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breath to exhort the men to behave worthy of their religion and their country."*

The expedition which marched from the south, was forced to retreat, and Bienville, soon afterwards, was constrained to conclude a treaty of peace with the Chickasaws. During a period of about twelve years, succeeding the conclusion of this treaty, no event of great interest occurred, to affect either the peace or the general condition of the French settlements in the west. The war which broke out between England and France in 1744, and lasted until the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1748, involved in its struggles the French and the English colonies situated near the Atlantic coast; but the tranquillity of the isolated French population in the Illinois country, was not materially disturbed by the events of this remote warfare.

The treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle did not settle the controversy which existed between England and France, relating to the boundaries of their respective possessions in North America. While the former claimed the right of extending her dominions indefinitely westward of her possessions on the Atlantic coast, the latter claimed the whole valley of the Mississippi, and, from 1748 to 1760, opposed all the attempts which were made by the English to establish settlements on the western side of the Allegheny mountains. As early as 1716, Governor Spotswood, of Virginia, proposed a plan for forming a company to settle the lands on the river Ohio; but the scheme was frustrated, "partly by the indolence and timidity of the British ministry, who were afraid of giving umbrage to the French.” † From the time of the failure of this plan until the year 1748, the English made no direct attempts to extend their trade or their settlements as far westward as the river Ohio; although, in 1729, a Mr. Joshua Gee published an ingenious discourse on trade, in which he earnestly urged the planting of British colonies westward as far as the Mississippi, and on the rivers falling into it. The French, however, continued to advance their missionary stations, and their trading posts in the west.* By this means they hoped, not only to fortify the power of France in those regions, but to exclude the English from any communication or traffic with the Indian tribes that inhabited the country lying on the western side of the Allegheny mountains. But the commercial spirit of the French did not keep pace with their ambition. They could not supply all the tribes with the necessaries they wanted; and some of the western Indians, therefore, had recourse to the English settlements. This intercourse soon induced the British traders to make efforts to establish a regular traffic among the Indians who dwelt on the borders of the river Ohio.

*Charlevoix. Smollett, ii, 125. Anderson's His. of Commerce.

In 1748, a treaty of alliance and friendship was concluded, at Lancaster in the Province of Pennsylvania, between the English and the Twightwees. This was the first connexion which the English forined between themselves and the powerful Miami confederacy. A literal copy of this treaty is here inserted :

“Whereas at an Indian treaty held at Lancaster, in the County of Lancaster in the Province of Pennsilvania on Wednesday the twentieth Day of July instant Before the Honorable Benjamin Shoemaker Joseph Turner and William Logan Esquires by Virtue of a Commission under the Great Seal of the said Province dated at Philadelphia the sixteenth Day of the said month Three Indian Chiefs Deputies from the Twightwees a Nation of Indians scituate on or about the River Ouabache a Branch of the River Missisippi viz. Aquenackqua Assepansa Natoeequeha appeared in Behalf of themselves and their Nation | and prayed that the Twightwees might be admitted into the Friendship and Alliance of the King of Great Brittain and his Subjects, professing on their parts to become true and faithfull Friends and Allies to the English and so for

*During the year 1743, the pe}try imported from Canada to the port of Rochelle, in France, was worth about 120,000 pounds sterling. tot amount sales of the (Eng: lish) Hudson Bay Company during the same year, was 33,296 pounds sterling.--[Ander son's His. Commerce, iii, 237, 239.

Miamies.
'I These Deputies represented twelve towns.

ever to Continue, and Scayroyiady Cadarianirha Chiefs of the Oneida Nation, Suchrachery of the Seneka Nation, Cani-inecodon Cunlyuchqua Echnissia of the Mohocks * * * Dawachcamicky Dominy Buck Ossoghqua of the Shawanese and Nenatchiehon of the Delawares *

