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whose precincts we have passed have studiously avoided us. All things considered, then, I would estimate the population from eight thousand to ten thousand souls : this last number is Gregg's estimate.

As regards their stock, so far as I could observe, and from what the reclaimed Mexican captive before referred to has told me, I should say that it consisted mainly of sheep and horses — mules and cattle forming but an inconsiderable portion of it. We have as yet, however, not fallen upon a drove of either of these animals -which the Mexican explains by saying that they have, the better to conceal them from the troops, been driven to the mountains. Innumerable signs of sheep, however, have been seen by us. Their horses, though generally better than those to be seen among the New Mexicans, and capable of long and rapid journeys under the saddle, are not, in my judgment, near as fine as what I have seen among the Comanches; and in all these cases they are far inferior to our own, in point of bulk and power.

Though not properly embraced by the title of this article, yet, the following description of the equipments and bearing of the Pueblo soldiers is so graphic and beautiful, and, withal, so creditable to the genius and taste of Lieutenant Simpson that we feel constrained to give it a place in our Journal.

It is very interesting to see the picket-guard, composed entirely of Pueblos, gathered around the commanding officer's tent every evening, to receive from him their instructions for the night. Habited as they are, with their blankets thrown around them, their white turbans (assumed to distinguish them from the enemy, who generally wear red) encircling their heads, their rifles lying in their arms, or their bows and quivers slung to their backs, their attitude that of respectful attention, they present a group of a very interesting character. These people possess a great deal of native ease and dignity; and in their calm, reflective countenances, I think I can perceive a latent energy and power, which it requires only a proper political and social condition to develop and make useful.

Commencement of the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad.

It affords us a high degree of pleasure to record the fact that the ceremony of breaking ground at the eastern terminus of the Hannibal and St. Joseph railroad was performed at the city of Hannibal on the 3d instant. Thus the people of Missouri stand pledged before the world to the construction of two great works of public improvement which, in point of utility, will compare favorably with the public improvements undertaken by any of our sister states. The present ycar may be regarded as the beginning of a new era in the history of Missouri. She had arrived at a point which demanded a powerful effort on her part to surmount: she had lost her attractions as a new country, and owing to the want of commercial facilities, large districts of her most fertile and pleasant lands remained comparatively unsettled, and, we rejoice that there has been found a sufficient degree of intelligence and enterprise amongst our citizens to remove the obstacles which have Iritherto hindered our progress.

Henceforth, if the prosecution of our public works be wisely conducted, the progress of Missouri will be onward with a giant stride, and her relation to the great states of the west will be similar to that sustained by New York to those of the east.

As historians of passing events, we deem it our duty to record the names of those who act a conspicuous part in respect to these great improvements; and therefore we publish the following details of the proceedings at the late rail road celebration at Hannibal.

Upon the procession arriving at the ground selected for the delivery of the addresses, A. W. Lamb, Esq., the Marshal of the Day, for the purpose of a temporary organization, proposed Col. R. F. Richmond as President of the Mecting. The motion prevailed by acclamation.

The Hon. Wm. M. Cooke moved that L. L. Hawkins, of Palmyra, act temporarily as the Secretary of the meeting; which motion, was carried unanimously.

The president then called upon the Rev. Mr. Rush, to open the proceedings of the meeting with prayer.

On motion of Hon. W. M. Cooke, the President appointed a committee of five, viz.: Messrs. E. G. Pratt, of Marion; Pleasant JcCann, of Monroe; Harvey Wellman, of Ralls; Thos. E. Thompcon, of Marion; and John Ralls, of Ralls county, to recommend to the meeting permanent officers. The committee retired, and in a

Commencement of the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad.

111

short time returned, recommending the following gentlemen as officers of the meeting, viz.: Thos. L. Anderson, of Marion, President. William Newland, of Ralls; John McAfee, of Shelby; Hon. G. W. Bower, of Monroe; R. M. Johnson, of Macon; James M. Lucas and L. M. Kennett, of St. Louis, as Vice Presidents; and A. B. Chambers, of St. Louis; J. P. Ament, of Hannibal, and G. W. Jones, of Buchanan, as Secretaries of the Meeting, which report was unanimously adopted.

On motion of Hon. W. P. Harrison, Judge Chambers, of California, was added to the list of Vice Presidents.

On taking the Chair, the President (Mr. Anderson) explained the object of the meeting in an able, appropriate and eloquent address, which was received with rounds of applause.

At the close of the President's address, he introduced J. B. Crocket, Esq., the Orator of the day, who was repeatedly and enthusiastically cheered during the delivery of his address.

On the conclusion of the address the Hon. Wm. M. Cooke, in behalf of the committee on resolutions, made the following report which was unanimously adopted.

Be it resolved by the meeting here assembled,

1. That the construction of the Hannibal and St. Joseph Rail road will develope the resources of Northern Missouri, invite to our State a numerous and valuable immigration from the older States, and the continent of Europe; turn into the channels of productive industry, a vast amount of labor now employed in the business of transportation ; diffuse more generally throughout the interior of the State education and the blessings of social life; form an important link in the chain of connexion between the far East and the far West, the Atlantic and Pacific oceans ; facilitate the intercourse between the various members of our Federal Union; and tend to make friends and neighbors of those who now denounce each other with intemperateness and zeal in proportion to their ignorance of each others' institutions, manners and customs.

