourishing condition are seen,

in a population rapidly incrc^-ing, on a territory as productive as it is extensive; in a general industry, and fertile ingenuity, which find their ample rewards; and in an affluent revenue, which admits a reduction of the public burthens without withdrawing the means of sustaining the public credit, of gradually discharging the public debt, of providing for the necessary defensive and precautionary establishments, and of patronising, in every authorised mode, undertakings conducive to the aggregate wealth and indidividual comfort of our citizens.

It remains for the guardiani of the public welfare, to persevere in that justice and good-will towards other nations, which invite a return of these sentiments towards the United States; to cherish institutions which guarantee their safety, and their liberties, civil and religious; and to combine with a liberal system of foreign commerce, an improvement of the natural advantages, and a protection and extension of the independent resources of our highly favoured and happy country.

In all measures, having such objects, my faithful co-operation will be afforded.

James Madison.

Washington, Dec. 5, 1815.



Account of the late eminent Philologist and Critic, Professor Heyne of Gottingen,from his Life published in German.

CHRISTIAN GOTTLOB HEYNE, an eminent critical scholar and philologist, was born at Chemnitz, in September 1729. In his younger years he had to struggle against the pressure of extreme poverty. His parents, who subsisted by the linen manufacture, were exceedingly indigent, and according to his own emphatic account, "the first impressions on his mind were made by the tears of his mother, lamenting that she was not able to find bread for her children." He was, however, sent to a common school in his native place, where he shewed great aptitude for learning, and soon made so much progress, that in his tenth year he gave lessons in reading and writing to a female child of a neighbour, in order that he might obtain money to defray the expense of his own education. By the friendship of a clergyman, who had been one of his godfathers, he was enabled to ejiter himself

at the grammar school. He now applied with the greatest diligence, and having acquired a competent knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages, was sent to the university of Leipsic, where he soon attracted the notice of professors Christ, Ernesti, and Winkler. On the recommendation of Ernesti, he obtained the situation of private tutor in the family of a Frencli merchant, but only for a short period, and therefore he was obliged to support himself in the best manner he could by private teaching. Having made choice of the law for a profession, he endeavoured to become thoroughly acquainted with the Roman law, literature, and history. The knowledge acquired in this manner enabled him afterwards to give lectures to the students of jurisprudence on the Roman antiquities, which were received with great approbation. A Latin elegy which he wrote on the death of Lacoste, preacher of the French reformed congregation, attracted the notice of the Saxon minister, Count Bruhl, and procured him an invitation to Dresden, to which, he repaired in, April l'7 5*3, elated with hope, and experienced a very favourable reception; but though the most flattering promises were made to him,' they terminated in disappointment, and his situation would have been highly unpleasant, had he not obtained the place of tutor to a young gentleman, which enabled him to spend the winter in comfort, till 1753, when he ■was again thrown out of employment. About this time he seems to have been reduced to a state of the utmost distress. Such was his poverty, that he was obliged to sell his books to prevent himself from starving; and pea shells, which he collected and boiled, were on many occasions his only food. As he had no lodging, a young clergyman, named Sonntag, with whom he had formed an acquaintance, took pity on his condition, and gave him a share of his apartment, where he slept on the bare boards, with a few books to supply Lhe place of a pillow. At length, after much solicitation, he was admitted as a copyist into the liruhlian library, at a bare salary of a hundred dollars per annum. As this appointment was not sufficient to preserve him from want, necessity compelled him to become a writer. His first attempt was a translation of a French novel; and in the same year he gave a translation of *' Chariton's History of Clucrea n*ld Callirrhoe," a Greek romance brought to light a few years before by Dorville, and illustrated by a learned commentary. It deserves to be remarked, that it was here that he first manifested that trvste for critiiism by which he was afterwards so much distin

guished. "In the fiilse and corrupted passages, I have assumed," says the translator, "true critical freedom; and supplied, corrected and amended, according to m» own ideas. In doing this, I enjoyed the infinite pleasure, which a young critic feels when In thinks he is able to amend' These early productions appean->"! without his name. H is next Wdtk was an edition of TibuUcs. It was dedicated to Count BruhJ. and though it met with no particular notice, either from him o: the German literati, it excitec considerable attention in foreim countries, and served to make the name of the critic niuch better known. Having found in the eke toral library a manuscript of Epictetus, which he collated, he w^ thence led to a more critical examination of the w ork of that philosopher, and soon found, particularly by studying the Commentary of Simplieius, that an extrusive field was here open for the labours of the critic. Hb first edition of Epictetus, which appeared in 1756, afforded a decisive proof of his profound knowledge in the Greek, and induced him to make himself better acquainted with the principles of the Stoic philosophy. Though classical literature formed the principal object of his research, he had not devoted himself to that branch exclusively. In thr liruhlean library he found abundance of works on the English and French literature, and he read with great attention the classical productions of both these nations. About this time he became acquainted with the celebrated Winkelmann, who frequerked the library, .

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