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Tuesday.--I set off this morning for Graff Reinet, a distance of a little more than ninety miles. The first day we walked as far as Mr. -'s farm to breakfast (I had baptized his child the previous Sunday); he showed me a sort of chart of the road, with the distances marked, and wished me to accept the loan of a horse ; but now I had commenced walking, I was determined to trudge sturdily on; and accordingly, after resting awhile on the road, when Wilhelm and I, as was our usual custom, sometimes under the shade of a mimosa bush, sometimes in the dry channel of a river, sat and read together both in the Kaffir and English Testaments—he trying to learn my language, and I his—we arrived a little after sunset at a boor's place, where I asked to be allowed to remain the night. I was not refused, though my reception was very ungracious at first, the head of the family scarce raising his eyes from the ground, and not unfolding his arms, while he acquiesced in my entrance, and his vrow appearing to notice me still less. They asked me to sit, which I did, and the inquiries, which became afterwards so usual, commenced. Who I was- - Why I walked Had I no horse ? &c. &c. Wilhelm spoke for me, as I knew no Dutch, and had I not felt tired with this, my first day's journey, their evident contempt and suspicion of me would have made me retreat to spend another night in the bush, or in the Kaffir hut of one of their farm servants. But I thought I must go through with it, and get used to the uncouth manners of these men. My MASTER and His Apostles walked before me, as I observed to them ; and whatever the Dutch boors may mistake me forma deserter, or a convict with a ticket of leave-my Master before me was told, “Thou art a Samaritan, and hast a devil.” I soon, however, got on better terms with this family ; first, by taking notice of the children, which generally wins a Dutchman’s heart ; and then by giving my blue spectacles to the vrow, who I observed had weak eyes. At length I got into quite a chat with them—blundering out what few Dutch words I knew-telling them about my wife and five children-how old we all were—how many children my mother had—and such little matters, which seemed of more interest to them than the events of the European war would be. After this first essay, I became more used to the boors and their ways, and less sensitive of their manners.
Before supper a servant brought round a small tub with some water, in which the father, sons, and grandsons, successively washed their hands and faces without changing the water, and then presented it to me for the same purpose. Fortunately I could plead that I had sat down by the river and performed full ablutions for myself before entering the house. After supper, and the offer of some milk, (their usual conclusion,) I was shown into a by-room to my bed, and heard the rough old boor reading the Scriptures to his family for some time after I lay down to rest. This I mention, because it was the single instance in which I did so during my travels : also it was almost the only house in which the boor said grace himself without asking me, the English clergyman, to do so, though I spoke in English, which they did not understand. That evening they perplexed me much by an inquiry, to which I afterwards became familiar, viz. whether mynheer was a
“ Seral ” as well as a Predicant.” I could not reply to them. I learned the next morning from Wilhelm the superior weight they attach to the former name, and was in future ready with the use of it.
I departed, on the morning of Wednesday, soon after day-break, having partaken of a cup of coffee, and (what is most unusual in a Dutch house, where they rarely, if ever, provide anything for you except at the time of their own regular meal) with some bread and butter cut and wrapped up in a paper for me by the vrow. At this I was much pleased, as it showed that she appreciated the gift of the spectacles on the preceding evening; and it is the only instance, in my case, in which Dutch hospitality has ever extended to giving one anything to eat on the journey. Had it not been for the Beltongue, Lady --'s portable soup-sandwiches and narchez which Miss had put up for me at Somerset, I should have suffered much from both hunger and thirst before reaching Graff Reinet.
On Wednesday I made a short day's march, having found a Dutch farmer who spoke English, which was so great a treat that I gladly stayed at his house until next day.
