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WILLIAM M. EVARTS, one of the foremost lawyers of the United States and widely known as an orator, was born in Boston in 1818. Graduating at Yale College in 1837, he studied law and was admitted to the bar in New York City. During President Hayes's administration he was Secretary of State.

After the surrender of Cornwallis and the British army at Yorktown, Washington established his headquarters at Newburg on the Hudson, and the American armies were encamped in the neighboring fields. There they remained eighteen months, awaiting the result of negotiations for peace. At last the treaty was signed, acknowledging our independence, and on the 18th of October, 1783, Congress issued a proclamation discharging, after the 3d of November, all who had engaged to serve during the war.

The following eloquent tribute paid to the services and character of Washington is taken from Mr. E varts's oration, delivered at the Centennial Celebration in the city of Newburg, October 18th, 1883.

1. On this very day, one hundred years ago, Congress issued a proclamation disbanding all the armies, and Washington, from Prinı eton, under date of November 2d, 1783, put forth his "Farewell Address to the Armies of the United States."

2. These two remarkable papers embraced within their counsels, their exhortations, their instructions, their warnings, and their benediction, the citizens and the soldiers of the whole country. They were at once the evidence and the annunciation that the great work of Independence was accomplished, and the nation was established.

3. No formal proclamations, no authentic acts of government, could carry the weight, could receive the attention, could pervade the public mind, could animate the hearts, could stimulate the conscience, could control

the conduct of this people, passing from the wilderness into their promised land, as did these personal words of their great leader.

4. He stood, he was to stand, upon the level of common citizenship with themselves. But it was a citizenship which had been built up, and was to endure, as a crown of glory to a whole people, and an inheritance never to perish, till they had lost the virtues illustrated and inculcated by Washington.

5. The interest, the reverence, that we feel as we recall these great transactions, as we stand upon the spot where they were enacted, center upon Washington. Great everywhere and at all times, the part played upon this field, in these closing months of the Revolution, was not less conspicuous nor complete in its greatness than any manifestation of his life.

6. Had these events closed his public service, had he then forever retired from the great theater of action and renown, had he never filled out our admiration and our gratitude by the eight years of private life and the eight years of the chief magistracy which followed the surrender of his military command, — if his great presence in the framing of the Constitution and in the guidance of the nation by high statesmanship and pure administration, if all this had been wanting to the full splendor of his fame, if he stood to his countrymen in their memory as he stood upon this very spot one hundred years ago, — his face would have shone to all this people as did the face of Moses to the children of Israel when he delivered the Tables of the Law.

7. And now, after a hundred years of marvelous fortunes and crowded experiences, we confront the days and the works and the men of the first age of the republic. Three wars have broken the peace here proclaimed: the war for neutrality, to complete our independence by establishing our right to be at peace, though other powers sought to draw us into their wars; the war for boundary, which pushed our limits to the Pacific, and rounded our territory; the war of the Con

i stitution, which established for this people that, for them and forever, “ Liberty and Union are one and inseparable.”

8. These rolling years have shown growth, forever growth, and strength, increasing strength, and wealth and numbers ever expanding, while intelligence, freedom, art, culture, and religion have pervaded and ennobled all this material greatness. Wide, however, as is our land and vast our population to-day, these are not the limits to the name, the fame, the power of the life and character of Washington. No spot in the wide world is in hospitable to his glory, and no people in it but rejoices in the influence of his power and his virtue.


dis-band'ing, dismissing from mili- , in-cul'cāt-ed, taught impressively. tary service.

in-hos'pi-ta-ble, unfriendly. au-then’tic, true and authoritative.

passing from the wilderness, etc. (3). What event in sacred history is here alluded to?. Find in the Bible something said avout the land promised to the Israelites. — the face of Moses (6). See Exodus xxxiv. 29, 30.– Three wars (7). Describe more detinitely these wars.

Explain the phrases “the chief magistracy” (6); "framing the Constitu tion” (6). What is the literal meaning of “disbanding” (1)? Can you tel' any difference in meaning between “counsel ” and “exhortation (2) What word is the opposite of “benediction” (2)? Can you tell any differ. ence in meaning between “reputation ” and “character” (8) ?





FLAG of the heroes who left us their glory,

Borne through their battle-fields' thunder and flams Blazoned in song and illumined in story, Wave o'er us all who inherit their fame!

Up with our banner bright,

Sprinkled with starry light,
Spread its fair emblems from mountain to shore,

While through the sounding sky

Loud rings the Nation's cry, — Union and Liberty! One evermore !

2. Light of our firmament, guide of our Nation,

Pride of her children, and honored afar, Let the wide beams of thy full constellation

Scatter each cloud that would darken a star!

Empire unsceptered! what foe shall assail thee,

Bearing the standard of Liberty's van?
Think not the God of thy fathers shall fail thee,

Striving with men for the birthright of man!

4. Yet, if, by madness and treachery blighted,

Dawns the dark hour when the sword thou must draw. Then with the arms of thy millions united

Smite the bold traitors to Freedom and Law !

Lord of the Universe! shield us and guide us,

Trusting Thee always, through shadow and sun !
Thou hast united us, who shall divide us ?
Keep us, o keep us, the Many in One!

Up with our banner bright,

Sprinkled with starry light,
Spread its fair emblems from mountain to shore,

While through the sounding sky

Loud rings the Nation's cry,
Union and Liberty! One evermore!

bla/zoned (-znd), proclaimed. | il-lu’mined, lighted up.

Explain: sprinkled with starry light (1); empire unsceptered (3); Lib erty's van (3); the Many in One (5).

What real meaning is expressed metaphorically in the third and fourth lines of the second stanza ?

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