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2 sunt. Servi vero a dominis semper manumitti solent: adeo ut vel in transitu manumittantur, veluti cum praetor aut proconsul aut praeses in balneum vel in theatrum eat.

3 Libertinorum autem status tripertitus antea fuerat:. nam qui manumittebantur, modo maiorem et iustam libertatem consequebantur et fiebant cives Romani, modo minorem et Latini ex lege Iunia Norbana fiebant, modo inferiorem et fiebant ex lege Aelia Sentia dediticiorum numero, sed dediticiorum quidem pessima condicio iam ex multis temporibus in desuetudinem abiit, Latinorum vero nomen non frequentabatur: ideoque nostra pietas omnia augere et in meliorem statum reducere desiderans in duabus constitutionibus hoc emendavit et in pristinum statum reduxit, quia et a primis urbis Romae cunabulis una atque simplex libertas competebat, id est eadem, quam habebat manumissor, nisi quod scilicet libertinus fit qui manumittitur, licet manumissor ingenuus sit. et dediticios quidem per eonstitutionen! expulimus, quam promulgavimus inter nostras decisiones, per quas suggerente nobis Triboniano viro excelso quaestore

church in the presence oí the congregation and the bishop, attested by a document signed by the latter ; Cod. Theod. 4. 7.

The right of the full owner to manumit was originally subject to no restrictions, except so far as he was bound by any contract or testamentary disposition under which the slave came into his possession. Subsequently, however, limitations were imposed, in the main on political grounds, by the lex Aelia Sentia, A. D. 4, § 4 inf. and Tit. 6. pr., and the lex Fufia Caninia, Tit. 7 inf., and by the lex Iulia de adulteriis, Bk. iv. 18. 4 inf., in order to assist the conduct of criminal proceedings.

Until Justinian abolished the distinction between Bonitary and Quiritary ownership (note on Bk. ii. 1. 11 inf.) a slave might belong to one person ex iure Quiritium, and be ' in bonis' of another; the latter alone could manumit him, but only so as to make him a Latinus Iunianus; Ulpian, reg. 1. 16. Where one person had a usufruct in a slave belonging to another, any attempt by the former to manumit him merely resulted in the extinction of his usufruct; he could be manumitted by the owner, who, however, could not thus prejudice the right of the usufructuary; Ulpian, ib. 19: Justinian (Cod. 7. 15. 1) made some alteration in this. The same principles were observed in respect of a slave who had been given in security by pledge ; but the manumission of any slave in whom another person had a ius in re aliena made him Latinus only and not civis, until Latinitas was abolished by Justinian. For the manumission of a slave owned by joint proprietors see Bk. ii. 7. 4 and note inf.

§ 3. The lex Iunia Norbana bestowed on slaves manumitted 'minus antiqui iuris altercationes placavimus: Latinos autem Iunianos et omnem quae circa eos fuerit observantiam alia constitutione per eiusdem quaestoris suggestionem correximus, quae inter imperiales radiat sanctiones, et omnes libertos nullo nec aetatis manumissi nec dominii manumissoris nec in manumissionis modo discrimine habito, sicuti antea observabatur, civitate Romana donavimus: multis additis modis, per quos possit libertas servis cum civitate Romana, quae sola in praesenti est, praestari.

solenniter' the rights of Latinitas (General Introd. p. 26 supr.), whence they were called Latini Iuniani. The Latinitas of the Latini coloniarii had conferred the commercium without the connubium, i.e. the power of holding property and engaging in commerce under the peculiar forms and protection of Roman Iaw, and of making a testament valid iure civili. But these rights were seriously curtailed, in the case of Latini Iuniani, by the lex Iunia Norbana, which (Gaius i. 22-24 Ulpian, reg. 20. 8) deprived them of the privileges of making a will, being named testamentary guardians, and benefiting under the will of another person. Consequently, when a Latinus Iunianus died, as he could have no suus heres or agnate, his whole property went ' iure quodammodo peculii' to his patron; Bk. iii. 7. 4 inf. Justinian repealed the lex Iunia, and as to the modes of manumission to which it had related, he enacted that they should make a slave a full citizen provided they were evidenced by five witnesses; Cod. 7. 6. The alii multi modi alluded to in § 1 are specified in the same constitution : among them are the formal designation of the slave by the master as his son, and the delivery to him of the documents by which his servitude could be proved. There were numerous modes in which a Latinus could attain the civitas ; see Gaius i. 28-35, ar>d Mr. Poste's notes.

