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regular troops under the command of Colonel Bouquet. This force, on its march from Carlisle to Fort Pitt, was attacked by a large number of Indians, near a stream called Bushy Run. The assailants were defeated with a loss of about sixty warriors killed. The loss of the English was about fifty killed, and sixty wounded. On the fourth day succeeding this battle, the British troops reached Fort Pitt; and the hostile Indians immediately retreated from the neighborhood of that post: but, throughout the succeeding autumn and winter, they continued in detached parties, to wage war against the settlers on the western frontiers of the English colonies. Roused to a high degree of excitement by this destructive warfare, the British authorities determined to adopt strong measures for the punishment and subjugation of the hostile tribes. In 1764, General Bradstreet, at the head of three thousand men, was ordered to proceed against the Wyandots, Ottawas, Chippewas, and other Indian nations living near the borders of the lakes Erie, Huron, and Michigan. About the same time, another strong force, under the command of Colonel Bouquet, was ordered to march against the Delawares, Shawanees, and other hostile tribes who inhabited the country lying between the lakes and the river. In addition to these measures, the Governor of Pennsylvania, by a proclamation of the 7th of July, 1764,* offered bounties for the scalps or the capture of hostile Indians. The bounties were For every male above ten years, captured,

$150 00 For every male above ten years, scalped, being killed, 134 00 For every female or male under ten years, captured, 130 00 For every female above ten years, scalped, being killed, 50 00

While General Bradstreet was on his way from Niagara to Detroit, he was met by delegates who bore overtures of peace from many of the northwestern tribes; and soon after his arrival at Detroit, which post he reached without opposition, all the tribes about that region concluded treaties of peace with the English. The chief Pontiac, however, took no part in the pacific negotiations. Having been deceived by the French,

*Gordon's History of Pennsylvania, 438.

overpowered by the English, and deserted by the Indians, he retired to the Illinois country, where he was assassinated, in the year 1767.*

On the 3d day of October, 1764, the forces under Colonel Bouquet, consisting of fifteen hundred men, moved from Fort Pitt, and, on the 25th of the same month, reached the forks of the Muskingum river, where they encamped. At this point, Colonel Bouquet held conferences with the Delawares, Shawanees, and bands of some other tribes. The Indians, who were in an impoverished and feeble statę, gave pledges for their good behavior until peace should be fully concluded with Sir William Johnson, the British Superintendent of Indian Affairs. They also gave up two hundred and six prisoners, men, women and children. The English forces then returned to Fort Pitt, and a cessation of hostilities was proclaimed on the 5th of December.f From this period until the year 1774, the Indians who occupied the country about the borders of the river Ohio, waged no war against the British colonies; although, in the meantime, many English colonists, disregarding the proclamation of the king, the provisions of treaties, the remonstrances of the Indians, and the prohibitory proclamations of the governors of Pennsylvania and Virginia, continued to harass the Indians, by making settlements upon their lands, and by killing a considerable number of their men, women, and children. I

On the 30th of December, 1764, General Gage, commanderin-chief of the British forces in North America, having received advices of the pacific disposition of the northwestern Indians issued the following proclamation, affecting the French inhabitants of the Illinois country.

“By his Excellency Thomas Gage, Major General of the King's Armies, Colonel of the 22d Regiment, General commanding in chief all the forces of his Majesty in North America, &c. &c. &c.

“Whereas, by the peace concluded at Paris, on the 10th of February, 1763, the country of the Illinois has been ceded to

Carver's Travels, 104.
fGordon, 437.
Jefferson's Notes on Virginia, 312... Gordon's His. Pennsylvania, 447.

his Britannic Majesty, and the taking possession of the said country of the Illinois, by the troops of his Majesty, though delayed, has been determined upon, we have found it good to make known to the inhabitants:

That his Majesty grants to the inhabitants of the Illinois the liberty of the Catholic religion, as it has already been granted to his subjects in Canada: he has consequently given the most precise and effective orders, to the end, that his new Roman Catholic subjects of the Illinois may exercise the worship of their religion according to the rites of the Roman church, in the same manner as in Canada:

That his Majesty, moreover, agrees, that the French inhabitants, or others, who have been subjects of the most Christian King, may retire, in full safety and freedom, wherever they please, even to New Orleans, or any other part of Louisiana, although it should happen that the Spaniards take possession of it in the name of his Catholic Majesty; and they may sell their estates, provided it be to subjects of his Majesty, and transport their effects, as well as their persons, without restraint upon their emigration, under any pretence whatever, except in consequence of debts or of criminal process:

