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pardon, the poor man was so elated with the they have all had the effect of it, except triumph he was going unto, with the Glory of such who, upon examination and inquiry, Martyrdom, that be refused to be reconciled appeared not worthy of it; and such avbo, unto him; upon which he was disappointed through they are pardonesl, cannot yet think of his end, and for this uncharitableness the themselves worthy to be preferred.
Ilis spirit of God immediately forsook him, and majesty well knows that, by this Acı, he he aposta tized from the faith.---Let all those hath gratified and obliged many worthy and who are too proud of having been, as they pious men, who have contributed much io bis think, less fauliy than other men, and so are Restoration, and who shall always receive freshi unwilling to be reconciled to those who have evidence of bis majesty's favour and kindness; offended them, take heed of the apostacy of but he is not sure that he may not likewise Nicephorus, and that those fumes of envy and have gratified soine, who did neither contriuncharitableness, and murmuring, do not so bute to his coming in, nor are yet glad that lie far transport and intoxicate then, that they is in : how comes it else to pass, that he refall into those very crimes they value them-ceives such frequent information of seditious selves for having hitherto declined.--But, my Sermons in the city and in the country, in lords and gentlemen, whilst we couspire toge- which all industry is used to alienate the affecther to execute faithfully this part of the Bill, tions of the people, and to infuse jealousies to put all old names and terms of distinction into them of the king and his government. into utter Oblivion, let us not find new names They talk of introducing Popery, of evil counand terms to keep up the same, or a worse dis- sellors, and such other old calumnies as are tinction. If the old reproaches of Cavalier, and pardoned by this Act of Indemnity:-Ilis maRound-Head, and Malignant, be committed jesty told you when he was last here, what to the grave, let us not find more significant rigour and severity he will hereafter use, how and better words, to signify worse things; let contrary soever it is to his nature, in these not piety and godliness grow into terms of re- cases, and conjured you, my lords and gentleproach, and distinguish between the court, and men, to concur with him in this just and necesthe city, and the country; and let not piety sary severity: which I am sure you will do with and godliness be measured by a morosity in your utmost vigilance, and that you will bemanners, an affectation of gesture, a new mode lieve that too much ill cannot befall those who and tone of speaking; at least, let not our do the best they can to corrupt bis majesty's constitutions and complexions make us be nature, and to extinguish his mercy. - My thought of a contrary party; and because we Lords and Gentlemen ; I told you I was to achave not an affected austerity in our looks, quaint you with some things bis majesty intends that we have not piety in our hearts. Very to do during this recess, that you may see be merry men have been very godly inen; and it will give no intermission to bis own thoughts a good conscience be a continual feast, there is for the public good, though for a time he disno reason but men may be very merry at it.- penses with your assistance. He doth conYou, Mr. Speaker, have this day made a noble sider the infinite importance the improveinent present to the king. Do you think that if you of Trade must be to this kingdom, and thereand your worthy companions had brought it fore his majesty intends, forthwith, to establish up with folded arms, down-cast looks, with a Council for Trade, consisting of some princisighs and other instances of desperation, it pal merchants of the several Companies, to would not have been a very melancholic pre- which he will add some gentlemen of quality sent? Have not your frank and dutiful expres- and experience; and, for their greater honour sious, that chearfulness and vivacity in your and encouragement, some of my lords of his looks, rendered it much more acceptable, own privy council. --- In the next place, his much more valuable ? No prince in christen- majesty hopes that, by a well-settled Peace, dom loves a chearful giver so well as God Al- and God's great blessing upon him and you, mighty dues; and he, of all gitts, a chearful this nation will in a short tiine flourish tu ihat heart. And therefore. I pray, let not a cloudy degree, that the land of Canaan did, when Esau and disconsolate face be the only or the best found it necessary to part from his brother. sign of piety and devotion in the beart.