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1868- 69. Punjab Administration Reports :—Production: Mines and quarries, pt. Ill, p.
109, sect. 348.
1869- 70. Punjab Administration Reports, pt. Ill, p. 102, sect. 343.
1870. Wynne, A. B.—Note on the Petroleum locality of Sudkal, near Futtijung. „ Lyman, B. S.—General report on the Punjab oil lands, Lahore, pp. 1—46.
1870- 71. Punjab Administration Reports, pt. III., p. 92, sect. 319.
1871- 72. Ibid., pt. IV, p. 157, sect. 541.
187a. Lyman, B. S.—Topography of the Punjab oil-regions. Trans., Amer. Phil. Sot., Vol. XV, p. I, also Annates des Mines, ser. 6, Vol. XX, p. 318. „ Wood, J., see 1841.
1872- 73. Punjab Administration Report.—Pt. II, p. 92, sect. 307, Appendix, p. cxi. •873-74. Ibid., Chapter IV, p. 63, sect. 192. Appendix, pp. cxxxiv—cxxxvi.
1874. Ball, V.—Geological notes made on a visit to the coal recently discovered in the country of the Luni Pathans, south-east corner of Afghanistan. Ret., Geol. Surv., Ind., Vol. VII, p. 158.
1874- 75. Punjab Administration Report.—Appendix, pp. clxxxvi—clxxxviii.
1875- 76. Ibid., Appendix, pp. clxxx— clxxxii.
1876- 77. Ibid., Appendix, pp. clxxx—clxxxii.
1877- 78. Ibid., Appendix, pp. clxxvi—clxxviii.
1878. Wynne, A. B.—On the geology of the Salt-Range in the Punjab. Mem., Geol. Surv., Ind., Vol. XIV, p. 297.
1878- 79. Punjab Administration Report.—Appendix, pp. clxxxvi—clxxxviii,
1879- 80. Ibid., Appendix, pp. cxcviiil—cc.
1880. Wynne, A. B.—On the Trans-Indus extension of the Punjab Salt-Range. Mem., Geol.
Surv., Ind., Vol. XVII, pt. II, p. 60.
1880- 81. Punjab Administration Report.—Appendix, pp. cciv—ccvi.
1881. Ball, V.—Manual of the Geology of India, pt. Ill (Economic Geolopy), pp. 126—132.
1881- 82. Punjab Administration Report.—Chapter IV, p. 105. Appendix, ) pp. ccvi —
1882. Ball, V.—The mineral resources^ of India, and their development. Journ., Soc. Arts ,
Vol. XXX, p. 595. (Further remarks by Gen MacLagan, p. 595.)
1882- 83. Punjab Administration Report. -Appendix, pp. xciii and xciv.
1884- 85. Ibid., Appendix, p. cxviii.
1885- 86. Ibid., Appendix, p. cxiii.
1S86. Medlicott, H. B.—Note on the occurrence of petroleum in India. Rec, Geol. Surv., Ind., Vol. XIX, p. 185 (Punjab, p. 200, and Khatan, Baluchistan, p. 201.) „ Townsend, R. A.—Report on the petroleum exploration at Khatan. Ret. Geol., Surv., Ind., Vol. XIX, pp. 204—210.
1886- 87. Punjab Administration Report.—Chapter IV, p. 91, sect. 436. Appendix, p. cxv.
1887- 88. Ibid., Chapter IV, p. 95, sect. 289. Appendix, p. cxv.
1888- 89. Ibid., Chapter IV, p. 102, sect. 302.
1889- 90. Ibid., Chapter IV, p. 116, sect. 315.
1890. Redwood, B.—The Oil-fields of India. Journ.,Soc, Chem. Ind., Vol. IX (No. 4, 21st April, 1890), pp. 10—II, „ Oldham, R. D.—Special report on the most favourable sites for petroleum explorations in the Harnai district, Baluchistan. Ret., Geol. Surv., Ind., Vol. XXIII, P- 57
n n n Report on the geology and economic resources of the country adjoin.
ing the Sind-Pishin Railway between Sharigh and Spintangi, and of the country between it and Khattan. Rec, Geol. Surv., Ind., Vol. XXIII, p. 104.
1S01. „ „ Preliminary report on the Oil locality near Moghul Kot in the Sherani
country, Suleiman Hills. Rec, Geol. Surv., Ind., Vol. XXIV, p. 83. „ Holland, T. H.—On mineral oil from the Suleiman Hills. Ret., Givl. Surv., Ind., Vol. XXIV, p. 84.
Note on the Geology of the Lushai Hills, by TOM D. La TOUCHE, B.A' Deputy Superintendent, Geological Survey of India.
The geological examination of the Lushai Hills made by me during the military expedition of 1889-90 was practically limited to the immediate neighbourhood of the road constructed by the troops between the valley of the Kurnafuli at Demagiri and the Myit-tha valley in Upper Burma; the density of the jungle, especially in the western part of the hills, rendering it almost impossible to leave the road for the purpose of making observations, and the character of the inhabitants preventing my doing so without an escort; and as it was but seldom that detached parties were sent to any distance from the main line of advance I had few opportunities of visiting places lying to the norch or south of the road.