2d. Resolved, That the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad is a work of vast utility, not only to the State of Missouri, but to the nation at large; and that Congress has the power, and that it is its duty, to make a liberal appropriation of land in aid of the enterprise.

3rd. Resolved, That the large grant of lands by Congress, to a neighboring State, to aid her in the construction of a railroad, authorizes the State of Missouri to rely upon the justice and impartiality of the federal government for a similar grant of lands, to aid in the construction of the Hannibal and St. Joseph, and the St. Louis and Pacific Railroads; that the lands of the United States, in the neighborhood of the contemplated Missouri Railroads. will be enhanced in valu3 by the construction of said roads; quite as much as similar lands have been, or will be, by the construction of railroads in any other State; and that every reason which properly exists, or has existed, to induce such a grant of lands to any other State, exists in regard to the State of Missouri.

4th. Resolved, That the people of Northern Missouri have subscribed liberally to the stock of the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad, and have expended large sums of money in preparing for the construction of said road, relying confidently upon a grant of lands by Congress to aid in the work; that they have expected such aid not only from the magnitude of the work, and its importance to the West and to the nation at large, but because similar aid has been extended to the State of Illinois under similar circumstances, and because a bill to appropriate lands to aid in constructing the two great Missouri Railroads has twice passed the Senate of the United States, by very large majorities, and we are assured, would have passed the House of Representatives had it been reached on the calender before the necessary adjournment of Congress. Looking to the past, we have embarked in the enterprize, relying upon the assistance of the General Government, and we still feel assured of that assistance.

5th. Resolved, That we earnestly urge our Representatives in Congress to take prompt and active measures to secure the grant aforesaid, and for that purpose, recommend to them to co-operate zealously with the friends of the St. Louis and Pacific Railroad.

6th. Resolved, That such liberality on the part of Congress would insure the speedy completion and the permanent prosperity of our Railroad, and enable us, with increased confidence, to recommend its stock to capitalists as a profitable investment of money.

7th. Resolved, That we cannot refrain from expressing our gratification at the act of the last Legislature, which so liberally extended the credit of our State to the Hannibal and St. Joseph, and the St. Louis and Pacific Railroads; and that we tender our hearty commendations to those members of the Legislature who supported said bill.

8th. Resolved, That the extent and fertility of the soil of Missouri, her mineral wealth and facilities for commerce, entitle her, if but true to herself, to a high stand among the States of this confederacy, and to a position among the first of the Western States, and that we hail the commencement of the Hannibal and St. Joseph and the St. Louis and Pacific Railroads, and the action of the State Legislature in relation thereto, as making a new era in the history of our State- an era to be signalized by the development of the vast resources of the State, and an exhibition of the energies of our people.

9th. Resolved, That a committee of five be appointed, to memorialize Congress in behalf of the people of Northern Missouri, in accordance with the views expressed in the foregoing resolutions,

for the purpose of obtaining a grant of land to aid in the construction of the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad.

The ceremony of breaking ground was performed by Col. Stewart, president of the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad Company, assisted by Jas. H. Lucas, Esq., of St. Louis.

COMMERCIAL DEPARTMENT

FROM THE COMMERCIAL REVIEW.

COMMERCE OF NEW ORLEANS FOR THE YEAR 1850-51.

In pursuance of our custom, regularly observed since the establishment of this Review, we furnish the statistics of New Orleans Commerce, for the year ending on the 1st of September last, being indebted for them to the annual sheet of the Prices Current. They are invaluable for preservation in the shape we are in the habit of giving them, as well for future reference as present use. We shall continue the subject in our next number.

The value of products received from the interior since 1st September, 1850, is 106,924,083, against $96,897,873 last year. The value of the exports of domestic products, for the year ended 30th June last, according to the custom house records, was $81, 216,925, against $71,019,556 last year. Of this amount, $53, 988,013 was to foreign ports, and $27,228,912 coastwise. The value of foreign merchandise exported during the same period was only $145,950. The operations of the Branch Mint have been greatly extended, the total sleposits of gold and silver, for the year ended on the 31st July, being $8,107,722, against $4,038, 341 last year. Of the gold, $8,152,878 was from California. The coinage in the same time has been, of gold $8,994,000, and of silver $1,050,500—total, $10,044,500. The arrivals at New Orleans, for the last five years, have stood

Ships. Barks. Brigs. Schooners. Steam Ships. Total. 1846–7.....764.....451.... 663...

...... 989...
109....

.3022 1817-8.....935.....509....462. 1848-9. • 757.....462

• 2186 •2873 1849–50...654. · 363....362.. . 666.

• 2192 2784 1850–51....615.... 320....315.. 704.

2144.. .2918 A gradual decline will be observed in almost every description of vessels. The flat boat arrivals during 1850–51, were 1,261; also a decline, as will be seen by our previous volumes.

St. Boats, 2981...... 2927. .2977

795.
456

375

206 136 147 190.

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