The object of the lex Aelia Sentia (a. D. 4) was to throw obstacles in the way of inconsiderate manumissions, and to guard the state against the dangers which might result from the bestowal of citizenship on slaves of bad character and antecedents; it should thus be read in close connection with the lex Fufia Caninia, Tit. 7 inf. Four of its provisions concern us. (1) It enacted that slaves who had been guilty of some serious crime, or subjected to some degrading treatment, if subsequently manumitted, should have only the same rights as dediticii, or enemies surrendered at discretion: 'lege itaque Aelia Sentia cavetur, ut qui servi a dominis poenae nomine vincti sint, quibusve stigmata inscripta sint, deve quibus ob noxam quaestio tormentis habita sit, et in ea noxa fuisse convicti sint, quique ut ferro aut cum bestiis depugnarent traditi sint, inve ludum custodiamve coniecti fuerint, et postea vel ab eodem domino vel ab alio manumissi, eiusdem conditionis liberi fiant, cuius conditionis sunt peregrini dediticii' Gaius i. 13. They could not by any possibility rise to the status of cives or even of Latini; the statute VI.

QUI EX QUIBUS CAUSIS MANUMITTERE NON POSSUNT.

Non tamen cuicumque volenti manumittere licet. nam is qui in fraudem creditorum manumittit nihil agit, quia lex 1 Aelia Sentia impedit libertatem. Licet autem domino, qui solvendo non est, testamento servum suum cum libertate heredem instituere, ut fiat liber heresque ei solus et necessarius, si modo nemo alius ex eo testamento heres extiterit, aut quia nemo heres scriptus sit, aut quia is qui scriptus est qualibet ex causa heres non extiterit. idque eadem lege Aelia Sentia provisum est et recte: valde enim prospiciendum erat, ut egentes homines, quibus alius heres extaturus non esset, vel servum suum necessarium heredem habeant, qui satisfacturus esset creditoribus, aut hoc eo non faciente credi

forbade them to live within one hundred miles of Rome under penalty of becoming slaves again without possibility of a subsequent manumission ; and their property on decease went to their patron, Gaius iii. 7476. This dediticia libertas was practically obsolete before Justinian (' nec in usu esse reperimus ' Cod. 7. 5), and was formally abolished by him, as is stated in this section. (2) It placed restrictions on manumissions by masters less than twenty years of age, Tit. 6. 4 inf. ; and also (3) provided that no slave under thirty years of age should be enfranchised so as to become a civis libertus unless the manumission were by vindicta, and an adequate motive were proved before a council at Rome, and in the provinces before a body of twenty recuperatores; Gaius i. 18-20. This provision was repealed by Justinian; see this paragraph, ad fin. (4) It invalidated manumissions in fraud of creditors; see Tit. 6 pr. inf.

It was said above that a Latinus could in certain ways become a civis; there were also modes in which a libertus could become ingenuus, one of which, operative only under the old law, has been noticed in the note on § 1 supr. Ingenuitas, however, could be conferred by imperial grant (' natalibus restitui' Dig. 40. 11. 2); and by the acquisition from the emperor of the 'ius aureorum anulorum' a freedman became ingenuus during his lifetime, but could not prejudice his patron's rights of succession; Dig. 38. 2. 3. pr., fragm. Vat. 226, Dig. 40. 10. 6. By Nov. 78. 1 and 2 Justinian bestowed the ius anulorum on all freedmen and freedwomen whatsoever: 'si quis manumittens servum aut ancillam suam ... qui libertatem acceperit, habebit et aureorum anulorum et regenerationis ius.'

Tit. VI. For the term 'heres necessarius,' and the purpose of instituting one's own slave, see Bk. ii. 19. 1 inf.

tores res hereditarias servi nomine vendant, ne iniuria defunctus afficiatur. Idemque iuris est et si sine libertate servus 2 heres institutus est. quod nostra constitutio non solum in domino, qui solvendo non est, sed generaliter constituit nova humanitatis ratione, ut ex ipsa scriptura institutionis etiam libertas ei competere videatur, cum non est verisimile eum, quem heredem sibi elegit, si praetermiserit libertatis dationem, servum remanere voluisse et neminem sibi heredem fore. In 3 fraudem autem creditorum manumittere videtur, qui vel iam eo tempore quo manumittit solvendo non est, vel qui datis libertatibus desiturus est solvendo esse. praevaluisse tamen videtur, nisi animum quoque fraudandi manumissor habuit, non impediri libertatem, quamvis bona eius creditoribus non sufficiant: saepe enim de facultatibus suis amplius quam in his est sperant homines. itaque tunc intellegimus impediri libertatem, cum utroque modo fraudantur creditores, id est et consilio manumittentis et ipsa re, eo quod bona non suffectura sunt creditoribus.

