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The constant tendency of the praetor to enlarge the sphere of his extraordinaria cognitio, after the establishment of the empire, at the expense of the regular procedure by formula, paved the way to the total abolition of the latter. An even stronger influence, which was perpetually working against the ordo iudiciorum privatorum, was the new appellate jurisdiction; for, as has been observed, formulae were employed only in courts of lowest instance Eventually the formulary procedure was abolished by Diocletian, A.d. 294, magistrates being compelled to hear and decide suits themselves through all their stages; and even when, from stress of business, they were obliged to refer an occasional action to a iudex, their relation to the latter was no longer that of the older system; the proceedings were no longer divided between ius and iudicium, but the whole of them were delegated; magistratus and iudex, so far as the administration of justice is concerned, are interchangeable terms. As is observed by Mr. Poste2, the libellary procedure in use in the time of Justinian was essentially the same as cognitio extraordinaria *.

1 A sure index of the increasing activity of the extraordinaria cognitio is the frequent use of the expression 'iudex pedaneus * (xa/imSiKoor^r, Theophilus) by the classical jurists. This originated in the practice of calling the magistrate himself 'iudex,' which was only natural when he took to personally hearing and deciding many actions; 'iudex pedaneus' is the iudex instructed by formula.

'Gaius p. 657.

8 Cf. Bk. iv. 15. 8 supr. Several topies which are of importance in the formulary procedure have been omitted in this excursus because they demand discussion under the later system as well, and consequently are touched upon in the notes to the text of Bk. iv: e.g. Processual Agency, Title 10; Satisdatio, Title n; Prescription and Pendency, Title 12; Interdicts, Title 15; Restraints upon reckless Litigation, Title 16.

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INDEX TO THE TEXT.

{The re/trences are to the respective Books, Titles, and Sections.)

A.

occept1latio, iii. 29. 1.

accessio, title to young of domestic
animals, ii. 1. 19; to island rising in
river, ib. 22: by river changing its
course, ib. 23: of purple woven into
a garment, ib. 26 : by inaedificatio, ib.
29: of plants to soil, ib. 31, and of
crops, ib. 32: of writing to parch-
ment. ib. 33: but by an anomaly
'tabula picturae cedit,' ib. 34.

acquisition through slaves, i. 8. 1:
ii. 9. 3: iii. 17. 1: through usufruc-
tuary slaves, ii. 9. 4: ii. 14. pr.:
through alienus servus bona fide
possessed or free man bona fide ser-
viens, ii. 9. 4: through children in
power; the old law modified by Jus-
tinian, ii. 9. 1: cf. iii. 17. 1 : through
extraneae personae, ii. 9. 5: acqui-
sition of contractual rights through
slaves and children in power, iii. 28.
pr.: through free men and alieni
servi bona fide possessed, ib. 1:
through usufructuary slave, ib. 2:
through slave jointly owned, ib. 3.

acta, i. 11. 12: i. 12. 8: ii. 7. 2: iv.
11. 3-

actio, defined, iv. 6. pr.: divided into in
rem and in personam, ib. 1: actions
in rem are for recovery of property,
ib., or of iura in re aliena, ib. 2: ac-
tions relating to the latter either affir-
mative or negative, ib.: real actions
introduced by the praetor, ib. 3: ex-
emplified by actio Publiciana, ib. 4:
the converse action, ib. 5: actio Ser-
viana and quasi-Serviana, ib. 7: prae-
torian actions in personam exemplified
by actiones recepticia, de pecunia con-
stituta, de peculio, etc., ib. 8: praeto-
rian penal actions, ib. 12: praeiudi-
cial actions, ib. 13: ownership can-
not be claimed by actio in personam,
ib. 14: actions divided into rei per-
secutoriae, poenae persecntoriae, and
mixtae, ib. 16: actions rei persecuto-
riae exemplified, ib. 17: so with those
poenae persecutoriae, ib. 18, and mix-
tae, ib. 19: actions called mixtae be-
cause partly in rem, partly in perso-
nam, e. g. actio familiae erciscundae,