MIRAGE, On Thursday I walked the whole of the way from his house to Graff Reinet, a distance of more than forty miles, in which I suffered much from heat and thirst, all the rivers being dry, and the huge plains parched and entirely devoid of shade. Besides seeing large herds of the springbok, which was to me a novelty, I witnessed a remarkable mirage. There appeared at a little distance from me, on the vast plain, a lake of beautifully clear water, the furthest side bounded by a lovely forest rising from the bank, and casting the inverted forms of its trees in the most exquisite and natural reflection on the water beneath. Wilhelm observed it, and we both agreed that had we not known we were on a vast naked flat, we should have been tempted to go aside after this delusion. Shortly after, as we were lying for refreshment under a mimosa bush, being the only spot of shade in many miles of extent, and reading together, a Graham's Town merchant rode up. I inquired whether he had seen anything singular on the road, when he immediately described the mirage exactly as I have represented it. I had fancied these things only appeared on sandy deserts, but I find that they are not unusual on these flats, covered with a low scrubby bush. I did not reach Graff Reinet until ten o'clock at night ; nor shall I forget in a hurry the joy with which I heard the frogs croak as we approached the Sunday River, on which the town stands. Wilhelm was as thirsty, if not as tired as I was. The Rev. - whom I was obliged to knock up, as he had retired to bed, received us most kindly, and the sound of chimes, or a half-hour bell striking from the steeple of the Dutch church, half-past ten, together with the more antiquated, and therefore more civilized appearance of Mr. -'8 dwelling, seemed at once to
transport me at least to Capetown, if not the civilized cities of Europe.
During the two following days I received visits from the churchwardens and a few other people, and was surprised to find that they considered my intention of walking to Colesberg, and trusting to the hospitality of the Dutch boors by the roadside, as so serious a matter, in consequence of the anti-English feeling which is abroad amongst them. However, Mr. the much respected minister of the Dutch church at Graff Reinet, who called on me on Saturday afternoon, kindly furnished me with a circular letter from himself, declaring me to be an English clergyman, and requesting the Dutch farmers to show me any civility that lay in their power. This letter I subsequently found very
those boors who could read.
SOME REMARKS ON MISSION LABOUR IN THE
CANARESE COUNTRY.' MY DEAR SIR, -As this part of India with its peculiarities is comparatively little known at home, I allow myself some introductory remarks on the country and its people.
I. The country in which the Canarese language is spoken forms the central portion of the southern part of the Deccan. The boundaries of the language are as follows: N.W. a line from the north-eastern corner of the Goa territory, over Beejapoor and Sholapoor, towards Kallyana and Beeder in the Nizam's country ; E. a line from the neighbourhood of Beeder over Muctall, something east of Raidhore and Adone, to Bangalore ; S. E. from Bangalore unto the Nilgherries; W. along the top of the western ghats to its N.W. frontier. This is the Canarese country proper, and contains, according to a rough estimation, about six millions of immortal souls. Besides this, the Canarese language is, as the language of the (formerly Mysore, now English) government and of the inland trade, understood by the higher classes in the province, called Canara from Mangalore to the Goa territory ; but its original language in the southern part is Tooloo, and in the northern part Kontraw.
II. The religious history of the country, and the religious condition of its present population. From Mackenzie's collection, as well as from the many inscriptions collected by Mr. Walter Elliott, in the Canarese part of the Deccan, it appears that long after Brahminical faith and civilization had been for the first time introduced into the south of India, by Rama and his followers on his war expedition against the king of Ceylon, the aborigines of the middle country above the ghats remained in their uncivilized state, keeping cattle in the jungles, and here and there cultivating some soil; they had among themselves chieftains of their tribes and districts, and their religion
1 This letter was addressed by a German Missionary to an English clergyman, who kindly permits us to make use of its valuable contents.
