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3. When the divisor is large, and not a composite number, you may divide by the whole divisor at once, after tranner of long division, as follows, visi
Multiply by produces
34 pounds remaining.
20 and add in the 150. 693 shillings, which divided by" 47, preto 47
1745. in the quotiente
35 shillings remaining. Multiply by 18 and add in the 3d. produces 423 pence, which divided as above, ging 423
[9d in the quotiont
15. From a piece of cloth containing 64 yards 2 na. a taylor wæs ordered to make 9 soldiers' coats, which took one third of the whole piece ; how many yards did each coat contain ?
Ans. 2yds. lor. 2na.
PRACTICAL QUESTIONS. 1. If 9 yards of cloth cost 41. 3s. 7fd. what is that per yard ?
f. S. d. gr.
9 3 2 Ansuer.
2. Il 11 tons of hay cost 231. Os. 2d. what is that per ton ?
Ans. 62 1s. 10d. 3. If 12 gallons of brandy cost 41. 15s. 6d. what is that per gallons
4. Ans. 7s. 11d. 2grs. 4. If 84 lbs. of cheese cost 11. 168. 9d. what is that per pound ?
Ans. 514. 5. Bought 48 pairs of stockings for 11l. 2s. how much a pair do they stand me in? . . Ans. 4s. 71d.
6. If a reckoning of 5l. 8s. 10 d. be paid equally among 13 persons what do they pay a-piece ' Ans. 8s. 4fd.
. A piece of cloth containing 24'yards, cost 181. 6s. what did it cost per yard ? . Ans. 15s. 3d ,
8. If a hogshead of wine cost 331. 12s. what is it a gallon?
Ars. 10s. 8d. 9. If 1 cwt. of sugar cost 31. 10s. what is it per pound ?
Ans. 7.d. 10. If a man spends 711. 148. 6d. a year what is that per calendar inonth ?
Ans. £5 19s. 6 d. 11. The Prince of Wales' salary is 157,0001. a year, what is that a day?
Ans. £410 !9s. 2d. 12. A privateer takes a prize worth 12465 dollars, of which the owner takes one half, the officers one fourth, and the remainder is equally divided among the sailors, who are 125 in number; how much is each sailor's part?
Ans $24 93cts.
13. Three mercnants, A, B, and C, have a ship in company. A hath , B , and C į, and they receive for freight 2281. 16s. 8d. It is required to divide it arnong the owners according to their respective shares
Ans. A's share £ 143 Os. 5d. * B's share 657 4s. 2d. C's share 4,28 12s. 1d. ,
14. A privateer having taken a prize worth $6850, it is divided into one hundred shares, of which the captain is to have 11; 2 lieutenants, each 5; 12 midshipinen, each 2; and the remainder is to be divided equally among the sailors, who are 105 in number.
Ans. Captain's share $753 50cts, lieut's. 8342 50cts. a midshipman's 8157, and a sailor's 835 38cts
REDUCTION, . TEACHES to bring or change numbers from one name to another, without altering their value. Reduction is either Descending or Ascending.
Descending is when great names are brought into small, as pounds into shillings, days into hours, &c.-Tiris is done by Multiplication.
Ascending is when sınall names are brought into great, as shillings into pounds, hours into days, &c. This is performed by Division. REDUCTION DESCENDING.
Multiply the highest denomination given, by so many of the next less as make one of that greater, and thus continue till you have brought it down as low as your question requires. * PROOF. Change the oruer of the question, and divide your last product by the last multiplier, and so on.
EXAMPLES. 1. In 251. 15s. 9d. 2grs how many farthings?
515 shillings 12)6189 2 qrs.
525 15 9 24758 farthings Notz. In multiplying oy 20, I added in the 155.by 12 the Oil. mand by 4 the 2grs. which must always be done in like cases. %. In s1l. 11s. 10d. 1gr. how many farthings ?
Ans. 30329 3. In 46l. 58. 11d. Sgrs. how many farthings?
Ans. 44447 4. In 611. 146. how many shillings, pence and far. things:
Ans. 12325. 14784d. 59136grs. 5. In 84l. how many shillings and pence ?
Ans. 1680s. 20160d. 6. In 18s. 9d. how many pence aad farthings :
Ans. 225d. 900s. 7. In 3121. 88. 5d. how many hall-pence :
Ans. 149962 8. In 846 dollars at 6s. each, how many farthings ?
Ans. 243648 9. In 41 guineas at 286. each, how many pence ?
Ans. 13776 10. In 59 pistoles, at 22s. how many shillings, pence, and farthings ?
. Ans. 1298.s. 15576d. 62304grs. 11. In 37' half-johannes, at 48s. how many shillings, six-pences, anl three-pences ?
Ans. 1776s. 3552 six-penres. 7104 three-pences.. 12. In 121 French crowns, at 6s. 8d. each, how many once and farthings? : Ans. 9680d. 38720grs.