* all of them Nations in Friendship and Alliance with the English becoming Earnest Intercessors with the said Commissioners on their Behalf the Prayer of the said Deputies of the Twightwees was Granted and a firm Treaty of Alliance and Friendship was then stipulated and Agreed on Between the said Commissioners and the said Deputies of the Twightwee Nation as by the Records of Council remaining at Philadelphia in the said Province may more fully appear. Now these Presents Witness and It is hereby declared That the Said Nation of Indians called the Twightwees are accepted by the said Commissioners as Good Friends and Allies of the English Nation and That They the said Twightwees and the Subjects of the King of Great Brittain shall forever hereafter be as One Head and One Heart and live in true friendship as one people. In consideration whereof the said Aquenackqua Assepansa Natoeequeha Deputies of the said Twightwee Nation do hereby in Behalf of the said Nation Covenant Promise and Declare That the several people of the said Twightwee Nation or any of them shall not at any time hurt Injure or Defraud or Suffer to be hurt Injured or Defrauded any of the Subjects of the King of Great Brittain either in their persons or Estates, But shall at all times readily Do Justice and perform to them all acts and offices of Friendship and Goodwill. Item: That the said Twightwee Nation by the Alliance aforesaid becoming Intitled to the priviledge and protection of the English Laws They shall at all times behave themselves Regularly and Soberly according to the laws of this Government whilst they shall live or be amongst or Near the Christian Inhabitants thereof. Item: That none of the said Nation shall at any time be Aiding Assisting or Abetting to or with any Other Nation whether of Indians or Others that shall not then be in Amity with the Crown of England and this Government. Item: That if at any time any of the said Twightwee

Nation by means of Evil Minded Persons and Sowers of Sedition should hear of any Unkind or Disadvantageous Reports of the English, as if they had Evil Designs Against Any of the said Indians, In such case such Indians shall send Notice thereof to the Governor of the Province for the Time Being and shall not Give Credit to the Reports till by that means They shall be fully satisfied of the Truth thereof. And It is Agreed That the English in such case shall do the same by them.-In Testimony whereof as well the said Commissioners as the said Deputies of the Twightwee Nation have Smoked ye Calumet Pipe made mutual Presents to each Other and hereunto sett their Hands and Seals the Twenty-third Day of July in the Year of Our Lord one thousand seven hundred and FortyEight, and in the Twenty-second Year of the Reign of George the Second King of Great Brittain France and Ireland Defender of the Faith &c."

The treaty was “signed, sealed, and delivered in the presence of Richard Peters, Secretary, Conrad Weiser, Interpreter, Andrew Montour, Interpreter, Geo. Croghan, Jon. Forsythe, Conrad Doll, Michael Hubby, Andrew Parit, Tho. Cookson, Peter Warrall, Ed. Smout, Adam Simon Kuhn, David Stout, and Geo. Smith."

In the year 1748, Thomas Lee, one of the King's Council in Virginia, formed the design of effecting settlements on the wild lands west of the Allegheny mountains, through the agency of a company. Mr. Lee associated himself with Mr. Hanbury, a merchant of London, and with twelve other persons, some of whom resided in Virginia; others were citizens of Maryland. The association was called the Ohio Company. A petition was presented to the king in behalf of the members of this company, and, in 1749, they received a grant of half a million of acres* of land lying about the river Ohio. The grantees were also invested with an exclusive privilege of trading with the Indian tribes.

From the foundation of the English and French settlements in North America till this period the British colonial policy

*Washington's writings, ii, 483.

was in no small degree favorable to the interests of agriculture and manufactures, while the unsettled, grasping, and magnificent policy of France gave to those important branches of national industry no beneficial encouragement. Even as late as 1731, a number of the French inhabitants of the fertile country about Detroit, reported to the Governor-General of Canada, that “they had not dared to undertake any clearings and establish farms, because they had no titles which could secure to them the property thereof."* In the course of half a century, these different systems of colonial government, combined with the operation of other causes, produced an astonishing change in relation to the strength, respectively, of the English and French colonies in America. The white population of the former, in 1749, was estimated at one million and fifty-one thousand, while that of the latter was computed at only fifty-two thousand souls.f Notwithstanding this apparent disparity of numbers, the French immediately began to take active measures to defeat the schemes of the Ohio Company.

In 1749, Louis Celeron, “ Knight of the military order of St. Louis,” was sent by the Governor-General of Canada, with a small expedition “ for the purpose of depositing medals at all important places in the country claimed by France in the west --such as the mouths of the most considerable streams, &c." I

On the 17th of January, 1750, Mr. Hamilton, the Governor of Pennsylvania, laid before his council a letter from Celeron, dated “Camp on the river Ohio, at an old Shawanee village.” In this letter the French officer stated that he was surprised to find English traders from Pennsylvania in a country to which England never had any claim; and he requested the Governor to forbid their future intrusion, and to advise them of their danger in trespassing on the territories of France. The Gov. ernor of Canada soon afterwards wrote to the Governors of New York and Pennsylvania, informing them that as the English inland traders had encroached on the French territo

*Am. State Papers, Public Lands, vol. i, p. 251. History of the British Empire in North America-Marsball's Col. His. p. 279. I Atwater. || Minutes of Council of Pennsylvania.

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