--I • For their riches were more than that they must ask your pardon for misplacing much of might dwell together, and the land wherein this discourse, which I should have mentioned they were could not bear them, because of when I caine to speak of the Ministers Bill; their cattle.' We have been ourselves very they, I hope, will endeavour to remove these near this pinnacle of happiness, and the hope new marks of distinction and reproaches, and contemplation that we may be so again, disand keep their auditories from being im- poses the king to be very solicitous for the posed upon hy such characters and descrip-improvement and prosperity of his Plantations tions. The king hath passed this Act very abroad, where there is such large room for the willingly, and hath done much to the end of this industry and reception of such who shall desire act before; yet bath willingly admitted you to to go thither. And therefore his majesty likebe sharers and partners with him in the obli- wise intends to erect and establish a Council gation. I may say, confidently, his majesty for those Plantations, in which persons, well hath never denied bis confirmation to any qualified, shall be wholly intent upon the good man in possession who hath asked it; and and advancement of those plantations. There
are two other particulars which I am com- ceeded from those contentions, whilst every manded to mention, which were both men- one pretended to all the marks which are to tioned and recommended to you by his ma- attend upon the true Church, except only that jesty, in his Declaration from Breda : the one which is inseparable from it, charity to one for the Confirmation of Sales, or other recom- another.--My Lords and Gentlemen, This pence for Purchasers; the other, for the com- disquisition hath cost the king many á sigh, posing those differences and distempers in many a sad hour, when he hath considered the Religion, which have too much disturbed the almost irreparable reproach the Protestant peace of the kingdom. Two very weighty Religion hath undergone, from the divisions particulars, in which bis majesty knows you and distractions which have been so notorious have spent much time, and concerning which within this kingdom. What pains lie bath he should have heard from you before this taken to compose them, after several discourses time, if you had not met with great difficulties with learned and pious men of different perin the disquisition of either.---For the first; suasions, you will shortly see by a Declaration his majesty hath not been without much he will publish upon that occasion ; by which thought upon the argument, and hath done you will see his great indulgence to those who much towards the accommodation of many can have any protectiou from conscience to particular persons; and you shall not be at differ with their brethren. And I hope God your journey's end, before his majesty will put will so bless the candour of his majesty in the that business, concerning Sales, into such a condescensions be inakes, that the Church, as way of dispatch, that he doubts not you will well as the State, will return to that unity and find a good progress inade in it before your unanimity which will make both king and peocoming together again ; and I believe the ple as happy as they can hope to be in this persons concerned will be very much to blame, world.—My Lords and Gentlemen, I shall if they receive not good satisfaction. And conclude with the king's hearty thanks to you some of you who stay in town shall be advised not only for what you have done towards him, and consulted with in that settlement.-The which hath been very signal; but for what other, of Religion, is a sad argument indeed. you have done towards each other; for the It is a consideration that must make every excellent correspondence you have maintained; religious heart to bleed, to see Religion, wbich for the very seasonable deference and condeshould be the strongest obligation and cement scension you have had for each other, which of affection, and brotherly-kindness and coni- will restore parliaments to the veneration they passion, made now, by the perverse wranglings ought to have. And since his majesty knows of passionate and froward men, the ground of that you all desire to please him, you have all' animosity, hatred, malice, and revenge. given him ample evidence that you do so; he And this unruly and unmanly passion (which hath appointed me to give you a sure receipt no question the divine nature exceedingly to attain that good end; it is a receipt of his abhors) sometimes, and I fear too frequently, own prescribing, and therefore is not like to transports those who are in the right, as well fail : be but pleased yourselves, and persuade as those wbo are in the wrong, and leaves the others to be so; contrive all the ways inalatter more excusable than the former, when ginable for your own happiness, and you will men, who find their manners and dispositions make him the best pleased, and the most happy very conformable in all the necessary obli- prince in the world.”. gations of human nature, avoid one another's The Lord Chancellor having concluded his conversation, and grow first unsociable, and Speech, both houses adjourned to the 6th of then uncharitable to each other, because one November.