Since, however, the road crossed all the ranges lying between the two valleys above mentioned, and the strike of the rocks corresponds almost invariably with the direction of the ranges, that is, nearly due north and south, I was enabled to form a very fair idea of the rocks composing the hills throughout their whole width from west to east, the cuttings along the road greatly assisting me; while a close examination of the pebbles brought down by the larger rivers, which, as may be seen from a glance at a map of the country, run for great distances in a direction parallel to that of the main ranges, afforded some indication cf the rocks to be found in their drainage areas to the north or south of the road.
The results of my investigations were altogether disappointing, so far as the expectation of finding useful minerals in these hills is concerned: neither in the rocks traversed by the road, nor in the débris brought down by the rivers, did I find traces of coal, limestone or other minerals of economic value; at least until the valley of the Myit-tha was reached. There a few large masses of concretionary limestone were found in the bed of the Kyounka stream west of Myintha; and in the hills to the east of the Myit-tha between Kyaukpyauk and Indin, considerable beds of nummulitic limestone, which may prove useful in the Chindwin district, were also found.
The whole mass of the Lushai Hills, on the line traversed, consists of sandstones and shales of tertiary age, thrown into long folds the axes of which run in a nearly north and south direction : the surfaces of the sandstone beds frequently show fine examples of "ripple marking," denoting that they were probably laid down in comparatively shallow water; indeed, the whole character of the deposits is such as to render the supposition probable that they were laid down in the delta and estuary of an immense river issuing from the Himalayas to the north-east of Assam during tertiary times and flowing due south through the country now occupied by the Naga and Lushai Hills. Only in one place did I find any fossils: these occurred in some rather nodular dark grey sandstones, cut through by the road where it runs along the lop of a precipitous scarp between Fort Lunglehand Teriat. These fossils have not yet been properly examined and determined, but there is no doubt that they are marine, or perhaps estuarine, and their fades seems to correspond with that of the fossils found in the sandstones overlying the nummulitic limestone of the Garo and Khasia Hills in Assam. Whether it would be possible, by a more detailed examination of the rocks than I was able to make, to correlate the various portions of this monotonous succession of sandstones and shales with the divisions of the tertiary strata in other districts, I cannot say, but without more fossil evidence it would be a difficult task, and, considering the entire absence of any minerals of economic value, a most profitless undertaking.
After passing the deep gorge of the Koladyne river, and the Tao Klang, there is a marked change in the aspect of the hills as we proceed eastwards: instead of the dense bamboo' jungles and rank undergrowth characteristic of the western ranges, we find open grass-covered slopes, with groves of oaks and pines (identical with the well-known Pinus Khasiana of Assam) interspersed with rhododendrons. This change in the scenery and vegetation does not appear to be accompanied by any corresponding change in the composition of the rocks, but is more probably due to a diminished rainfall in the eastern hills, and to their greater mean elevation.
The peculiar orography of these hills is a subject that deserves some notice, but, in the absence of more detailed maps, is one that cannot now be fully discussed. It is also of some practical importance, for, this being the shortest route from India to Upper Burma, it would, naturally, were the configuration of the hills other than what it is, be the most favourable for a railway. As it is, it would be difficult. I think, to find a country more unfitted by nature for the carrying out of any project of the kind, for not only do the ranges and river gorges run directly transverse to the direction in which it is desired to carry the railway, but the character of the rocks and climate is such that landslips would necessarily be frequent in the heavy cuttings that would be required on the whole length of the line, and the expenditure on its maintenance, even supposing it were constructed, would be enormous.
Report on the Coal-fields in the Northern Shan States, by Fritz NoETLlNG, Ph.d., Paleontologist, Geological Survey of India.
The present report on the survey of the coal-fields in the Northern Shan States does not pretend to be exhaustive in every respect, and, until further information is obtained, it must be considered merely as the result of a preliminary investigation of the coal-fields existing between the Irrawaddi and the Salween. I am sorry to say that the report is greatly deficient in geological observations. There are no detailed sections, such as I was able to describe in my report on the Chindwin coalfields; observations regarding the strike and dip of strata are even more scanty, and, lastly, I have not been able to ascertain the relations between the different localities where the coal-seams were found outcropping.
The absence of these desiderata is chiefly due to the nature cf the country and to the want of accurate maps on a large scale. The peculiar way in which the seams outcrop is, of course, most fatal to an exact examination. The seams are only to be seen in the beds of the streams and along their steep banks; any swelling of the streams, even if it be only for a few inches, may therefore completely concea C
the outcrops. The banks along which good sections could fairly be expected are steep and covered with impenetrable jungle, so that only here and there, where the last floods have carried away the vegetation, observations of the strata hidden under the surface soil can be taken. As will be seen further on, the coal-bearing formation has suffered an extensive superficial destruction by which large parts of it were removed, while it is also extensively obscured by thick layers of clay or gravel being deposited on the top of it. It is now only at such places, where the coarse of the present streams has cut deep enough through the hiding cover of clay or gravel, that coal-bearing strata may be expected to outcrop.
