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Your language shall be used with the German in all public transactions; and every one of you, according to his abilities, shall be eligible to public employments in the Grand Duchy, and to all the offices, honours, and dignities, of my kingdom." A proclamation of the same date was addressed by the King to the inhabitants of the city and territory of Dantzic, the circle of Culm and Michelau,thetownof Thorn and its territory, informing them of their restoration to their ancient connections, and of their intended paticipation in the constitution planned for all his Majesty's subjects in the provincial government of West Prussia.
A royal decree published on May 25th, laid before the Prussian nation the plan of that representation of the people which was to be the basis of the future constitution of the monarchy. The following were its principal provisions: The provincial assemblies, where still existing, are to be reestablished and modelled according the exigencies of the time; and where at present there are no such assemblies, they are to be introduced. From these, the assembly of representatives of the kingdom is to be formed, which is to sit at Berlin, and the functions of which are to extend to deliberating upon all those objects of legislation which concern the personal rights of citizens, and their property, including taxation. A committee is to be formed at Berlin, of officers of state, and inhabitants of the provinces, nominated and presided over by the chancellor, for the purpose of organizing the provincial assemblies and the national representa
tion, and framing a constitution according to the principles laid down, which is to meet on the 1st of September ensuing. If in this declaration of the royal will the rudiments of a free government can be discerned, it must be acknowledged that a great number of essential points are left wholly indeterminate, and that the sovereign has bound himself to nothing which might not as readily be made an instrument, u a check, of regal authority.
A statement of the intended organization of the Prussian monarchy, given as authentic in a German paper, certainly bears an appearance more resembling that of a military government, than of one in which it is intended to afford much scope to the operation of the popular will. According to this plan, the whole monarchy is to be portioned into five military divisions, ten provinces, and twenty-five circles. Each division, comprehending two provinces, and averaging two million of inhabitants, is to have at its head a general in chief. Every province is to be administered by a high president, having under his special direction ecclesiastical affairs and public education, medical police, the common concerns of the province, and certain military matters. An annexed table of territorial divisions, with their capitals, is at least a good geographical document of the present Prussian dominions, whatever may be the event of the preceding plan. It is as follows: East Prussia, chief town, Konigsberg; West Prussia, Dantzic; Posen, Posen; Silesia, Breslau j Brandenburgh, Berlin j Pomera
nia nia (recently ceded by Sweden), Stettin; Saxony, Magdeburg; Minister, Munster ; Grand Duchy of the Lower Rhine, Cologne; Cleves and Berg, Dusseldorf.
In order to secure the external and internal tranquillity of Germany, and the independence of its different states, a solemn act of confederation was signed at Vienna on June 8th, between the sovereign princes and free cities, including the Emperor of Austria and the King of Prussia, for those •f their possessions which formerly belonged to the German empire; the King of Denmark, for Holstein; and the King of the Netherlands, for the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg. By this act the affairs of the Confederation are to be managed by a general assembly or diet, in which all the members are to be represented by their plenipotentiaries, either singly possessing a vote, or several joining to form one vote, the whole number of rotes being 17- The presidency is given to Austria; the place of meeting is to be Frankfort on the Maine. Each member of the Confederation engages to assist in protecting not only all Germany, but every separate state of the league, against any attack, and reciprocally to guarantee to each other the whole of their possessions included within the Confederation. They also bind themselves to enter into no treaties hostile to the Confederation, and not to make war upon one another noon any pretext, but to submit their differences to the de
cision of the Diet. It is further agreed, that in all the states of the Confederation a constitutional assembly of states-general shall be established; and that diversity of Christian faith shall occasion no difference in respect of civil and political rights. The Diet. is also to take into consideration the mode by which the condition of professors of the Jewish religion may be meliorated. They likewise assure to the subjects of the confederate states the possession of landed property out of the state in which they reside, without being subject to greater charges than the natives; the right of free emigration from one state to another which shall consent to receive them; and that of entering into the civil and military service of such confederate state; both those rights, however, on the supposition that they lie under no previous obligation of military service in their native country. The Diet, at its first meeting, is to occupy itself with the framing of uniform regulations relative to the freedom of the press, and the security of authors and publishers from oppression.
It will be remarked with satisfaction, that the general tenor of these articles affords proof of a great advance of liberal principles in this important part of Europe; and if the confederacy remain firm in its union, it must be a powerful preservative against the renewal of those internal wars by which Germany has so often beeu desolated.
CHAPTER ON April the 30th, the Emperor Alexander addressed to the President of the Polish Senate at Warsaw, a letter, announcing that the fate of their country had been unanimously decided by the Powers assembled in congress, and that he had assumed the title of King of Poland. "The kingdom (said the Emperor) will be united with Russia by the bond of its own constitution. If the great interest of general tranquillity has not permitted the union of all the Poles under the name Sceptre, I have, at least, endeavoured to alleviate as much as possible the pain of the separation, and to obtain for them every where the peaceful enjoyment of their nationality." We learn afterwards, that far the greatest part of the Duchy of Warsaw was thus made over to the Sovereign of Russia.
Kingdom of Poland under the Emperor of Russia.—Sweden.—Norway. —Swedish Pomerania annexed to- Prussia.—Switzerland.— The Part taken by it in the War.—Disturbance in Unterwalden pacified.