ib. 20: actiones in simplum concep-
tae, ib. 22: in duplum, ib. 23: m
triplum, ib. 24: in quadruplum, ib.
25: actiones bonae fidei and stricti
iuris; the former enumerated, ib. 28,
and characterised, ib. 30: actiones ar-
bitrariae, ib. 31: actions in which the
whole debt is sometimes not recover-
ed, e. g. de peculio, ib. 36: de dote,
ib. 37: actions by child against pa-
rent, freedman against patron, part-
ner against partner, etc., ib. 38: con-
currence of actions de eadem re, iv.
9. 1: actions perpetual and temporal,
iv. 12. pr.: penal actions, how far
they can be brought against the of-
fender's heir, ib. 1: may be brought
by heir of injured person, except actio
iniuriarum, ib.: cases in which actions
ex contractu cannot be brought a-
gainst the heir, ib.: defendant entitled
to absolutio if he satisfies the plaintiff
ante rem iudicatam, ib. 2.

actio ad exhibendum, iv. 6. 31.

bonorum vi raptorum, iv. 2: who

can bring it, ib. 2.

calumniae, iv. 16. 1.

commnni dividundo, iii. 2 7. 3 ¡v.

6. 20: iv. 17. 5.

de eo quod certo loco promissum

est, iv. 6. 31 : ib. 33.

de eo quod metus causa, iv. 6. 25:

ib. 27: ib. 31.

deiecti aut efTusi, iv. 5. 1.

de peculio, i v. 6. 8: ib. 10.

de peculio et in rem verso, iv. 7.

4: . . . , „ de pecun1a const1tuta, 1v. 6. 8

and 9.

exercitoria, iv. 7. 2.

ex stipulatu, iii. 15. pr.

familiae erciscundae, iii. 27. 4:

iv. 6. 20: iv. 17. 4. finium regundorum, iv. 6. 20: iv.

17.6.

furti, ii. 1. 34: 1v. 1 : 1v. 12. pr.:

who can bring it, iv. 1. 13-17: «
purely penal, ib. 19.

in factum, iv. 3. 16: iv. 5. 3.

institoria, iv. 7. 2.

noxalis, iv. 8. pr.: caput sequitur,

ib. 5: in cases of pauperies, iv. 9. pr.:
form of condemnation in, iv. 17. 1.

act1o petitoria, iv. 15. 4.

poenalis, in heredem non transit,

iv. 3. 9: iv. 12. 1.

positi aut suspensi, iv. 5. 1.

praescriptis verbis, iii. 24. 1 and 2.

Publiciana, iv. 6. 4: ib. 31.

qua quaeritnr an actor iuraverit,

iv. 6. 8: ib. 11.

quasi Serviana, iv. 6. 7: ib. 31.

quod iussu, iv. 7. 1 : ib. 5.

recepticia, iv. 6. 8 and 9.

rei uxoriae, formerly bonae fidei:

merged by Justinian in actio ex sti-
pulatu (de dote exigencia), to which he
gives a bonae fidei character, iv. 6. 29.

servi corrupti, iv. 1. 8: iv. 6. 23.

Serviana, iv. 6. 7: ib. 31.

suspectt tutoris, i. 26. 3: ib. 8.

tributoria, iv. 7. 3: ib. 5.

utilis, ii. 1. 34: ii. 23. 4: legis

Aquiliae, iv. 3. 16.

actor tutoris, i. 23. 6.

addict io bonorum libertatis causa, in-
troduced by M. Aurelius, iii. 11. pr.
and 1 : advantages of, ib. 2: allowed
where slaves are manumitted by codi-
cils only, ib. 3: limitations on its
application, ib. 4: effect upon, of in
integrum restitutio of non-accepting
heir, ib. 5: extension of it by inter-
pretation, ib. 6: Justinian's consti-
tution on the subject, ib. 7.

ademptio of legacies, ii. 21. pr.

adgnatio, iuris nomen, i. 15. 3, cf. iii. 1.

11 : effect of capitis deminutio on, 1.
15. 3: degrees of, how reckoned, iii.
6. 8.

aditio of inheritance, ii. 19. 5: how
made, ib. 7.

adiudicatio, iv. 17. 4-7.

adoptio, its two forms, i. 11. 1 : Jus-
tinian's changes in the law of, ib. 2,
and their effect on the law of intestate
succession, iii. 1.14: imitates nature,
i. 11. 4: its extent and limits, ib. 4-7:
effects of, ib. 8: who cannot adopt,
ib. 9 and 10: adoption of slave, ib.

