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2. Troy Weight.

24 grains (gr.) make 1 penny-weight, marked 20 penny-weights,

1 ounce,

12 ounces,

1 pound,

3. Avoirdupois Weight.

16 drams (dr.) make

1 ounce,

16 ounces,

1 pound,

28 pounds, 1 quarter of a hundred weight,
1 hundred weight,

4 quarters,

20 hundred weight,

1 ten,

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20 grains gr.) make
S scruples,
8 drams,

By this weight are weighed all coarse and drossy goods, grocery wares, and all metals except gold and silver.

4. Apothecaries Weight.

1 scruple,
1 dram,

pwt.

Oz.

lb.

1 ounce,
1 pound,

tb

02.

lb.

qr.

cwt.

T.

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12 ounces,

4 nails (na.) make
4 quarters.
s quarters,
5 quarters,
6 quarters,

5. Cloth Measure.

2 pints (pt.) make
8 quarts,
4. pecks,

1 quarter of a yard,
1 yard,
1 Ell Flemish,
1 Ell English,
1 Ell French,

Apothecares use this weight in compounding their

medicines.

6. Dry Measure.

1 quart,
1 peck,
1 bushel,

qr.

yd.

E. R.

E. E.

E.Fr.

gt.

pk.

bu.

This measure is applied to grain, beans, flax-sced, salt, oats, oysters, coal, &c

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s furlongs,

S miles.

1 terce,

1 hogshead,

1 pipe,

1 tun,

8. Long Measure.

5 barley corns (b. c.) make 1 inch, marked 12 inches,

1 foot,

3 feet,

5 yards, 40 rods,

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69 statute miles,
360 degrees, the circumference of the earth.

gal.

El.

All brandies, spirits, mead, vinegar, oil, &c. are measured by wine measure. Note.-251 solid inches, make a gallon.

tier.

hhd.

p.

T.

in.

ft.

1 yard,

yd.

1 rod, pole, or perch, rd.
1 furlong,

fur.

1 mile,

m.

1 league,

lea.

1 degree, on the earth.

The use of long measure is to measure the distance of places, or any other thing, where length is considered, without regard to breadth.

N. B. In measuring the height of horses, 4 inches make 1 hand. In measuring depths, six feet make 1 fathom, or French toise. Distances are measured by a chain, four rods long, containing one hundred links.

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9 Land, or Square Measure.

144 square inches make 9 square feet, SO4 square yards, or 2724 square feet, 40 square rods, 4 square roods, 640 square acres,

10. Solid or Cubic

1728 solid inches make

40 feet of round timber, or
50 feet of hewn timber,
128 solid feet or 8 feet long,
4 wide, and 4 high,

11.

60 seconds (S.) make 60 minutes,

1 square foot.
1 square yard.

1 square rod.

1 square rood.
1 square acre.
1 square mile.

Measure.

60 seconds (") make 60 minutes,

All solids, or things that have length, breadth and depth, are measured by this measure. N. B. The wine gallon contains 251 solid or cubic inches, and the beer gallon, 282. A bushel contains 2150,42 solid inches.

1 solid foot.

1 ton or load.'

1cord of wood.!

1

Time.

1 minute, marked
1 hour,
1 day,
1 week,

1 month,

S. M.

lu.

d.

24 hours,

w.

7 days,
4 weeks,

mo.

yr.

18 months, 1 day and 6 hours, 1 Julian year, Thirty days hath September, April. June, and November, February twenty-eight alone, all the rest have thirty-one. N. B. In bissextile, or leap year, February hath 29 days.

12. Circular Motion.

1 minute,
1 degree,
1 sign,

3.

30 degrees,

T

12 signs, or 360 degrees, the whole great circle of the

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Explanation of Characters used in this Book.

Equal to, as 12d. = 1s. signifies that 12 pence are equal to 1 shilling.

+ More, the sign of addition, as 5+7-12, signifies that 5 and 7 added together, are equal to 12.

Minus, or less, the sign of subtraction, as 6-2=4, signifies that 2 subtracted from 6, leaves 4.

× Multiply, or with, the sign of Multiplication; as 4×3-12, signifies that 4 multiplied by 5, is equal to

12.

The sign of Division; as 8÷2=4, signifies that divided by 2, is equal to 4; or thus, 4, each of which signify the same thing.

Four points set in the middle of four numbers, denote them to be proportional to one another, by the rule of three; as 2:4::8:16; that is, as 2 to 4, so is 8 to 16.

Prefixed to any numoer, supposes that the of that number is required.

square root

Prefixed to any number, supposes the cube root of that number is required.

Denotes the biquadrate root, or fourth power, &c.`

ARITHMETIC.

ARITHMETIC is the art of computing by numbers, and has five principal rules for its operation, viz. Numeration, Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Divi

sion.

15

NUMERATION.

Numeration is the art of numbering. It teaches to express the value of any proposed number by the follow ing characters, or figures:

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0-or cypher.

Besides the simple value of figures, each has a local value, which depends upon the place it stands in, viz. any figure in the place of units, represents only its simple value, or so many ones, but in the second place, o.

NOTE. Although a cypher standing alone signifies noth ing; yet when it is placed on the right hand of figures, it in creases their value in a tenfold proportion, by throwing them into higher places. Thus with a cypher annexed to it becomes 20, twenty, and with two cyphers, thus, 200, twc hundred.

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2. When numbers consisting of many figures, are given to be read, it will be found convenient to divide them into as many periods as we can, of six figures each, reckoning from the right hand towards the left, calling the first the period o units, the second that of millions, the third billions, the fourth trillions, &c. as in the following number:

3 0 7 3 6 2 5 4 6 2 7 8 9 0 1 250 679 2

4. Period of S. Period of | 2. Period of 1. Period of
Trillions.
Billions.
Millions.
Units.

&c.

8078

625462

789012

506792

The foregoing number is read thus-Eight thousand and seventy-three trillions; six hundred and twenty-five thousand, four hundred and sixty-two billions; seven hundred and eighty-nine thousand and twelve millions; five hundred and six thousand, seven hundred and ninety-two.

N. B. Billions is substituted for millions of millions.
Trillions for millions of millions of millions.

Quatrillions for millions of millions of millions of millions

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