In the month of December an account appeared of that national constitution, under which the Kingdom of Poland is allowed to maintain an existence in its unequal conjunction with a mighty empire. The still subsisting statutes of the Duchy are preserved in all points, with the exception of such modifications as are neces
sary to conciliate them with the spirit of the nation, and approximate them to the constitution of May, 1791. The Roman-catholic is declared the religion of the State, but with the free exercise of all other modes of worship. The Executive Power and the functions of Government are exclusively vested in the Sovereign. No person can be arrested but according to legal forms, and in coses determined by the law. The grounds of imprisonment are to be communicated to every person in custody, and he must be brought before the competent tribunal within three days. No change is to be made in the taxes and imposts without the consent of the General Diet, convoked according to constitutional forms. In future, all civil and criminal laws, and all respecting the finance, and even relative to the functions of the constitutional authority, are to be submitted to the examination of the General Diet, and not to have the force of law till assented to by them, and sanctioned by the Sovereign.
This newly created Kingdom of Poland, with the Prussian Duchy of Posen, and the former annexations of the three partitioning Powers
Powers, comprehend the whole of what was once Poland, with the exception of the ancient capital, Cracow, which those Powers have thought good in congress to declare a free, independent, and strictly neutral city, havinga small territory assigned to it. Russia, Austria, and 1'russia, engage to respect, and to cause to be respected, its neutrality, and no armed force is upon any pretext to enter its territory. It is to possess its free constitution, its academy, and bishopric, as settled by a former treaty.
At the Diet of Sweden, which opened at Stockholm in March, the King delivered a speech remarkaLle for the very high terms in which lie mentioned the Crown Prince. Speaking of the dangerous state of the country when he ascended the throne, he said, "By your unanimous choice a hero was placed at my side. By him all your hopes and mine were animated. The dangers which loured at a distance vanished before the lightning of his sword, &nd all contending spirits were pacified by the benignity of his countenance." After alluding to the new contest for the liberties of Europe, in which their country bore a part, "My son, however, (said he) did not draw his sword merely to raise the honour of the warriors of Sweden to its former lustre ; he had, as well as myself, a higher and more important end in \ iew." This is explained to be the union of Norway with S weden; on the effectuating of which, the assembly is warmly congratulated: The eulogy on the Prince is brought U> a climax,, by pronouncing him
more worthy of the choice of the States, than any one who has worn the crown of the Great Gustavus Adolphus.
The Diet appears to have passed in great harmony. The States having been informed by the King, that the foreign debt would in a short time be discharged, a deputation of the four orders waited upon his Majesty, and the Crown Prince, with an address of gratitude on that account. In this they expressed their acknowledgments to the King, *' that by wise and beneficent measures, as well as by important personal services, he had given the. nation the power, of which it would probably have been deprived for a long time to come, of discharging in away not likely to be much felt by the finances, a debt which had long pressed heavily upon them." On. August the 10th, the Diet was closed by a speech from the Throne, which began with affirming, that" Seldom had aKing of Sweden more objects to propose for regulation to his people, or more occasion for joy in doing so; seldom had the bond of union between the Sovereign and subjects been more closely drawn." Among other causes for satisfaction, he particularly mentioned the conviction expressed by the Diet, that the union between Sweden and Norway required for its solidity an entire recognition of common rights; and their having met with enlightened good-will the wishes of the Norwegian nation, .and thereby excited a mutual confidence, which had shewn in a short period what could only have been expected from long expe■ • -. ....'' -rience. rience. After noticing the event which had again rekindled in Europe the flame of war, his Majesty observed, that, prevented by its situation and confined resources from taking a more active part, the Scandinavian Peninsula had only been able by concurring in the principles of its allies, to give proof of its continued friendly union.
The Diet of Norway was assembled in this summer, and on July 5th a royal speech was delivered before it by the Chancellor of the kingdom, Count Essen. Its principal topic was the new war by which the repose of Europe had been disturbed, and which rendered it necessary that the united Scandinavian people should be prepared for any exigency, although there was reason to hope that they might still enjoy the security of their geographical position. Mention was then made of the fraternal disposition towards the Norwegians displayed by Sweden j and it was announced that ti>e misunderstandings with Denmark on account of Pomerania had been brought to a desirable conclusion.
This last event was effected in tV.e following manner :—By the treaty of Kiel in January 1514, the King of Sweden had ceded to the crown of Denmark his rights to Pomerania and Rugen as a compensation for Norway. The King of Denmark, compelled by circumstances to acquiesce in this exchange, found his new possession of little value on account of its separation from the other parts of his dominion; and by a treaty ■with the King of Prussia, dated .'■.me 4th, 1815, he ceded to that
king his rights to Swedish Pomerania and Rugen, in return for the Duchy of Lauenburg (which had been made over to him by Hanover), and a sum of money in addition. This exchange was completed by letters-patent from the King of Sweden, dated Oct. 1st. absolving the inhabitants of Pomerania and Rugen from any remaining allegiance to the Swedish crown; and in the same month, those districts were formally occupied by the King of Prussia's commissioner.
The part to be taken by the Swiss Cantons on the renewal of war between the allied powers and France was necessarily regarded as a matter of importance; and on May Gth the ministers of the four great powers at Zurich delivered a note on the subject to the Diet then sitting. They begin with applauding the determination expressed by the Helvetic body, at the moment of Buonaparte's return to France, of taking up arms to defend its frontiers, and avert the disorders with which all Europe was menaced by this event. They proceed to mention the compact entered into by the sovereigns at the congress of Vienna for subverting this usurpation, and their invitation to the rest of Europe to accede to it, which had been accepted; and they announce that they have been commissioned by these powers to represent to the Diet their confident expectation, that Switzerland, l>y a formal declaration, would adopt the same principles, and concert with them the measures necessary for opposing the common danger. They affirm, however, that the allied powers