12: adoptio plena extinguishes patria
potestas, i. 12. 8: confers agnatic
rights, iii. 2. 2.

adoptivi liberi, are in potestas, i. 11.
pr.: contrasted with naturales liberi
111 respect of intestate succession, iii.
1. 12.

adquisit1o per adrogationem, intro-
duced by custom, iii. 10. pr.: see
adrogatio.

adquisitio rerum singulan1m iure na-
turali: occupatio, ii. 1. 12: accessio,
ib. 19: alluvio, ib. 20: specificatio,
ib. 25 : confusio, ib. 27: commixtio,
ib. 28: traditio, ib. 40.

adquisit1o rerum singularum iure ci-
vili: usucapio, ii. 6. pr.: donatio, ii.
7. pr.: per ius adcrescendi, ii. 7. 4.

adquisitio per universitatem, the four
kinds of, ii. 9. 6.

adrogatio, i. 11. 1: of impubes, ib. 3:
i. 22. 1: effect of, upon children of
adrogatus, i. 11. 11: rights of adro-
gatus on intestacy of natural father.

iii. 1. 10: effect of, on property of
adrogatus, iii. 10. 1: change in the
law by Justinian, ib. 2: effect of, on
debts owed by adrogatus, ib. 3.

adsignatiolibertorum, iii.8: introduced
by a senatusconsult, ib. pr. and 3:
who may be assigned, and to whom,
ib. 1: case in which 'adsignatio evan-
escit,' ib. 2: modes of such assign-
ment, ib. 3.

Aediles curules, their edicts, i. 2.7:

iv. 9. 1.

aequitas, ii. i. 40: iii. 1. 9.

agency, in acquisition of ownership

and possession: see acquisition. contractual: see mandatum, and

iv. 7.

in procedure: formerly permitted

only in four cases: introduction of
procurators as processual agents,
1v. 10. pr.: mode of appointment,
ib. 1.

agnates, who are, i. 15. 1: iii. 2. 1 and
2 : agnatorum curatio, i. 23.3 : females
as agnates, iii. 2. 3: their rights a-
bridged by the media iurisprudentia,
but the law of the XII Tables re-
stored by Justinian, ib., who also
gives agnatic rights to uterine bro-
thers and sisters and their children,
ib. 4: all agnates in the same degree
succeed equally, ib. 5: no limits to
the distance at which they may claim
the relationship, iii. 5. 5.

alienation, by non-owners, e. g. of
pledge by pledgee, ii. 8. 1: in some
cases forbidden even to owners, e. g.
with dotale praedium, ib. pr.: by
pupil without guardian's auctoritas,
ib. 2: in fraud of creditors, iv. 6. 6.

alluvio, defined, ii. 1. 20: doubtful case
of, ib. 21.

animals ferae naturae, ii. 1. 12: bees,
ib. 14: pigeons, ib. 15: domestic
fowls and geese, ib. 16.

animus domini, in connection with
renunciation of ownership, ii. 1. 48.

animus revertendi, a test of domes-
ticity in animals, ii. 1. 15.

arra, iii. 23. pr.

Atilicinus, ii. 14. pr.

auctoritas tutoris, where and where
not necessary, i. 21. pr.: ii. 8. 2:
required for aditio hereditatis and
such kinds of acts, ib. 1: mode in
which it should be given, ib. 3.
Augustus, i. 11. 11: ii. 12. pr.: ii. 23.
1, ib. 12 : ii. 15. pr.

B.

bankruptcy, avoided by institution of
a necessarius heres, ii. 19. 1: by
addictio bonorum libertatis causa, iii.

11. 1 : form of, under Justinian, iii.

12. pr.: see bonorum emptio, bo-
norum possessio, cessio bonorum.

beneficium competcntiae, iv. 6. 7 .' >b.
30.