* cannot think as the other doth. And from this separation we intitle God to the patronage * “ During the recess of parliament, the of, and concernment in, our fancies and dis- object, which chiefly interested the public, was tinction, and purely for his sake hate one ano- the trial and condemnation of the Regicides. ther heartily. It was not so of old, when one The general indignation attending the enormof the most antient Fathers of the church tells ous crime of which these men had been guilty, us, That love and charity was so signal and made their sufferings the subject of joy to the eminent in the Primitive Christians, that it people: but in the peculiar circumstances of even drew admiration and envy from their that action, in the prejudices of the times, as adversaries. Vide, inquiunt, ut invicem se well as in the behaviour of the criminals, a diligunt ! Their adversaries in that in which mind, seasoned with humanity, will find a they most agreed, in their very prosecution of plentiful source of compassion and indulgence. them, had their passions and animosities Can any one, without concern for human blindamongst themselves : they were only Chris- ness and ignorance, consider the demeanor of tians chat loved, and cherished, and comforted, general Harrison, who was first brought to and were ready to die for one another; . quid trial? With great courage and elevation of nonc illi dicerent Christiani, si nostra viderent sentiment, he told the court, that the pretended tempora?' says the incomparable Grotius. crime, of which he stood accused, was not a How would they look upon our sharp and deed performed in a corner : the sound of it virulent contentions in the debates of Christian had gone forth to most nations; and in the sinReligion, and the bloody wars that bave pro- gular and marvellous conduct of it had chiefly VOL. IV.
The King's Declaration concerning Ecclesi- | pose somewhat for the propagation of it, that astical Affairs.] During the recess of parlia- will satisfy the world, that we have always ment, the king issued the following I)ecla- made it both our care and our study, and have ration :
enough observed what is most like to bring “His Majesty's DECLARATION 10 all his loving disadvantage to it. And, the truth is, we do
Subjects of his Kingdom of England and think ourself the niore competent to propose, Dominion of Wales, concerning Eccle- and, with God's assistance, to determine, inany siastical Affairs.
things now in difference, from the time we "C. R. How much the peace of the State have spent, and the experience we have had, is covcerned in the peace of the Church, and in most of the Reformed Churches abroad, in how difficult a thug it is to preserve order and France, in the Low Countries, and in Gergovernment in Civil, whilst there is no order or many; where we have had frequent confergovernment in Ecclesiastical affairs, is evident ences with the most learned men, who have to the world ; and this little part of the world, unanimously lamented the great reproach the our own dominions, bath had so late experi- Protestant Religion undergoes from the disteinence of it, that we may very well acquiesce in pers and too notorious schisms in matters of the conclusion, without enlarging ourself in Religion in England: and as the most learned discourse upon it, it being a subject we have amongst them have always, with great submishad frequent occasion to contemplate upon, sion and reverence, acknowledged and magniand to lament abroad, as well as at home.fied the established government of the Church In our Letter to the Speaker of the house of of England, and the great countenance and commons from Breda (p. 17), we declared how shelter the Protestant Religion received from much we desired the advancement and propa- it, before these unhappy times ; so many of gation of the Protestant Religion : that nei- them have, with great ingenuity and sorrow, ther the unkindness of those of the same faith confessed, that they were too easily misled by towards us, nor the civilities and obligations misinformation and prejudice, into some disfrom those of a contrary profession (of both esteem ot it, as if it had too much complied which we have had abundant evidence) could, with the church of Rome ; whereas, they now in the least degrec, startle us, or make us swerve acknowledge it to be the best fence God bath from it ; and that nothing can be proposed to yet raised against Popery in the world : and manifest our zeal and affection for it, to which we are persuaded they do, with great zeal, we will not readily consent: and we said then, wish it restored to its old dignity aud venera That we did hope, in due time, ourself to pro- tion.