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ment as agents by others, except by their masters, to carry on and manage any business; nor as umpires, or supervisors: neither can they be witnesses in civil or criminal cases, unless they are absolutely necessary, and only through a want of white testimony; but in no case can they serve as witnesses either for or against their masters.

ARTICLE XXV.-Slaves cannot be parties, nor the subjects of judgment, in any civil case, either as plaintiffs or defendants; nor civil parties in a criminal matter:-allowing their masters to sue and defend for them in a civil case; and to prosecute, in a criminal one, the redress of any grievances and injuries which shall have been committed towards their slaves.

ARTICLE XXVI.—Criminal prosecutions may be had against slaves without the necessity of making their masters. parties, except in case of accomplices; and the slaves accused shall be judged in the first instance by the ordinary judges, if there are any at that place, and by appeal to the Council upon the same process, and with the same formalities, as in cases of free persons, except as hereinafter mentioned.

ARTICLE XXVII.—The slave who shall have struck its master, mistress, the husband of its mistress, or their children, so as to bruise, draw blood, or upon the face, shall be punished with death.

ARTICLE XXVIII.-And as to the abuse and violence which shall be offered by slaves to free persons, we decree that they be punished severely therefor, even unto death, if there be occasion.

ARTICLE XXIX.-Certain thefts, as those of horses, mares, mules, oxen, or cows, committed by slaves or by free negroes, shall be punished with a rigorous penalty, even that of death, if the occasion require it.

ARTICLE XXX.—The stealing of sheep, goats, swine, poultry, grain, cattle-feed, peas, beans, or other greens and provisions, perpetrated by slaves, shall be punished, according to the degree of the offence, by the judges, who may, if there be occasion, sentence such slaves to be whipped with rods by the executioner of the high court, and branded with a fleur-de-lys,

ARTICLE XXXI.- Masters shall be obliged in case of theft or other injury committed by their slaves, (besides the corporal punishment inflicted upon them) to repair the wrong in their own names, unless they prefer delivering the slave over to the injured party - upon one of which courses they must decide within three days, otherwise they shall lose their option.

ARTICLE XXXII.—The fugitive slave who shall have run away for the space of one month, counting from the day on which his master shall have reported him to the court, shall have his ears cut off, and be branded with a fleur-de-lys upon one shoulder: and if he repeat the offence for the space of another month, including in like manner the day of his being informed against, he shall be hamstrung and branded with a fleur-de-lys upon the other shoulder: and the third offence shall be punished with death.

ARTICLE XXXIII.-We decree that slaves who have endured the punishment of the lash, of branding and of ear-lopping, shall be tried, in cases of the last resort, by the ordinary judges; and executed without it being necessary for such judgments to be confirmed by the Superior Council, notwithstanding the provisions in the twenty-sixth Article of these presents, which have reference only to judgments sentencing to death or to hamstringing.

ARTICLE XXXIV.-Negroes, free-born or manumitted, who shall harbor in their dwellings fugitive slaves, shall be sentenced to bodily service for the master, in a fine of thirty livres for each day of such harboring; and other free persons who shall have afforded such a refuge, in a fine of ten livres for each day of such harboring: and, on the failure of such negroes either manumitted or free born, to pay, on account of inability, they shall be reduced to slavery and sold; and if the proceeds of the sale exceed the fine, the surplus shall be given over to the hospital.

ARTICLE XXXV.-We freely permit our subjects in said country, who shall have runaway slaves in any place whatsoever, to institute a search through such persons or in such manner as they deem proper, or to make such search themselves, as shall seem best.

ARTICLE XXXVI.—The slave condemned to death upon the accusation of his master who shall not be an accomplice in the crime, shall, before execution, be appraised by two respectable inhabitants, to be nominated for that duty by the judge, and the amount of the appraisement shall be paid; to satisfy which our Superior Council shall tax upon the head of every negro the sum fixed by the appraisement, which shall be proportioned ! to all the said negroes, and levied by those appointed for that purpose.

ARTICLE XXXVII.—We prohibit all officers of our said council, and other officers of justice settled in said country, from taking any cost fee in criminal proceedings against slaves, under the penalties visited upon extortion.