Eadem lege Aelia Sentia domino minori annis viginti non 4 aliter manumittere permittitur, quam si vindicta apud consilium iusta causa manumissionis adprobata fuerint manumissi. Iustae autem manumissionis causae sunt, veluti si quis patrem 5 aut matrem aut filium filiamve aut fratrem sororemve naturales aut paedagogum nutricem educatorem aut alumnum alumnamve aut collactaneum manumittat, aut servum pro

The lex Aelia Sentia did not apply to peregrini, to whom, however, this part of it relating to manumission in fraud of creditors was extended by a 'senatusconsultum' under Hadrian; Gaius i. 47. Gaius says (i. 37) that the statutc allowed a patron to revoke manumissions by his freedmen which would seriously impair his own rights of succession. For the sale of a deceased insolvent's property see Gaius iii. 78-80: it entailed posthumous infamia, whence it is said 'servus necessarius .. . non magis patrimonium quam infamiam consequi videtur' Cod. Theod. 2. 19. 3.

§ 2. The enactment referred to is in Cod. 6. 27. 5.

§ 4. The motive of this part of the statute is stated by Theophilus, 8t' tvvotav T£>v i\tvdtpovvraV tfnio~raro yap i>s . . . «■'^r,»»v anaTairai . . . riiv iavrav tXanovaiv imooraotv. The consilium consisted at Rome of five senators and five knights above the age of puberty, who sat on fixed days ; Gaius i. 20, Ulpian, reg. 1. 13 A, Dig. 1. 10. pr. and 2.

§ 5. For the common employment of slaves as paedagogi cf. Plu

curatoris habendi gratia, aut ancillam matrimonii causa, dum tamen intra sex menses uxor ducatur, nisi iusta causa impediat, et qui manumittitur procuratoris habendi gratia ne

6 minor septem et decem annis manumittatur. Semel autem causa adprobata, sive vera sive falsa sit, non retractatur.

Cum ergo certus modus manumittendi minoribus viginti

7 annis dominis per legem Aeliam Sentiam constitutus sit, eveniebat, ut, qui quattuordecim annos aetatis expleverit, licet testamentum facere possit et in eo heredem sibi instituere legataque relinquere possit, tamen, si adhuc minor sit annis viginti, libertatem servo dare non poterat. quod non erat ferendum, si is, cui totorum bonorum in testamento dispositio data erat, uni servo libertatem dare non permittebatur. quare nos similiter ei quemadmodum alias res ita et servos suos in ultima voluntate disponere quemadmodum voluerit permittimus, ut et libertatem eis possit praestare. sed cum libertas inaestimabilis est et propter hoc ante vicesimum aetatis annum . antiquitas libertatem servo dari prohibebat: ideo nos mediam quodammodo viam eligentes non aliter minori viginti annis libertatem in testamento dare servo suo concedimus, nisi septimum et decimum annum impleverit et octavum decimum tetigerit. cum enim antiquitas huiusmodi aetati et pro aliis postulare concessit, cur non etiam sui iudicii stabilitas ita eos adiuvare credatur, ut et ad libertates dandas servis suis possint provenire?

tarch, de educ. liberis 7, Plautus, mercat. prolog. 89, Dig. 40. 5. 35. The difference between paedagogus and educator is perhaps that the boy passed from the charge of the first to that of the second at the age of twelve or thereabouts; Apul. Met. x. p. 687.

An ancilla manumitted with the consent of the concilium on the ground that the dominus intended to marry her did not become absolutely free until the marriage took place, Dig. 40. 9. 19; 40. 2. 21; the senate required the master to swear he would marry her within the six months, Dig. 40. 2. 13.

As appears from § 7 inf., no one was allowed to act as processual agent for another until he was seventeen years of age, from which we may infer that liberti were used as procurators mainly in matters of litigation.

§ 7. By Nov. 119. 2 Justinian enabled domini to manumit slaves by will immediately they had completed their fourteenth year.

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