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For Nature knew no right divine in Men,
Who first taught souls enslav'd, and realms undone,
So drives Self-love, thro' just and thro' unjust,
? Th' enormous faith &c.] In this Aristotle sacrifices were up to a late period included.) placeth the difference between a King and a 3 Warton quotes from Milton [Paradise Lost, Tyrant, that the first supposeth himself made Bk. I. v. 392 foll.]: for the People; the other, that the People are "First Moloch, horrid king, besmear'd with made for him. Pol. Lib. v. cap. 10. Warbur.
blood ton. [i.e. the unnatural doctrine that many are Of human sacrifice and parents' tears, made for one-'the mania of the Cæsars,' as it Tho' for the noise of drums and timbrels loud. has been finely called.)
Their children's cries unheard that pass'd thro' ? (living, i.e. animal. By employing the term
fire flamen, Pope does not appear to refer specially To his grim idol.' to the priests and sacrifices of the Roman cultus, [The passage is parodied in the Dunciad, Bk. I though among the latter it is certain that human IV V, 142.]
His safety must his liberty restrain :
'Twas then, the studious head or gen'rous mind,
For Forms of Government let fools contest;
Man, like the gen'rous vine, supported lives;
Thus God and Nature link'd the gen'ral frame,
1.Quæ harmonia a musicis dicitur in cantu, Warton thinks that Cowley may have himself ca est in civitate concordia.' Cicero, de Republ. taken the hint from a Latin distich by Lord
Warton. Herbert of Cherbury.] ? ['His faith perhaps, in some nice tenets might 3 sat once, i.e. at one and the same time.] Be wrong; his life, I'm sure, was in the right.' ' [act, See above, Ep. 11. line 59.]
Cowley, on the Death of Mr Crashaw.
ARGUMENT OF EPISTLE IV. Of the Nature and State of Man with respect to. HAPPINESS. I. FALSE Notions of Happiness, Philosophical and Popular, answered from v. 19 to 77. II. It is the End of all Men, and attainable by all, v. 30. God intends Happiness to be equal;; and to be so, it must be social, since all particular happiness depends on general, and since he governs by general, not particular Laws, v. 37. As it is necessary for Order, and the peace and welfare of Society, that external goods should be unequal, Happiness is not made to consist in these, v. 51. But, notwithstanding that inequality, the balance of Happiness among Mankind is kept even by Providence, by the two Passions of Hope and Fear, v. 7o. III. What the Happiness of Individuals is, as far as is consistent with the constitution of this world; and that the good Man has here the advantage, v. 77. The error of imputing to Virtue what are only the calamities of Nature, or of Fortune, v. 94. IV. The folly of expecting that God should alter his general Laws in favour of particulars, v. 121. V. That we are not judges who are good; but that, whoever they are, they must be happiest, v. 133, &c. VI. That external goods are not the proper rewards, but often inconsistent with, or destructive of Virtue, v. 165. That even these can make no Man happy without Virtue: Instanced in Riches, v. 183. Honours, v. 191. Nobility, v. 203. Greatness, k. 215. Fame, v. 235. Superior Talents, v. 257. &c. With pictures of human Infelicity in Men possessed of them all, v. 267, &c. VII. That Virtue only constitutes a Happiness, whose object is universal, and whose prospect eternal, v. 307, &c. That the perfection of Virtue and Happiness consists in a conformity to the ORDER of PROVIDENCE here, and a Resignation to it here and hereafter; v. 326, &c.
Good, Pleasure, Ease, Content! whate'er thy name:
Where grows ?—where grows it not? If vain our toil, i Oh Happiness ! &c.) in the MS. thus, sented by the Greeks as daughters, or as hand"Oh happiness! to which we all aspire,
maids, of Aphrodite. ) Wing'd with strong hope, and borne by full » O'erlook'd, seen double,] O'erlook'd by those desire;
who place Happiness in any thing exclusive of That ease, for which in want, in wealth we sigh; Virtue; seen double by those who admit any That ease, for which we labour and we die,' thing else to have a share with Virtue in proWarburton. [The same editor points out how curing Happiness; these being the two general the lines afterwards substituted for these success- mistakes that this epistle is employed in confully imitate the classical mode of invoking a futing. Warburton. Deity by his several names and places of abode, 3 (shine, a substantive; so used in Spenser as in the Homeric Hymns (or in several Odes F. Q. Bk. I. Canto x. st. 67; and in the Prayerof Horace). Eudaimonia, Harmonia, Hygieia, book Psalms, xcvii. 4: ‘his lightnings gave shine Paidia, Pandaisia and others were often repre- into the world.']
We ought to blame the culture, not the soil: ..
Ask of the Learn'd the way? The Learn'd are blind;
Who thus define it, say they more or less
Take Nature's path, and mad Opinion's leave;
Remember, Mam, as the Universal Cause
ORDER is Heav'n's first law; and this confest,
? (sincere, i.e. pure, unalloyed.)
3 Warton aptly refers to passages distinguish. Some place the bliss in action; -Some sunk ing between the true and false doctrines of to Beasts, &c.] 1. Those who place Happiness, Equality in Montesquieu (Esprit des Lois, viII. or the summum bonum, in Pleasure, such as the 3) and Voltaire (Esprit des Nations, c. 67). Cyrenaic sect. 2. Those who place it in a certain tranquillity or calmness of Mind, such as the "Say not, “Heav'n's here profuse, there poorly Democritic sect. 3. The Epicurean. 4. The saves, Stoic. 5. The Protagorean, which held that “And for one Monarch makes a thousand slaves." Man was the measure of all things; for that all You'll find, when Causes and their Ends are things which appear to him are, and those things known, which appear not to any Man are not; so that 'Twas for the thousand Heav'n has made that every imagination or opinion of every man was one.' true. 6. The Sceptic. Warburton.
ich as the "Say Niter.: 52, in the Ms.Nations, c. 67).
But mutual wants this Happiness increase;
Fortune her gifts may variously dispose,
Oh sons of earth! attempt ye still to rise,
Know, all the good that individuals find,
Oh blind to truth, and God's whole scheme below,
.? [Alluding to the Titans' attempt to scale [i.e. that Bliss accompanies Vice, and Woe Olympus.)
Virtue.) ? [The Troubuyceía of Aristophanes.]
5 [Lucius Cary Lord Falkland, who after tak. 3 After v. 92, in the MS.
ing part in the opposition against the oppressive "Let sober Moralists correct their speech, measures of Charles I. and the policy of Strafford, No bad man's happy: he is great or rich.' seceded with Hyde and others from the popular
Warburton. party at the time of the Grand Remonstrance,