-When we were in Holland, we were appeared the sovereign power of heaven. That He supported the same spirit upon bis trial.he himself, agitated by doubts, bad often, with Carew, a Millenarian, submitted to his trial, passionate tears, offered up his addresses to saving to our Lord Jesus Christ his right to the divine majesty, and earnestly sought for the government of these kingdoms. Some light and conviction : he had still received as scrupled to say, according to form, that they surance of a heavenly sanction, and returned would be tried by God and their country; befrom these devout supplications with more se- cause God was not visibly, present to judge rene tranquillity and satisfaction. That all the them. Others said, that they would be tried nations of the earth were, in the eyes of their by the word of God.-No more than six of the Creator, less than a drop of water in the late king's judges, Ilarrison, Scot, Carew, Clebucket; nor were their erroneous judgments ment, Jones, and Scrope, were executed : aught but darkness, compared with divine il- Scrope alone, of all those who came in upon luminations. That these frequent illapses of the king's proclamation. He was a gentleman the divine spirit he could not suspect to he in- of good family and of a decent character : but terested illusions; since he was conscious, that it was proved, that he had a little before, in for no temporal advantage, would be offer in- conversation, expressed himself as if he were jury to the poorest man or woman that trud no-wise convinced of any guilt in condemning upon the earth. That all the allurements of the king. Axtel, who had guarded the high ambition, all the terrors of imprisonment, had court of justice, Hacker, who commanded on not been able, during the usurpation of Crom- the day of the king's execution, Coke, the sowell, to shake his steady resolution, or bend licitor for the people of England, and Hugh him to a compliance with that deceitful tyrant. Peters, the fanatical preacher, who inflamed And that when invited by hiin to sit on the the army and impelled them to regicide : all right hand of the throne, when offered riches these were tried, and condemned, and suffered and splendour aud dounnion, lie had disdainedly with the king's judges. No saint or confessor rejected all temptations, and neglecting the ever went to martyrdom with more assured tears of his friends and family, had still, through confidence of heaven than was expressed hy every danger, beld fast his principles and his those criminals, even when the terrors of integrity. Scot, who was more a republican immediale death, joined to many indignities, than a fanatic, had said a little before the Re- were set before them. The rest of the king's storation, that he desired no other epitaph to be judges, by an unexampled lenity, were reinscribed on liis tomb-stone than this; • Here prieved; and they were dispersed into several lies Tho. Scot, who adjudged the king to death.' prisons." Hume.
attended by many grave and learned ministers are doing all we can to wipe out the memory from hence, who were looked upon as the most of all that hath been done amiss by other men, able and principal asserters of the Presbyterian and, we thank God, have wiped it out of our opinions, with whom we had as much confer. own remembrance, have been ourself assaulted ence, as the multitude of affairs, which were with those reproaches, which we will likewise then upon us, would permit us to have ; and, forget.--Since the printing this Declaration, to our great satisfaction and comfort, found several seditious Pamphlets and Queries have them persons full of affection to us, of zeal for been published and scattered abroad, to infuse the peace of the Church and State, and nei- dislike and jealousies into the hearts of the ther enemies (as they have been given out to people, and of the army; and some, who be) to Episcopacy or Liturgy; but modestly to ought rather to have repented the former misdesire such alterations in either, as, without chief they have wrought, than to have endeashaking foundations, inight best allay the pre- voured to improve it, have had the hardiness sent distempers, wbich the indisposition of the to publish, That the doctrine of the Church, time, and the tenderness of some men's con- against which no man with whom we have sciences, had contracted : for the better doing conferred hath excepted, ought to be reformed whereof, we did intend, upon our first arrival as well as the discipline. This over-passionate in this kingdom, to call a Synod of Divines, as. and turbulent way of proceeding, and the imthe most proper expedient to provide a proper patience we find in many for some speedy remedy for all those differences and dissatis-determination in these matters, whereby the factions which had, or should arise in matters minds of men may be composed, and the peace of Religion ; and, in the mean time, we pub- of the Church established, hath prevailed with lished, in our Declaration from Breda, a liberty us to invert the method we bad proposed to to tender consciences; and that no man should ourself, and even, in order to the better calling be disquieted or called in question for diffe- and composing of a Synod (which the present rences of opinion in matter of religion, which jealousies will hardly agree upon) by the assistdo not disturb the peace of the kingdom ; and ance of God's blessed spirit, which we daily that we shall be ready to consent to such an invoke and supplicate, to give some determiact of parliament as, upon mature deliberation, nation ourself to the matters in difference, shall be offered to us for the full granting of until such a Synod may be called as may, that indulgence.