'divisionis, iii. 20. 4.

separationis, iii. 19. 1.

bona fide possession, ii. 1. 33, 34, 35:

ii. 6. pr.: iv. 17. 2.
bona vacantia, ii. 6. 9.

bona vi rapta, iv. 2. pr.: the action on
the delict praetorian, ib: amount of
the penalty, ib., cf. iv. 6. 19: always
implies dolus malus, ib. 1: constitu-
tions of earlier emperors as to the
violent taking of property on the plea
that it is one's own, ib.: iv. 15. 6:
the thing raptum need not be in bonis
of the plaintiff, iv. 2. 2.

bonorum emptio, obsolete under Jus-
tinian, iii. 12. pr.

bonorum possessio, as a preliminary
to bankruptcy proceedings, i. 26. 9:

iii. 10. 3: iii. 12. pr.

a form of inheritance introduced

by the praetor to amend the ius ci-
vile, iii. 9. pr.: or in some cases to
confirm or supplement it, ib. 1: three
kinds of, ib. 3: time fixed by the
praetor within which it must be
demanded, ib. 8: dies utiles only
reckoned, ib. 9: imperial constitu-
tions made any expression of inten-
tion to accept sufficient, ib. 10: bo-
norum possessio intestati, its degrees,
iii. 9. 3: unde liberi, iii. 1. 9: unde
cognati, iii. 1. 13: iii. 2. 3: iii. 3. pr.:
can be claimed only by relations
within the sixth degree, with one
exception, iii. 5. 5: certain of the
degrees or classes made unnecessary
by Justinian, viz. unde decem per-
sonae, iii. 9. 4, tum quam ex familia
and unde liberi patroni, etc, ib. 5,
unde cognati manumissoris, ib. 6:
bonorum possessio contra tabulas, ii.

13. 3: iii. 1. 12: iii. 9. 3: bonorum
possessio secundum tabulas, ii. 17.6:
iii. 9. 3: bonorum possessio ex lege,
iii. 9. 7.

0.

calumnia, ii. 23. 2: iv. 16. 1.

capitis deminutio, defined, i. 16. pr.:
its three kinds, ib.: maxima, defined
with examples, ib. 1: minor or media,
ib. 2: minima, ib. 3: of tutor or
pupil, its effect, i. 22. 4: effect of,
on deminutus' will, ii. 17. 4 and 6:
minima, no bar to succession under
SC". Tertullianum and Orfitianum,

iii. 3. 2.
Cassiue, iii. 24. 4.
Cato, i. п. 13.

causa adrogationis, i. 11. 3: manumis-
sionis, see iusta causa: traditionis,

ii. 1. 40: possessionis, ii. 6. pr.:
falsa, in usucapio, ii. 6. 11: in lega-
cies, ii. 20. 31: lucrativa, ii. 20.6:
omnis causa (fruits, accessions, etc.),

iv. 17. 3.

cautio, as evidence of stipulation, iii.
19. 12, ib. 17: of loan, iii. 21.

by usufructuary owner of res quae

usu consumuntur, ii. 4. 2: in cases of
bonorum addictio libertatis causa, iii.
11. 1 and 2: de dolo, de persequendo
servo, etc., iii. 18. 1: iuratoria, iv. 11,
2: see satisdatio.

Celsus, ii. 20. 12.

cessio bonorum, iii. 25. 8: iv. 6. 40:
iv. 14. 4.

churoh, the, legislation in favour of,

iii. 27. 7: iv. 6. 19, ib. 23, ib. 26: iv.
16. 1.

Claudius, iii. 3. 1.

codex of Theodosius, iii. 1. 16.

codicilli, origin of, in Augustus' reign,
ii. 25. pr.: no necessity for preceding
will, ib. 1: need not be expressly
confirmed in a will subsequently
made, ib.: hereditas cannot be given,
nor exheredatio be made in, though
both and other things may be done
by codicillary fideicommissum, ib. 2:
any number may be made, and no
solemn form required, ib. 3.

cognat1, distinguished from agnati,i. 15.
1: iii. 5. 1-3.

cognatio, effects of capitis deminutio
on, i. 15. 3: i. 16. 6: the degrees of,
reckoned in the ascending, descending,
and collateral lines, iii. 6. pr.: enu-
merated, ib. 1-6: each generation
removes the relationship by one de-
gree, ib. 7 : genealogical table of, ib.
9: cognatio among slaves, ib. 10.

oolonua, ii. 1. 36: iv. 6. 7: iv. 15. 3.

oommixtio, ii. 1. 28.

commodatum, iii. 14. 2: distinguished
from mutuum, ib.: is gratuitous, ib.:

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