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6. How much is it of an hundred weight?
Ans. Syrs.- 1b. 101402. 7. Wat is the value of of a mile :
Ins. 6fur. 26po. 11N. 8 Ilow much is of an cwt.
Ans. Syrs. 3lh. luz. 12: dr. 9. Reduce of an El English to its proper quantity
Fus. 2yrs. Stua. 10. flow much is , of a hhdl. of wine: Ans, 54gal. 11. What is the value of is of a day:
Jur. 1o. min. 35/sec.
PROBLEM III. To reduce any given quantity to the fraction of any greater denomization of the same kind.
RI'IE. Reduce the given quantity to the lowest terin inentioned for a numerator; then reduce the integral part to the sanie term, for a denominator ; which will be the frac. tion required.
F.XAMPL.ES. 1. Reduce 135. Gl. 24rs. to the fraction of a poun... 20 Integral part
13 6 2 given sain, 12
960 Denominator. 650 Num. Ans. 548 2. What part of an hundred, upisht is juis. 1411. Syrs. 111/b.=9&ib.
JİNN. = 3. What part of a vard is jyrs. Sna.? 4. What part of a pound sterling is 135. 4.1. Ans: 1 5. Flat part of a civii year is 3 weeks, tavs : 6. What part of a mile is Clur. 26po. sydls. 21.: Jur. po. pil. ji. Mrt. 6 26 21700 Num. a mile =52:0 Denim.
Ans. 319 7. Reduce 702. 4pwt. to the fraction of a pound try;
9. Reduce 54 gallons to the fraction of a hogshead of wine,
Ans. $ 10. What part of a hogshead is 9 gallons ? Ans. 1 11. What part of a pound troy is 1002. 10pwt. 10yrs.?
DECIMAL FRACTIONS. A Decimal Fraction is that whose denominator is an unit, with a cypher, or cyphers annexed to it, Thus, t'or Tắc: hồ ,
&c. &c. The integer is always divided either into 10, 100, 1000, &c. equal parts; consequently the denominator of the fraction will always, be either 10, 100, 1000, or 10000,&c. which being understol, need not be expressed; for the true value of the fraction may be expressed by writing the numerator only with a point before it on the left hand thus, ' , is written .5; 945; 106,725, &c.
But if the numerator las not so many places as thie denominator has cypliers, put so many cyphers before it, viz.. at the left hand, as will make up the defect; su write too thus, ,11,5 ; and 10 mo thos, ,006, &c. Nore. The point prefixell is called the separatrix.
Decimals are counted from the left towards the right harid, and each figure takes its value by its distance fro:n the unit's place; if it be in the first place after units, (or separating point) it signifies tenths'; if in the second, hundredths, &c.' decreasing in each place in a tenfold proportion, as in the following
6 5 4 Whole Numbers.
Cyphers placed at the right hand of a decimal fraction do not alter its value, since every significant figure cona timies to possess the same place ww,5 „50 and ,509 are all the saine value, and equal to is or do
But cyplers placed at the left hand of decimals, de. crease their value in a tentold proportion, by removing diem fuit:er froin tiie lecimal point. Thus, 03.05 .005, &c. are five terith parts, five hundredth parts, live tlmusanth parts, &c. respectively. It is therefore evident that the magnitude of a decimal fraction, compared with another, does not depend upon the number of its figures, but upon the value of its first left hand figure : for instance, a fraction beginning with any figure less than ,9 such as .899229, &c. il extended to an infinite number af figures, will not equal ,9.
ADDITION OF DECIMAIS.
RUI.F.. 1. Place the numbers, wnerher mixed or pure decimals, uncler each other, according to the value of their places.
2. Find their sum as in whole numbers, and joint off 80 many places for the decimals, ils are equal 20 the great. ezt number of decimal parts in any of the given numbers.
1. Find the sum of 41,653 +36,05 +24,009+1,6
Sum, 103,512 which is 103 integers, and the parts of an unit. Or, it is 10.3 units, and 3 tenth parts, i hun. drrelih part, and 2 thousandth parts of an unit, or 1.
llence we may observe. that decimals, and FEDERAL Mosty, are subject to one, and the same law of notation, and eansyueitly of operation.
for since. dollar is the money unit; and a dime being the tenth, a cent the hundredth, and a mill the thousandth part of a dollar, or unit, it is evident that ang mmber of dollars, dimes, cells and mills, is simply the expression of dollars, and doesmai parts of a colar: 'Iius, 11 dollar'n, û dimes, 5 cent», li,tij ar 110
. Add the following mirea numbers together
5. Add the following sume of Dollars logether, viz.. 81:9.54563 7.951 +2.16-18. torinoli
Hors. 856,5:::5, or 850i, ádi. :'1*. : Homiils. 6. Add the following paarik ost an acre together, sir.. ,: 369+,25 +,634 +,199
tris. 1,8599 arres. 7. Add 72,5+32,071 +2,1574 +3:1,4+2,: 5
Ins. 480,8784 8. Adi 30,07 +200,71 +59,4+3207,1
.Ans. 3497,28 9. Add 71,463 +27,94+16,084+98,009+86.5
Ans. 300 10. Add ,509+,0074+,69+,8408+,6109
Ans. 2,9 11. Add ,67.099+,37+,905 +.026 ใ ins. 2
12. To 9,999999 add one milliouth part of an unit, and the sum wili bé 10.
13. Find thie suin of 'I'wenty-five hundreditlis, Three hundred and sixty-five thousandths, Six tenths, and jue milliouths,
SUBTRACTION OF DECIMALS.
Place the numbers according to their value ; then sub tract as in whole numbers, and point off the decimals as in Addition.
6. From 480 take 245,0075
Ans. 234.9925 7. From 236 viwis. take 1549 dols. Ans. 825.4.11 8. From ,145 tahe ,09687
Ars, 01816 9. Fron .2754 take ,2371
Ans. ,0383 10. From 271 take 215.7
Anes. 55 11. Froiu 2711,2 take 75,4075
Ans. 194,7925 12. From 107 take ,0007
Ans. 106,9993 13. From an unit, or 1, subtract the millionth part of -tself.
MULTIPLICATION OF DECIMALS.
1. Whether they be mixed numbers, or pure decimals, place the factors and multiply them as in whole numbers.
2. Point off so many figures from the prosluct as there are decimal places in both the factors; and if there be IKOt, so many places in the product, supply the defect by prefixing cyphers to the lett hand.