-Whilst we continued in this without passion or prejudice, give us such fartemper of mind and resolution, and have so farther assistance towards a perfect union of affeccomplied with the persuasion of particular tions, as well as submission to authority, as is nepersons, and the distemper of the times, as to cessary: and we are the rather induced to take be contented with the exercise of our religion this upon us, by finding, upon the full confer. in our own chapel, according to the constant ence we have had with the learned men of practice and laws established, without enjoining several persuasions, that the mischiefs, under that practice, and the observation of those which both the Church and State do at prelaws, in the churches of the kingdom, in which sent suffer, do not result from any formed docwe have undergone the censure of many, as if trine or conclusion which either party mainwe were without that zeal for the church which tains or avows; but from the passion, appewe ought to have, and which by God's grace, tite, and interest of particular persons, who we sball always retain, ive have found ourself contract greater prejudice to each other from pot so candidly dealt with as we have deserved; those affections, than would naturally rise from and that there are unquiet and restless spirits, their opinions ; and those distempers must be who, without abating any of their own dis in some degree allayed, before the meeting in temper, in recompence of the moderation a Synod can be attended with better success they find in us, continue their bitterness against than their meeting in other places, and their the church, and endeavour to raise jealousies discourses in pulpits have hitherto been; and of us, and to lessen our reputation by their till all thoughts of victory are laid aside, the reproaches, as if we were not true to the pro- humble and necessary thoughts for the vindifessions we have made. And, in order there- cation of truth cannot be enough entertained.unto, they have very unseasonably caused to We must, for the honour of all those of either be printed, published, and dispersed throughout persuasion with whom we have conferred, dethe kingdom, a Declaration heretofore printed clare, That the professions and desires of all, in our name, during the time of our being in for the advancement of piety and true godliScotland, of which we shall say no more than ness, are the same ; their professions of zeal that the circumstances, by which we were en- for the peace of the church, the saine; of forced to sign that Declaration, are enough affection and duty to us, the sanie : they all known to the world; and that the worthiest approve Episcopacy; they all approve a set and greatest part of that nation did even then Form of Liturgy; and they all disapprore and detest and abhor the ill usage of us in that dislike the sin of sacrilege, and the alienation particular, when the same tyranny was exer- of the revenue of the Church. And if upon cised there by the power of a few ill men, these excellent foundations, in submission to which, at that time, had spread itself over this which there is such a harmony of affections, kingdoin; and therefore we had no reason to any superstructures should be raised, to the espect that we should, at this season, when we shaking those foundations, and to the contracting and lessening the blessed gift of charity, , piness of the kingdom: and therefore we have which is a vital part of Christian religion, we not the least doubt but that the present shall think ourself very unfortunate, and even Bishops will think the present concessions, suspect that we are defective in that adminis- now inade by us to allay the present distempers, tration of government with which God hath very just and reasonable, and will very chearentrusted us. We need not profess the high fully conform themselves thereunto.-1. We affection and esteem we have for the Church do in the first place declare our purpose and of England, as it is established by law, the resolution is, and shall be, to proipote the reverence to which hath supported us, with power of godliness, to encourage the exercises God's blessing, against many temptations ; of Religion both public and private, and to nor do we think that reverence in the least take care that the Lord's Day be applied to degree diminisbed by our condescensions, not holy exercises, without unnecessary divertiseperemptorily to insist on some particulars of ments ; and that insufficient, negligent, and ceremony; which, however introduced by the scandalous ministers, be not permitted in the piety, devotion, and order of former times, Church. And that as the present Bishops are may not be so agreeable to the present; but known to be men of great and exemplary piety may even lessen that piety and devotion, for in their lives, which they have manifested in the improvement whereof they might haply be their notorious and unexampled sufferings first introduced, and consequently may well be during these late distempers, and of great and dispensed with : and we hope this charitable known sufficiency of learning ; so