In cases like this the want of boring plant makes itself conspicuously felt, For instance, at one place I noticed a big seam of about 30 feet in thickness in the bed of the stream, and although large side-cuttings were made, they did not reveal much as to the way in which the seam was deposited. At another place, lying in the direction of the supposed continuation of this very seam, I noticed the outcrop of a seam, evidently of great thickness, which, however, equally exhibits little as to bedding. Now do these two outcrops belong to the same seam, or do they represent two different seams? The probability is tbat they belong to one and the same seam; but this is only guess-work, as between the two localities the alluvial deposits hide the older strata completely. Three bores, of probably not a very great depth, would have ascertained whether the outcrops belong to one or to different seams, whether they are only pockets locally swollen up to a large thickness, or whether this thickness prevails throughout the seam.
A careful combination of isolated facts has, however, enabled me to form a general idea about the coal-fields and their value, though it may not be strongly supported by detailed sections.
As regards the maps, those published at present are accurate and detailed enough for general purposes, but a geologist requires for his delicate observations a map on large scale, which will enable him to fix his position with an accuracy of about 50 feet. A reliable map on a large scale means frequently half of the geological work already done, because the features of the surface often enough reveal to the trained eye their internal structure. With the assistance of a reliable map, and by combining certain geological facts noticed by him, any experienced geologist will be able, with a certain amount of certainty, to draw his conclusions as to the extension and development of strata at places, even though he may not have visited them. The want of a reliable map is also most seriously felt when it is necessary to estimate the area throughout which the valuable minerals are to be found, and it is with regard to this that my report again lacks accuracy. I may know the point up to which the seams extend with absolute accuracy, but I am unable to fix it on the map owing to the blank space shown there, where hills and streams should be marked. The estimates as to the area over which the coal-fields extend will therefore be only approximate, but I believe them to be rather under the mark than above it.
To sum up. This report should only be considered as a preliminary description of certain coal-fields in the Northern Shan States. It is likely that it will have to be modified in details afterwards. I give, however, a certain number of facts which will enable the reader to judge for himself as to the probable value of the coal-fields, provided that he will accept my view.
I have considered it advisable to divide the report into two parts: the first, a general part which will give a topographical and geological outline of the country between the Irrawaddi and the Salween from about Lat. 22° to Lat. 230; while the second part will deal with the particulars of the coal-fields.
Section I.—Topographical Sketch Of The Country East Of Mandalay Between The Irrawaddi And The Salween.
(a) General topographical features.—The hilly country east of Mandalay that rises rather suddenly from the alluvial plains of the Irrawaddi is generally known as "The Shan plateau" or "The Shan hills." The term "plateau'' docs not, however, exactly suit this country, as although the marginal crest, when seen from the plains, seems to form a nearly horizontal line indicating a perfect plain, the country itself is very much intersected by deep valleys. The term "Shan highlands" would be much more fitting, but as in a geological sense the country still forms a "plateau," although very much changed in its features, the term of " Shan plateau" may still be used, with the restriction, however, that it should apply only to the country south of the great G6kteik-Kunl6n valley. As frequently noticed with plateaux, the highest elevations are found along the outer margin facing the Irrawaddi plains. The highest peak rises to nearly 5,000 feet (4,714); the average height of the crest may be 3,000 to 3,500 feet; the plateau slopes very slowly to the east for a distance of about 20 miles as the crow flies, till it reaches its deepest in the Th6nze valley with 2,339 ^eet near 'he village of K6nza. On the eastern side of this valley the country rises again to a height of about 3,000 feet, seemingly forming a hill range running from north to south. This hill range is, however, only the western slope of a second plateau slowly falling to the east, and this feature of a steep slope facing west and a gradual dip to the east is several times repeated in the country lying east and south of the GSkteik pass. As a result ot this formation all the chief valleys run in a direction nearly north and south.
The country north of the G6kteik-Kunl6n valley cannot be described as a plateau owing to various systems of hill ranges. It is very difficult to say whether these predominate in any one direction. It seems, however, that the direction from west to east of the main ranges was the original one. The direction of the valleys does not show the regularity of the southern part, none being more general than the others.
It will therefore be seen that the tracts north and south of the Gokteik-Kunl6n valley are perfectly different as regards their topographical features, and I shall further prove that this is in a great measure due to their different geological constitution.
(£) The Gdkteik-Kunldn valley.—The boundary which separates the plateau-like south from the hilly north of the country here described is marked by a long valley which begins a few miles east of the GSkteik pass and runs in a north-eastern direction to the Salween, and probably far beyond it towards Western China. This valley has the peculiar feature that it has not one general direction of drainage but three, at least so far as I have examined it. Beginning from the Salween, we see the water running to the east up to a village called Hoika about 30 to 35 miles east of Lashio. Beyond that village the water runs to the west as far as Bawgyo, where