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honour to communicate to his .Excellency the Duke of Richelieu, the new Treaty of Alliance which they have signed in the name and by the Order of their august Sovereigns: a Treaty, the object of which is to give to the principles consecrated by the Treaties of Chaumont and Vienna, the application most analogous to present circumstances, and to connect the destiny of France with the common interests of Europe. The Allied Cabinets regard the stability of the order of things happily re-established in that country, as one of the essential bases of a solid and durable tranquillity. To that object their united efforts have constantly been directed, and their sincere desire to maintain and consolidate the result of those efforts, has dictated all the stipulations of the new Treaty. His Most Christian Majesty will in that act recognise the solicitude with which they have concerted the measures most proper for removing whatever might hereafter compromise the internal repose of France, and prepared remedies against the dangers with which the Royal Authority, the foundation of public order, might yet be. menaced. The principles and intentions of the Allied Sovereigns are in this respect invariable. Of this, the engagements which they have now contracted, furnish the most unequivocal proof; but the most lively interest they take in the satisfaction of his Most Christian Majesty, as well as in the tranr quillity and prosperity of his kingdom, induces the in to hope that the occurrences provided
against in these engagements will never be realised.
The Allied Cabinets perceive the first guarantee of this hope in the enlightened principles, magnanimous sentiments, and personal virtues of his Most Christian Majesty. Mis Majesty has recognised with them that in a State which has, during the quarter of a century, been torn by revolutionary movements, it doe* not belong to force alone to reproduce calm in the minds, confidence in the hearts, and equilibrium in the different parts of the social body; and that wisdom must be joined with vigour, and moderation with firmness, in order to operate these happy changes. Far from fearing that his Most Christian Majesty will ever lend an ear to imprudent or passionate counsels tending to nourish discontents, renew alarm, reanimate hatred and divisions, the Allied Cabinets are completely assured by the equally wise and generous dispositions which the King has announced in all the epochs of his reign, and particularly at that of his return after the late criminal usurpation. They know that his Majesty will oppose to all the enemies of the public welfare and tranquillity of his kingdom, under whatever form they may present themselves, his attachment to the constitutional laws promulgated under his own auspices; his will decidedly pronounced, to be the father of all his subjects, without any distinction of class or religion; to efface even the recollection of fhe evils which they have suffered, and to preserve of past times only the good which Frovidcnce Providence has caused to arise, even amidst public calamities. It is only thus that the wishes formed by the Allied Cabinets, for the preservation of the constitutional authority of his Most Christian Majesty, for the happiness of his country, and for the maintenance of the peace of the world, can be crowned with a complete success, and that France, re-established on her ancient bases, can resume the place to which she is called in the European system.
The Undersigned have the honour to reiterate to his Excellency the Duke of Richelieu their high consideration.
Message of American Pnsident.
This day at twelve o'clock, the President of the United States transmitted to both Houses of Congress, the following Message, by Mr. Todd, his Secretary :—
Fellow Citizens of the Senate, and the House of Representatives: I have the satisfaction, on our present meeting, of being able to communicate to you the successful termination of the war, which had been commenced against the United States by the Regency of Algiers. The squadron in advance, on that service, under Commodore Decatur, lost not a moment after its arrival in the Mediterranean, in seeking the
naval force of the enemy, then cruising in that sea, and succeeded in capturing two of his ships, one of them the principal ship, commanded by the Algerine Admiral. The high character of the American Commander was brilliantly sustained on the occasion, which brought his own ship into close action with that of his aiivirsarr, as was the accustomed gallantry of all the officers and men actually engaged. Having prepared the way by this demonstiation of American skill and prowess, he hastened to the port of Algiers, where peace was promptly \ielded to his victorious forte. In the terms stipulated, the lights and honour of the United Stiites were particularly consulted, by a perpetual relinquishment, onthepan* of the Dey, of all pretensions to tribute from them. The impressions which have thus been made, strengthened as they will have been, by subsequent transactions' with the Regencies of Tunis and Tripoli, by the appearance of the larger force which followed under Commodore Bainbridge, the chief in command of the expedition, and by the judicious precautionary arrangements left by him iu that quarter, afford a reasonable pm«pect of future security for the valuable portion of our commerce which passes within reach of the Barbary cruisers.
It is another source of satisfaction that the Treaty of Peace with Great Britain has been succeeded by a convention on the subject of commerce, concluded by the Plenipotentiaries of the two countries. In this result n disposition is manifested on the part
of that nation, corresponding with the disposition of the United States, which, it may be hoped, will t»e improved into liberal arrangements on other subjects, on "which the parties have mutual interests, or which nvght endanger their future harmony. Congress will decide on the expediency of promoting sucha sequel, bygiving effect to the measure of confining the American navigation to American seamen; a measure which, at the same time that it might have that conciliatory tendency, would have the further advantage of increasing the independence of our navigation, and the resources For our maritime rights.
In conformity with the articles of the treaty of Ghent, relating to the Indians, as well as with a view to the tranquillity of our western and north-western frontiers, measures were taken to establish an immediate peace with the several tribes who had been engaged in hostilities against the United States. Such of them as ■were invited to Detroit acceded readily to a renewal of the former treaties of friendship. Of the other tribes who were invited to a station on.the Mississippi, the gTeater number have also accepted the peace offered to them. The residue, consisting of the more distant tribes or parts of tribes, remain to be brought over by further explanations, or by such other means as may be adapted to the disposition they may finally disclose.
