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your part are, that you yield up, and finally relinquish to the United States, some of the lands on your side of the river Ohio. The United States wish to have confirmed all the lands ceded to them by the treaty of Fort Harmar; and, also, a small tract of land at the Rapids of the Ohio, claimed by General Clark, for the use of himself and warriors: and, in consideration thereof, the United States would give such a large sum, in money or goods, as was never given at one time, for any quantity of Indian lands, since the white people first set their foot on this island. And because those lands did, every year, furnish you with skins and furs, with which you bought clothing and other necessaries, the United States will now furnish the like constant supplies: and, therefore, besides the great sum to be delivered at once, they will every year, deliver you a large quantity of such goods as are best suited to the wants of yourselves, your women, and children.
“Brothers: If all the lands, before mentioned, cannot be delivered up to the United States, then we shall desire to treat and agree with you on a new boundary line; and for the quantity of land you relinquish to us within that new boundary line we shall stipulate a generous compensation, not only for a large sum, to be paid at once, but for a yearly rent, for the benefit of yourselves and your children forever.
“Brothers : Here you see one concession, which we are willing to make on the part of the United States. Now, listen to another, of a claim which probably has more disturbed your minds than any other whatever.
“ Brothers: The commissioners of the United States have formerly set up a claim to your whole country, southward of the Great Lakes, as the property of the United States ; grounding this claim on the treaty of peace with your father, the King of Great Britain, who declared, as we have before mentioned, the middle of those lakes, and the waters which unite them, to be the boundaries of the United States.
“ Brothers : We are determined that our whole conduct shall be marked with openness and sincerity. We therefore frankly tell you, that we think those commissioners put an erroneous
construction on that part of our treaty with the King. As he had not purchased the country of you, of course he could not give it away. He only relinquished to the United States his claim to it. That claim was founded on a right acquired by treaty, with other white nations, to exclude them from purchasing, or settling, in any part of your country; and it is this right which the King granted to the United States. Before that grant, the King alone had a right to purchase of the Indian nations, any of the lands between the Great Lakes, the Ohio, and the Mississippi, excepting the part within the charter boundary of Pennsylvania; and the King, by the treaty of peace, having granted this right to the United States, they alone have now the right of purchasing: so that, now, neither the King, nor any of his people, have any right to interfere with the United States, in respect to any part of those lands. All your brothers, the English, know this to be true; and it agrees with the declarations of Lord Dorchester, to your deputies, two years ago at Quebec.
“ Brothers: We now concede this great point. We, by the express authority of the President of the United States, acknowledge the property, or right of soil, of the great country above described, to be in the Indian nations, so long as they desire to occupy the same. We only claim particular tracts in it, as before mentioned, and the general right granted by the King, as above stated, and which is well known to the English and Americans, and called the right of pre-emption, or the right of purchasing of the Indian nations disposed to sell their lands, to the exclusion of all other white people whatever.
“ Brothers: We have now opened our hearts to you. are happy in having an opportunity of doing it; though we should have been more happy to have done it in the full council of your nations. We expect soon to have this satisfaction, and that your next deputation will take us by the hand, and lead us to the treaty. When we meet, and converse with each other freely, we may easily remove any difficulties which may come in the way of peace.
“At Captain Elliott's, at the mouth of Detroit river, 31st July, 1793.
BENJAMIN LINCOLN, Commissioners
TIMOTHY PICKERING, ) United States." After the foregoing speech had been interpreted, the commissioners gave it, in writing, to the Indian deputation, with a white belt crossed with thirteen stripes of black wampum. The deputation then said, that, as it was too late to make any reply on that day, they would speak to the commissioners on the next morning.
