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Oct. 31.-The weather is as bad as ever ; indeed the mists, do not allow one to see ten yards from the door. There was no chance of getting away to-day ; but I could not trespass for my dinner any longer on the hospitality of my kind friend at the konák, so I sent out for two cocks, (hens, and of course chickens are unknown on the Holy Mountain,) which my servant killed and dressed. The carnivorous traveller can make a decent dinner at Karyés, as flesh-meat is sold in the bazaar, as well as grocery, articles of clothing, &c. &c. I spent some time there to-day, chatting with the shop keepers, and contemplating the spectacle of a town without women, and of a market without noise. I also bought some crosses and other specimens of the wood-carving of the inmates of the downthpia. Of course I made earnest inquiries as to how the weather would probably turn out; but this is a subject on which Greeks, unlike other mountaineers who are generally so weather-wise, will never presume to give a categorical
“Do I know the weather? God only knows it,” (I'vwpićw εγώ τον καιρον και ο θεος μόνος τον γνωρίζει,) is the never-failing reply to my eager inquiries.
In the afternoon I walked to Koutloumousi (Koutlovuoñol), the smallest of all the monasteries, not containing above 30 caloyers; but situated close to Karyés, in the most cultivable part of the peninsula, amidst gardens, vineyards, olive plantations, and corn-fields. It was founded by the Emperor Alexius Comnenus. It boasts of possessing among its relics the other foot of St. Anne ; but I did not ask to see it, and the monks do not unnecessarily obtrude such curiosities on the Frank traveller.
Nov. 1.-The weather looked as bad as before this morning, and I almost began to despair of ever getting away. However, there was a break in the clouds about 10 A.M., and I started directly, amid a shower of blessings from the deputy, whose heart I had quite won. The Sunozee and horses are quite fresh after their unwonted rest. In three hours we reach the monastery of Zographu (η μονή του Ζωγράφου), situated in an inland valley at some distance from the sea, and the most northern of the convents on the western side of the promontory. On our way we passed on our left Constamonitou (η μονή του Κωνσταporítov), built in a rocky romantic wilderness, and said to derive its name from its founder Constantine the Great. In this part of the western shore of Athos are also situated the following monasteries, none of which had I time to visit. 1. Xeropotámon (i movn toŨ Enpotorápov), I
(και του Ξηροποτάμου) so called from a torrent, often dry in summer, which here flows into the Singitic Gulf. It was founded by the Emperor Romanus. 2. Russicon (rò 'Pwoolkov Movaothplov), a convent originally founded for Russians alone, but where the majority of the caloyers, including the Abbot, are now Greeks. It has two churches, in one of which the service is performed in Slavonian, in the other in Greek. In Chiliandari and in Zography, Slavonian only is used. 3. Xenophontos (i povr to✓ Eevopūvtoc), so called from St. Xenophon its founder. 4. Docheiaríon (TOū Aoxecaplov,) which was founded by St. Euthymius in the reign of Nicephorous Botoniates,
I was received at Zográphu by the abbot or niyoúpevos, a Servian monk of very venerable aspect, and who spoke Greek pretty well. He ordered me dinner in a particularly airy and clean room, in which, as he took care to inform me, the Grand Duke Constantine of Russia was lodged during his visit to the Holy Mountain. This is a convent of Servians and Bulgarians, founded in the reign of Leo the Philosopher. The church is noted for a miraculous picture of St. George, which conveyed itself from Palestine without human means, like the sacred House of Loretto. The monks declare it to have been painted by Divine Will, and not by the hands of men (axelpotointos), whence the monastery was called Zwypápov, or that of the Painter. There is a small hole near the eyes of this picture ; and the good fathers related to me the following legend, probably invented to account for it long after it was made-just as Niebuhr conjectures that many of the stories in Roman history were framed to account for names already given. Once on a time a free-thinking bishop came here from Constantinople, and doubting the divine origin of the painting, struck his finger in derision through it. Wonderful to tell, he was unable to withdraw the offending member from the sacrilegious hole, and was at length obliged to have it cut off.