The Indian tribes within, and bordering on our southern frontier, whom a cruel war on their part had compelled us to chastise into peace, have lately shewn a
restlessness, which has called for preparatory measures for repressing it, and for protecting the Commissioners engaged in carrying the terms of the peace into execution.
The execution of the act for fixing the military peace establishment, has been attended with difficulties which, even now, can only be overcome by legislative aid. The selection of otlicers; the payment and discharge of the troops enli-ted for the war; the payment of the retained troops, and their re-union from detached and distant stations; the collection and security of the public property, in the quarter-master, commissary, and ordnance departments ; and the constant medical assistance required in hospitals and garrisons, rendered a complete execution of the act impracticable on the first of May, the period more immediately contemplated. As soon, however, as circumstances would permit, and as far as has been practicable, consistently with the public interests, the reduction of the army has been accomplished; but the appropriations for its pay, and for other branches of the military service, having proved inadequate, the earliest attention to that subject will be necessary; and the expediency of continuing upon the peace establishment the Staff Officers, who have hitherto been provisionally retained, is also recommended to the consideration of Congress.
In the performance of the executive duty upon this occasion, there has not been wanting a just sensibility to the merits of the American army during the late
war; but the obvious policy and design in fixing an efficient military peace establishment, did not i afford an opportunity to distinguish the aged and infirm on account of their past services j nor the wounded and disabled, on account of their present sufferings. The extent of the reduction indeed unavoidably involved the exclusion of many meritorious officers of every rank, from the service of their country; and so equal, as well as so numerous, were the claims to attention, that a decision by the standard of comparative merit, could seldom be attained. Judged, however, in candour, by a general standard of positive merit, the Army Register will, it is believed, do honour to the establishment; while the case of those officers, whose names are not included in it, devolves, with the strongest interests, upon the Legislative Authority, for such provision as shall be deemed the best calculated to give support and solace to the veteran and invalid; to display the beneficence, as well as the justice of the Government; and to inspire a martial zeal for the public service, upon every future emergency.
Although the embarrassments arising from the want of an uniform national currency have not been diminished since the adjournment of Congress, great satisfaction has been derived, in contemplating the revival of the public credit, and the efficiency of the public resources. The receipts into the Treasury from the various branches of revenue, during the nine months ending on the 30th of September last, have been estimated at twelve millions and
a half of dollars; the issues of Treasury Notes of every denomination, during the same period, amounted to the sum of fourteen millions of dollars; and there was also obtained upon loan, durifif the same period, a sum of nine millions of dollars, of -which the sum of six millions of dollars wis subscribed in cash, and the sjnn of three millions of dollars is Treasury notes. With these mean;, added to the sum of one million and a half of dollars, being tee balance of money in the Treasury on the first of January, there iu* been paid, between the first of January, and the 1st of October, an account of the appropriations cf the preceding and of the present year (exclusively of the amount of the Treasury notes subscribed to the loan, and the amount redeemed in the payment of duties and taxes), the aggregate sum of thirty-three millions and a half of uoilars, leaving a balance then in the Treasury estimated at the sum of three millions of dollars. Independent, however, of the arrearages doe for military services and supplies, it is presumed, that a further sum of five millions of dollars, including the interest on the public debt, payable on the 1st of January next, will be demanded at the Treasury to complete the expenditures of the present year, and for which the existing ways and means will sufficiently provide.
The national debt, as it wu ascertained on the 1st of October last, amounted in the whole to the sum of one hundred and twenty millions of dollars, consisting of the unredeemed balance of the debt contracted before the late war (thirty-nine millions of dollars),
lars), the amount of the funded debt contracted in consequence of the war (sixty-four millions of dollars), and the amount of the unfunded and floating debt, (including the various issues of Treasury notes) seventeen millions of dollars, which is in a gradual course of payment. There will, probably, be some addition to the public debt, upon the liq\iidation of various claims which are depending; and a conciliatory disposition on the part of Congress may lead honourably and advantageously to an equitable arrangement of the militia expenses, incurred by the several States, without the previous sanction or authority of the government of the United States.— But, when it is considered that the new, as well as the old, portion of the debt has been contracted in the assertion of the national rights and independence; and when it is recollected, that the public expenditures not being exclusively bestowed upon subjects of a transient nature, will long be visible in the number and equipments of the American navy, in the military works for the defence of our harbours and our frontiers, and in the supplies of our arsenals and magazines; the amount will bear a gratifying comparison with the objects which have been attained, as well as well as with the resources of the country.
The arrangement of the finances, with a view to the reeeipts and expenditures of a permanent peace establishment, will necessarily enter into the deliberations of Congress during the present session. It is true that the improved condition of the
public revenue will not only afford
Notwithstanding the security for future repose which the United States ought to find in their love of peace, and their constant respect for the rights of other nations, the character of the times particularly inculcates the lesson that, whether to prevent or repel danger, we ought not to be unprepared for it. This consideration will sufficiently recommend to Congress a liberal provision for the immediate extension and gradual