was worship of snakes and demons, remnants of which are to be found to the present day among the lowest classes, especially in the forests and mountains of the western ghats. Soon after the commencement of our era, however, also in the middle land, here and there, princes of the Brahmanical faith appear. Not very long afterwards, it appears, the Tain faith gained many disciples, and from the seventh century until the eleventh century, most of the many princes in the middle lands were Tains. Their star was still in the ascendant, when in the eighth century, the Saiva Sankara Adhary vehemently persecuted the Buddhas, (followers of Buddha,) in the north, and with his Vedanta preaching, came far into the south. Afterwards, in the middle of the tenth century, Ramanoojga appeared in the south as a successful propagator of Wishnuism. He first drew over the Belala Rajas, in the southern part of the present Mysore country, and also some princes of Telingana to his opinions, and with their aid he conquered the renowned temple of Tripelli, (N.W. of Madras,) and put a form of Vishnu-Venkatramana in Siva's place. In opposition to this, Basawa, the prime minister of the Tain prince at Kallyana, (N.E. of Sholapoor,) with his nephew Channabasappa, appeared in the beginning of the twelfth century as reformers of Sivaism. Instead of the Stavura Linga, (stationary Phallus,) under which form Siva was worshipped until that time by all Saivas, and is worshipped to this day in Bengal and northern India, as also by the Smartur Brahmans in the Deccan ; Basava himself, born as a Smartur Brahman at Bhugunwarree near Beejapoor, introduced the worship of the Tangum Linga, (movable Phallus,) called so because it is carried about on the persons of its worshippers, whilst the stationary Linga is erected in temples and caves over the country. The movable Linga is a small stone of a cylindrical form, about two inches long and one inch in diameter. Its worshippers fasten it in a piece of cloth, or in a small silver box around their arm or neck. Before meal they put it on the left hand, and with the right hand offer flowers, besmear it with holy ashes, &c., at the same time repeating mantras (formulas of mystical prayers.) They call themselves “ Lingaits," or "Lingavants." Basarva applied his power, as prime minister, to the propagation of this newly-invented religion, and great numbers of Tains, and followers of other creeds, were made Lingaits by force; but especially the institute of the "Tangums,” (wandering priests,) established by Basawa, served very much to the rapid and distant promulgation of the Lingait religion. By certain initial rites, novices from all Indian classes can be made Tangums. They have among themselves three principal, and many inferior orders. Some of them live as monks in monasteries, or travel about ; others live as householders in villages, and others wander as mendicants over the country. They have a considerable literature of their own, and chiefly by them the Canarese language was cultivated and spread to such an extent, though it never enjoyed the privilege of princely patronage. Beyond the boundaries of the Canarese language, Lingaits very soon cease to be met with. Only the eastern direction
Before every makes an exception ; for there are many Lingaits in the Teloogoo country, above the eastern ghats ; and they have translations of the Basawa Pooran, and other Lingait books. Tains now are very scarce in the Canarese country, though the whole is full of old Tain temples and other monuments. In the southern part of the Mysore country, a few larger Tain establishments exist to the present day; and in the western ghats they are more numerous, as they have fled thither before the persecuting Lingaits. There, also, whole villages of Brahmans are to be found, whilst, in the open country, with the exceptions of the seats of government and trade, Brahmans are nowhere numerous.
There are also a great many inferior religious and philosophical sects. To the first kind, for instance, belong the followers of the obscene worship of the Sactis, (symbol of the conceiving power ;) to the second class, the Devaitas, Adevaitas, and Vishéshadevaitas, &c. Again, each district has its own peculiar idols and saints worshipped. But, as all these subordinate differences in public pass under the same general names and distinctions of caste and religion, it is very
difficult for a European, even for a Missionary, after many years of residence among the people, to get acquainted with all the particulars of them. The more educated worship only the gods of their own religion ; but the ignorant do not confine themselves to the worship of their own religious patrons, but pay homage also to every other object of worship that comes into their way, from the ancient worship of snakes and demons, down to that of Husein, on the Moharum festival, and even the image of Mary in Roman chapels. In each house is a room, called the “house of God," in the north-east corner of which a kind of altar is raised, on which sometimes a whole Indian Pantheon is to be seen and worshipped before every
meal. Over the whole country disciples of the Vedanta pantheism are to be met ; for the doctrines of Vedantism were preached by Sankara Achary, also, in this part of India, about 1,100 years ago; afterwards about six centuries ago,—the system found a successful propagator in Madheva Achary, a Vaishnava reformer, in the Canarese and Teloogoo country. Both languages possess a rich Vedanta literature, with some excellent treatises. The simpleness and sublimity of the pantheistical system, in comparison with the confusion of polytheism, together with its practical consequences, i.e. libertinism and emancipation from the restrictions of caste, &c., gains, in a secret and gradual progress, more and more disciples. Here and there, especially north of the Toougabhadra, and N.E. and E. to Bellary, secret congregations of Vedantists exist. Among themselves, they neither observe caste nor idolatry, but almost none of them have the courage and strength of mind to make an open profession of their theoretical and practical principles; therefore, so far as public life is concerned, they comply to both caste and idolatry, though they boast in their non-observance.
III. What has been done to Christianize the country ? 1. More than 200 years ago, at the time when the Jesuits, disguised