Two hours’ ride across the ridge of the Peninsula brought us from Zográphu to Esphigménu (Toũ ’Eodeyjévov), the appearance and etymology of which I have already described. It rained a good deal, and I was much wet in spite of my huge Hungarian bunda, The path lay through a thick forest of oaks, chestnuts, and elms, with a profusion of myrtles and other fragrant shrubs. The chestnuts are particularly fine trees : a portion of the fruit is consumed on the Mountain, or exported in the boats which come to load firewood ; the remainder perishes on the ground, or is washed into the sea by the winter torrents.
The Abbot of Esphigménu was absent in Russia collecting subscriptions for the repair of his convent, which the sea is fast undermining. Most of the monasteries have a debt for which they pay a high interest; and, like certain larger communities, find this part of their yearly obligations more burdensome than their direct taxes and current expenses. In the evening, I wandered by the light of a sweet half-moon to the side of one of the hills overhanging the monastery, where I lay down and mused for hours, undisturbed by any sound but the gentle ripple of the waves below, and the quaint cry of one of those little horned owls about the size of a thrush, which are almost unknown in England, but are common in Greece and Italy. The little creature, as usual, seemed utterly regardless of my presence, and sate on a withered bough within a few feet of me, pouring forth its peculiar cry and twisting itself into the most fantastic shapes.
This is the real owl of Minerva, so venerated of old by the Athenians, and can be perfectly tamed with great ease. A number of them are kept in the university of Corfù, because an owl is borne on the arms of that institution, on the same principle as that on which bears are preserved at Berne, eagles at Ĝeneva, storks at the Hague, and lions were formerly preserved in the Tower of London. Far from seeming to complain
“ Of such as wandering near their secret bower
Molest their ancient solitary reign;" they usually appear to feel a fellowship with the solitary being who delights in contemplating at the same hour as themselves the gloomy scenes which they choose as their favourite haunts. I have seen them among the ruins of the Colosseum and of the Parthenon, seated, as to-night, close by me on a broken arch or fallen pillar, and hooting with a certain tone of mockery, varied with that of a more plaintive character. As the mournful or the sarcastic tone prevails, one might almost fancy the bird of Minerva demanding sympathy with its lament for the ruin of a once favourite seat of the arts and sciences over which she of old presided ;-or the bird of desolation inviting to rejoice with it over the wreck of ancient glories, a member of our great Teutonic race—“Heirs,” as we are, “ of all the ages in the foremost files of time."
On my return to the monastery, I had my own troubles in putting an end to a rather scandalous scene. My poor old Senogee had got very drunk—the raki of the good fathers having proved too strong for him--and had begun holloaing and singing profane songs in the quadrangle, while my Albanian was only increasing the hubbub by beating him with my kourbash, or Arab whip of rhinoceros hide. I was reminded of the similar scene with Hayreddin the Bohemian in Quentin Durward. When I had succeeded in consigning him to an outhouse to sleep off his debauch, I fell into conversation with an intelligent young monk, who told me that Isboros was supposed by the general tradition of the country to be the site of Stagirus; and I accordingly determined to vary my route on my return to Thessalonica, for the purpose of visiting the native town of Aristotle.
THE CHURCH OF THE FUTURE.
SIR,-Nothing is more common with Roman Catholic controversialists, at the present day, than a practice of identifying the general Anglican Church with the Established Church of England, and then representing the Established Church as being altogether a creature of the State. Thus in a recent publication, although the author in the regular course of argument should have contrasted the Church of Rome with the Anglo-Catholic body in its widest sense, he selects the Established Church of England as the sole object of his attacks, and says of it, -" It is held under the power of the Parliament and the lawyers ; they settle its doctrines, its prayers, and all that it has and does, and this is what is called the 'Royal Supremacy.
Now whether this be true or false, it is not my present object to inquire ; nor do I mean, on this occasion, to consider whether the Royal Supremacy, as now generally understood, is productive of good or evil to the Church of God in this country. But I wish to direct the attention of your readers to the fact that, so far from the Royal Supremacy being an essential feature of the Church principles which we maintain, it is but an accidental property of the Church in England and Ireland, and to a certain extent in the Colonies.