“In Council, August 1st, 1793. Present, as yesterday. The Wyandot chief Sa-wagh-da-wunk, [Carry-one-about] arose and spoke. Simon Girty interpreted. “Brothers: We are all brothers you see here now. Brothers: It is now three years since you desired to speak with us. We heard you yesterday, and understood you well — perfectly well. We have a few words to say to you. Brothers: You mentioned the treaties of Fort Stanwix, Beaver creek, * and other places. Those treaties were not complete. There were but a few chiefs who treated with you. You have not bought our lands. They belong to us. You tried to draw off some of us. Brothers: Many years ago, we all know that the Ohio was made the boundary. It was settled by Sir William Johnston. This side is ours. We look
upon it as our property. Brothers: You mentioned General Washington. He and you know you have your houses and your people on our land. You say you cannot move them off: and we cannot give up our land. Brothers: We are sorry we cannot come to an agreement. The line has been fixed long ago. Brothers: We don't say much. There has been much mischief on both sides. We came here upon peace, and thought you did the same. We shall talk to our head warriors. You may return whence you came, and tell Washington.”
The council here breaking up, Captain Elliott went to the Shawanee chief Ka-kia-pilathy, and told him that the last part
of the speech was wrong. That chief came back, and said it was wrong. Girty said that he had interpreted truly what the Wyandot chief spoke. An explanation took place; and Girty added, as follows: “Brothers: Instead of going home, we wish you to remain here for an answer from us.
We have your speech in our breasts, and shall consult our head warriors.” The deputation of Indians were then told that the commissioners would wait to hear again from the council at the Rapids of the Maumee.
On the 16th of August, 1793, Messrs. Lincoln, Randolph, and Pickering, received the following answer in writing,) to their speech of the 31st of July.
“ To the Commissioners of the United States. Brothers: We have received your speech, dated the 31st of last month, and it has been interpreted to all the different nations. We have been long in sending you an answer, because of the great importance of the subject. But, we now answer it fully; having given it all the consideration in our power.
“ Brothers: You tell us that, after you had made peace with the King, our father, about ten years ago, it remained to make peace between the United States and the Indian nations who had taken part with the King. For this purpose, commissioners were appointed, who sent messages to all those Indian nations, inviting them to come and make peace;' and, after reciting the periods at which you say treaties were held, at Fort Stanwix, Fort McIntosh and Miami, all which treaties, according to your own acknowledgment, were for the sole purpose of making peace, you then say, · Brothers, the commissioners who conducted these treaties, in behalf of the United States, sent the papers containing them to the general council of the States, who supposing them satisfactory to the nations treated with, proceeded to dispose of the lands thereby ceded.'
“Brothers: This is telling us plainly, what we always understood to be the case, and it agrees with the declarations of those few who attended those treaties, viz: That they went to meet your commissioners to make peace; but, through fear, were obliged to sign any paper that was laid before them; and it has
since appeared that deeds of cession were signed by them, instead of treaties of peace.
“Brothers: You then say, “After some time it appears that a number of people in your nations were dissatisfied with the treaties of Fort McIntosh and Miami, therefore the council of the United States appointed Governor St. Clair their commissioner, with full power, for the purpose of removing all causes of controversy, relating to trade, and settling boundaries, between the Indian nations in the northern department, and the United States. He accordingly sent messages, inviting all the nations concerned to meet him at a council fire he kindled at the falls of the Muskingum. While he was waiting for them, some mischief happened at that place, and the fire was put out: so he kindled a council fire at Fort Harmar, where near six hundred Indians of different nations, attended. The Six Nations then renewed and confirmed the treaty of Fort Stanwix; and the Wyandots and Delawares renewed and confirmed the treaty of Fort McIntosh: some Ottawas, Chippewas, Pottawattamies, and Sacs, were also parties to the treaty of Fort Harmar. Now, brothers, these are your words; and it is necessary for us to make a short reply to them.
“ Brothers: A general council of all the Indian confederacy was held, as you well know, in the fall of the year 1788, at this place; and that general council was invited by your commissioner Governor St. Clair, to meet him for the purpose of holding a treaty, with regard to the lands mentioned by you to have been ceded by the treaties of Fort Stanwix and Fort McIntosh.
“Brothers: We are in possession of the speeches and letters which passed on that occasion, between those deputed by the confederate Indians, and Governor St. Clair, the commissioner of the United States. These papers prove
said commissioner, in the beginning of the year 1789, after having been informed by the general council, of the preceding fall, that no bargain or sale of any part of these Indian lands would be considered as valid or binding, unless agreed to by a general council, nevertheless persisted in collecting together a few chiefs of