we shall compliance of ours will dispose the minds of take special care, hy the assistance of God, all men to a chearful submission to that autho- to prefer no men to that office and charge, rity, the preservation whereof is so pecessary but men of learning, virtue, and piety, who for the unity and peace of the Church, and may be themselves the best examples to those that they will acknowledge the support of the who are to be guverned by them; and we Episcopal authority to be the best support of shall expect, and provide the best we can, that Religion, by being the best means to contain the Bishops be frequent preachers, and that the minds of men within the rules of govern. they do very often preach themselves in some ment. And they who would restrain the church of their diocese, except they be hinexercise of that holy function within the rules dered by sickness or other bodily infirmities, or which were observed in the primitive times, some other justifiable occasion; which shall not must remember and consider, that the eccle- be thought justifiable if it be frequent.--2. Besiastical power, being in those blessed times cause the Dioceses, especially some of them, are always subordinate and sulject to the civil, it thought to be of too large extent, we will was likewise proportioned to such an extent of appoint such a number of Suffragan Bishops in jurisdiction as was most agreeable to that. every diocese, as shall be sufficient for the due And as the sanctity, simplicity, and resignation performance of their work.–3. No Bishop of that age, did then refer many things to the shall ordain, or exercise any part of jurisdicBishops, which the policy of succeeding ages tion, which appertains to the censures of the would not admit, at least did otherwise pro- Church, without the advice and assistance of vide for; so it can be no reproach to primitive the presbyters; and no chancellor, commisEpiscopacy, if, where there have been great sary, or official, as such, shall exercise any act alterations in the civil government from what of spiritual jurisdiction in these cases, viz. exwas then, there have been likewise some diffe- communication, absolution, or wherein any of rence and alteration in the ecclesiastical, the the ministry are concerned, with reference to essence and foundation being still preserved. their pastoral charge. However, our intent And upon this ground, without taking upon us and meaning is, to uphold and maintain the to censure the government of the church in profession of the civil law, so far, and in such other countries, where the government of the matters, as it hath been of use and practice state is different from what it is here, or en- within our kingdoms and dominions : albeit, as larging vurself upon the reasons why, whilst to excommunication, our will and pleasure is, there was an iinagination of erecting a demo- That no chancellor, commissary, or official, cratical governpient here in the state, they shall decree any sentence of excommunication should be willing to continue an aristocratical or absolution, or be judges in those things government in the church ; it shall suffice to wherein any of the ministry are concerned, as say, that since, by the wonderful blessing of is aforesaid. Nor shall the archdeacon exerGod, the hearts of this whole nation are re- cise any jurisdiction without the advice and turned to an obedience to monarchial govern- assistance of six ministers of his archdeaconry, ment in the state, it must be very reasonable whereof 3 to be nominated by the bishop, and to support that government in the church 3 by the election of the major part of the preswhich is established by law, and with which | byters within the archdeaconry.-4. To the the monarchy hath flourished through so many end that the Deans and Chapters may be the ages, and which is in truth as antient in this better fitted to afford counsel and assistance to island as the Christian monarchy thereof; and the bishops, both in ordination and the other which hath always, in some respects or degrees, offices mentioned before, we will take care been enlarged or restrained, as hath been that those preferments be given to the most thought most conducing to the peace and hap- learned and pious presbyters of the diocese;