If submission to Acts of Parliament and the Royal Supremacy were essential to our Church principles, then it would be impossible for us to hold intercommunion with any branch of the Church not recognising the supreme authority of the civil power in matters ecclesiastical. But for many years we have held sufficient inter-communion with the Scottish and American Churches (and that too under Parliamentary sanction) to prove that we regard them, as identical with ourselves in all that is essential to the character of a Church of Christ. But the Scottish Church is governed by its own synods, and the American Church is entirely free from all control on the part of any prince, potentate, or state government. Therefore the conclusion is obvious, that the present condition of the Church in England with regard to the State, is an accidental and not an essential feature of her constitution.
This, of course, is very plain to those who have studied the subject. But unfortunately it is so much the habit of Englishmen to regard their Church as a merely insular establishment, that it often needs strong demonstration to convince them to the contrary.
Certain it is, that, mainly through God's blessing on our Missionary operations, the Anglican Church has far exceeded its original bounds, and has advanced far beyond even the wide grasp of Acts of Parliament. It may also be laid down as almost certain, that, long before another century shall have elapsed, the portion of our Church restricted by the civil authority of England, (supposing such restrictions to continue,) will be incomparably smaller than the portion unfettered by parliamentary enactments. Already the number of our bishops is one hundred and five. Of this number forty are of the wholly unestablished class, and in the full possession of synodical action. Forty are partakers of the mingled benefits and disadvantages of a civil establishment, and the remaining twenty-five are generally destitute of the peculiar advantages of an establishment, while they have their full share of its difficulties and entanglements.
This is the present state of things. But let fifty years pass away without any general apostasy or sudden catastrophe, and how great a change will have taken place. It is not improbable that several of our largest Colonies will have quietly inherited their independence. The Church in those Colonies, independent also in its action, will have adapted itself to its circumstances, and energetically devoted itself to its great work of conversion and edification. Australia and Canada will perhaps each contain as many Bishops as the American Church at present. The rest of the Clergy, as well as the Laity, will have increased in an equal ratio. The United States will have attained a population of a hundred millions, and our Church in that country (even at its present rate of progress) will number not less than ten millions, under the care of perhaps ten thousand Clergy and a hundred Bishops. The western coast of Africa will contain many Bishops and Clergy, deriving their ordination from America. Missionaries sent forth by the prelates of New Zealand will perhaps have converted the inhabitants of the Pacific Isles. California and Oregon will be filled with Christian churches. The Bishops and Clergy of the Cape will have carried the gospel into the heart of Africa. Native Missionaries and Bishops will be labouring in the East Indies, and even China and Japan will feel the influence of the contiguous Christianity of Western America, India, and Australia. The English language will be the prevailing tongue throughout vast portions of the world ; and by swift steamers, railways, and electric telegraphs, the remotest regions will be brought into a state of virtual proximity.
Whatever may then be the condition of the dear old Church in England, it is very clear that the general Anglican Church will have ceased to derive its character from Acts of the British Parliament, or from the supremacy of the British Crown. And here perhaps it may not be amiss to ask the question, whether the time is not near at hand when a preparation should be made for the greater consolidation of our widely extended body.
I believe it may be said with perfect truth, that serious and earnest members of the Anglican Church everywhere, are weary of the present unsatisfactory state of many important questions respecting doctrine, discipline, and worship. They are weary of the unhappy rivalry of
, High Church and Low Church,” which weakens our efforts and distracts our energies wherever a branch of our Church has been planted. They are weary of the laxity which permits some to hold and teach nearly every Roman doctrine, while others may with like impunity tread upon
very borders of dissent. They wish to see a general understanding as to the limitations imposed by the Church on the pri. vate judgment of its individual ministers and members. They desire to behold a method of cooperation by which the scattered members of their body may join in definite, well-arranged and permanent efforts for the diffusion and deepening of true religion throughout the world. They long and pray for a more visible, practical, and efficient union of the several portions of at least the Anglo-Catholic Church than they now experience. This year
will exhibit on a vast scale a system of cooperation for the advancement of universal industry. From most parts of the civilized world crowds of intelligent persons will be collected in London, where different ideas on the same subjects will be interchanged and combined, and new discoveries perhaps elicited. This example, one would think, ought not to be wholly lost on the Church. The religious interests of the world ought not to be a consideration secondary to those of an industrial and chiefly material character. A certain class of Protestants have already established their Evangelical Alliance. The Romanists have long possessed the means of united action among themselves. Ought we then to regard as wholly chimerical the idea