ARTICLE XXXVIII.—We prohibit all our subjects in said country, of every rank and condition, from putting their slaves, or causing them to be put by their authority, to the torture or rack, under any pretence whatsoever-- or from inflicting or causing to be inflicted any mutilation of the limbs, under penalty of forfeiting the slaves and being prosecuted to the last extremity:- Permitting them only, when they believe their slaves deserve it, to have them tied up and whipped with rods or cords.

ARTICLE XXXIX.–We direct our officers of justice, resi. ding in said country, to prosecute by criminal process, masters or overseers who shall have killed their slaves, or mutilated their limbs while in their power or under their direction, and to punish the murder according to the heinousness of the offence: and in case there may be cause for pardon, we permit the acquittal of both master and overseer: without this, they must obtain from us letters of free pardon.

ARTICLE XL.We decree that slaves be accounted movables, and as such be embraced in the community -- that there can be no claim by mortgage upon them that they be divided equally among the heirs without respect to jointure or right of seniority --and that they be not subject to common

jointure, to hereditary or feudal redemption, to feudal or seignorial rights, to the formality of decrees, nor to the partition of the four-fifihs in case of transfers causa mortis, or testamentary.

ARTICLE XLI.—We do not mean, nevertheless, to deprive our subjects of the power of treating them as property belonging to their persons, and to those of their family and race, so that they may be used instead of sums of money, or other movable things.

ARTICLE XLII.--The forms prescribed by our ordinances and by the custom of Paris, for the seizure of movable property, shall be observed in the seizure of slaves: Decreeing that the proceeds accruing therefrom be distributed in the order of the seizures; and in case of insufficiency, at the rate of one sous upon the livre, after privileged debts shall have been paid-and, generally, that the condition of the slave may be regulated as other movable property.

ARTICLE XLIII.--We decree, nevertheless, that the husband, his wife, and their children under age, cannot be seized and sold separately, if they are all within the power of one and the same master-declaring void seizures and separate sales which may be made of them. This rule, it is also our will, should govern in voluntary sales, under a penalty to be inflicted on those effecting such sales, of surrendering that one or those over whom they had control, who are adjudged to the purchasers without their being compelled to pay any remainder due upon the price of sale. . ARTICLE XLIV.-It is also our will that slaves of the age

of forty years and upwards to that of sixty, attached to the lands and tenements and engaged in actual labor there, shall not be seized for any other debts than what may be due upon the price of their original purchase, unless the lands and tenements were actually seized; in which case we direct that they be included in the actual seizure, and prohibit, as nullities, all proceedings by actual distress and adjudication by decree upon the lands and tenements without embracing slaves of the aforesaid age engaged there in actual service.

ARTICLE XLV.-The farmer or lessee of lands or tenements actually distrained, slaves included, shall be liable to pay over the consideration money of his lease, without reckoning among the profits collected, those children who may be born of slaves during the term of his said lease.

ARTICLE XLVI.-We decree, notwithstanding all articles to the contrary, which we hereby repeal, that the aforementioned children may be retained by the party suffering the distress, if the creditors are satisfied in some other way, or to the highest bidder if he interpose a decree; and, for this purpose, mention shall be made in the last advertisement of the intervention of said decree, of the children born of slaves since the actual distress, as well as of slaves deceased since that distress in which they were included.

ARTICLE XLVII.—To avoid the expenses and delays of process, we decree that the distribution of the whole cost of the adjudication, relating equally to the real estate and the slaves, and what may accrue upon the expenses of an equitable decision, shall be made among the creditors according to the precedence of their liens and mortgages, without making any distinction of that which is for the price of the slaves; and not even the feudal and manorial claims are to be discharged except in proportion to the real estate.

ARTICLE XLVIII.—The kindred and feudal seignors shall not be permitted to redeem the lands decreed, sold at auction, or voluntarily, unless they also redeem the slaves sold jointly with those lands upon which they have been engaged in actual labor - nor are the highest bidders or purchasers to retain the slaves without the lands.

ARTICLE XLIX.—We direct all guardians, both noblemen and commoners, tenants, lessees, and others enjoying the profits of lands to which are attached slaves who labor there. upon, to govern them in a parental manner: In consideration of which they shall not be compelled, after their term of management has expired, to account for those who have died, or been enfeebled by sickness, old age, or otherwise without fault of theirs: but they may not retain as profits for their advan

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