That those who choose to retain their lands and become subjects of his Majesty, shall enjoy the same rights and privileges, the same security for their persons and effects, and liberty of trade, as the old subjects of the king :

That they are commanded, by these presents, to take the oath of fidelity and obedience to his Majesty, in presence of Sieur Sterling, captain of the Highland Regiment, the bearer hereof, and furnished with our full powers for this purpose:

That we recommend forcibly to the inhabitants, to conduct themselves like good and faithful subjects, avoiding by a wise and prudent demeanor, all cause of complaint against them:

That they act in concert with his Majesty's officers, so that his troops may take peaceable possession of all the posts, and order be kept in the country; by this means alone they will spare his Majesty the necessity of recurring to force of arms, and will find themselves saved from the scourge of a bloody war, and of all the evils which the march of an army into their country would draw after it.

We direct that these presents be read, published, and posted up in the usual places.

Done and given at Head Quarters, New York. Signed with our hand, sealed with our seal at arms, and countersigned by our Secretary, this 30th December, 1764.

THOMAS GAGE, [L. S.] By His Excellency,

G. MATURIN. In the month of July, 1765, M. de St. Ange, who was at that time the French commandant in the Illinois, evacuated Fort Chartres, and proceeded with a small force to St. Louis, a settlement which had been founded early in 1764, on the western bank of the Mississippi. A detachment of English troops then took possession of the evacuated fort, and the British commandant in the Illinois country established his headquarters at that place. Of the French population, while some took the oath of fidelity and obedience to the government of Great Britain, and continued to occupy their ancient possessions in and about the villages of Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Prairie du Rocher, others removed to the territories on the western side of the river Mississippi, where the authority of France was still in force, although the country had been ceded to Spain.

Fort Chartres which was rebuilt in 1756, was in shape an irregular quadrangle, with four bastions. The sides of the exterior polygon were about four hundred and ninety feet in extent.* The walls, which were of stone and plastered over, were two feet two inches thick, and fifteen feet high, with loop-holes at regular distances, and two port-holes for cannon in each face, and two in the flanks of each bastion. There were two sally-ports; and within the wall was a banquette raised three feet for the men to stand upon, when they fired through the loop-holes. The buildings within the fort were the commandant's and the commissary's houses, the magazine of stores, the guard house, and two lines of barracks. Within the gorge of one of the bastions was a prison with four dungeons. In the


gorges of the other three bastions were the powder magazine, the bake-house, and some smaller buildings. The commandant's house was ninety-six feet long and thirty feet deep, containing a dining room, a parlor, a bed-chamber, a kitchen, five closets, for servants, and a cellar. The commissary's house was built in a line with this edifice, and its proportions and distribution of apartments were the same. Opposite these were the store-house and guard-house, each ninety feet long by twenty-four feet deep. The former contained two large store rooms, with vaulted cellars under the whole, a large room, a bed-chamber, and a closet for the keeper. The guardhouse contained soldiers' and officers' guard rooms, a chapel, a bed-chamber, and a closet for the chaplain; and an artillery store room. The lines of the barracks, two in number, were never completely finished. They consisted of two rooms in each line for officers, and three for soldiers. The rooms were twenty-two feet square, with passages between them. All the buildings were of solid masonry. The ruins of this fort may still be seen, on the eastern bank of the Mississippi, about twenty-five miles above the mouth of the river Kaskaskia, in the state of Illinois.*

*In the writings of James Hall, who visited thc site of Fort Chartres about the year 1832, there is an interesting account of these ruins. “Although," says Hall, “the spot was familiar to my companion, it was with some difficulty that we found the ruins, which are now covered and surrounded with a young but vigorous and gigantic growth of forest trees, and with a dense undergrowth of bushes and vines, through which we forced our way with considerable labor. Even the crumbling pile itself is thus overgrown; the tall trees rearing their stems from piles of stones, and the vines creeping over the tottering walls. The buildings were all razed to the ground, but the lines of the foundations could be easily traced. A large vaulted powder magazine remained in good preservation. The exterior wall, the most interesting vestige, as it gave the general outline of the whole, was thrown down in some places; but in many retained something like its original height and form; and it was curious to see in the gloom of a wild forest, these remnants of the architecture of a past age. One angle of the fort and an entire bastion had been undermined and swept entirely away by the river, which, having expended its force in this direction, was again retiring, and a narrow belt of young timber bad grown up between the water's edge and the ruins."

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