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much has not England gained through it! What numbers find employment in the commerce between America and the mother country !
Norway has likewise been greatly benefited by emigration, far more than might be expected from its contributions thereto. Its commerce, for instance, has been greatly increased by the trade between Europe and Canada, and the rest of North merica. The indirect benefit which Norway has, from everything tending to .increase the wealth of England, (and consequently from ernigration,) is still greater; for the latter country is the best market for the produce of Norway, and finds employment for its ships. It seems digressing from the point to mention these advantages here, but, it appears that in this case a number of nations have each contributed their part to II useful enterprise, and the contributions of Norway have been far less than its gain. Is it then right to ask whether Norway might not have had the gain without making the contribution’! Even if we do not take into consideration all the advantages resulting to Norway from the use of America, it is still doubtful whether emigration has really had any ernicious effect upon the country. The loss to Norway consists chiefly in the labor of which it is deprived, (employed, however, more advantageously in America.) There is no doubt a plenty of uncultivated land in Norway, but the fact is there is not sufiicient capital, and the supply of labor will always be found proportioned thereto. If there be a scarcity of capital in a country, it cannot support a large stafl" of laborers, even if there exist extensive tracts of uncultivated land. Under such circumstances it is more advantageous to have a small stafl' of laborers in proportion to the capital, for wages will then be high, and nothing tends so much to increase capital among the the masses than high wages. \Vages can be too high, but generally they have rather a tendency to sink below the proper level than to rise above it. As regards Norway wages can scarcely be said to be too high; they were at their highest during the years 1853 and 1854, but no pernicious results followed; on the other hand those years were golden ones for
Norway. If wages in Norway be not too high, it is clear that emigration cannot have been disadvantageous, for it has not injuriously diminished the stafi of laborers.
Emigration has deprived the country of a certain amount of capital, and so for had an
injurious effect, but this loss of capital is too insignificant, in proportion to the resources of the country, to deserve any special attention.
In some districts the result of emigration has been a decline in the price of land, several
farmers having sold their land in order to emigrate to America ; but low prices of land are not counted among the evils of which agriculturists complain now.
On the whole it seems we must come to the conclusion that emigration has not had any very injurious results, although it may have been felt severely in some parts of the country.
ll/Ir. Campbell to Mr. Seward.
No. 55.] LEGATION on THE UNITED STATES, Stockholm, Ma1'ch 28, 1867.
SIR : On Tuesday last the Baron Rabb, a member of the upper chamber of the Swedish Diet, addressed several inquiries to Count Manderstriim, minister of state and of foreign affairs,‘ among which was the following .
Has the sudden friendship between Russia and America anything menacing in it?
To this inquiry Count Manderstrom replied as follows:
The second. question leads us far on the ground of conjectural politics, on which ground
' I have neither any disposition, nor do I feel myself authorized to touch. It is certain, how
-ever, that if the intimate relations signalized by the Baron Rabb have conducted, or shall conduct, to an offensive alliance against us, or against any of the powers with which we
are allied by the treaty of November, our security would be diminished by it in rathera considerable degree. ’
I do not know whether Baron Rabb’s information is derived from sources unknown to me, but as for myself the articles which have appeared on this subject in the newspapers can only inspire me with great mistrust of them, and so much the more because the Russian minister of foreign aflairs has loudly denied that such an alliance has been thougltt of; and as far as I know, the diplomacy of other countries, as well as our own, have not discovered
any trace of it.
I have the honor to be, with great respect, your obedient servant, ' . JAMES H. CAMPBELL. Hon, WILLIAM H. Sswann,
Secretary of State, Washington, D. C.
1111". Campbell to .Mr. Seward.
No. 56.] . LEGATION or THE Uurrnn STATES, Stockholm, March 29, 1867.
SIR : Not having received further instructions from the Department of State, and in obedience to my letter of recall, on Monday last I placed the oflice copy of the same in the hands of the minister of state and of foreign affairs, and requested an audience of his Majesty, for the purpose of delivering the letter of the President to the King in person. '
In pursuance of my request an audience was accorded me this day at 1 o’clock p. m., and from which I have just returned. I was accompanied by the chamberlain of the King, in the royal carriage, &c., with all the ceremony usual or appropriate to the occasion. The audience took place in the grand palace of Stockholm. Charles XV received me with great cordiality and kindness. In delivering the letter of the President of the United States announcing my recall, I took occasion to say that never were the friendly relations between the United States and Sweden more cordial than at present, and that
it was the sincere desire of the President and people of my country that they ,
might ever remain so.
The King fully recip/rocated these friendly sentiments, and expressed a hope that the difference of views respecting public policy unfortunately existing between the President and Congress might soon be adjusted." I thanked his Majesty for his uniform kindness and consideration for me as the representative of my government, as well as for that extended to my family. He replied that he was sorry to part with us, and hoped we would have a safe and prosperous voyage home.
I have also taken con-gé of the Prince Oscar, and take pleasure in recording the fact that this intelligent and courtly gentleman and his excellent duchess have always extended to me and the members of my family the utmost kindness and hospitality.
Audiences of leave having been granted to Mrs. Campbell and myself‘, we have taken conga’ of the Queen, the Queen Dowager Josephine, _ and the Duchesses of Ostergothland and Dalecarlia. '
I have thus closed my mission with the usual formalities, but cannot close this record without (as my predecessors have done before me) paying a just tribute to the goodness of the people of Sweden and Norway, and to the undeviating kindness and attention I have received from them.
>|= * * 1- >a< as as at * *
I have the honor to be your obedient servant,
Hon. WILLIAM H. SEWARD,
No. LEGATION or THE Umrnn STATES, .. Stockholm, June 5, 1867.
Sm: I have the honor to report that I arrived in Stockholm on the 29th ultimo, and found that the Hon. James H. Campbell, my predecessor, had delivered his letter of recall and taken leave of his Majesty the King on the 29th of March. The 30th being a holiday, I did not communicate with the
minister of state and foreign affairs until the 31st. I called in person upon Count Manderstrdm and presented the oflice copy of my letter of credence. I was received by his excellency with unaffected cordiality and without ceremony. He stated that he would take the orders to his Majesty the King,'in regard to my presentation, and communicate them to me at the earliest moment.
My interview. with Count Manderstrom was about twenty minutes in length, during which he expressed great surprise, together with unbounded admiration for the wonderful recuperative powers of our country as exhibited in the present state of our financial afi'airs after such an exhaustive war. The present difi'erences between the President and Congress as to the manner of the final adjustment of our state afi'airs he looked upon as _a division upon mere matters of detail as to the method of removing the traces of the great storm that had swept over our country, which but little affected our national standing with European governments. The secretary of foreign afi'airs' then spoke of a paragraph he had read in the papers, stating that “the honorable Secretary of State, William H. Seward, intended visiting Europe this summer, and would be in Paris some time in June,” and asked me if it were true. I replied that I had not heard before leaving America that such was your intention, but hoped it was true. He then said, “Mr. Seward’s accomplishments and record rank him amongst the most distinguished statesmen and diplomatists of the world, and I regret that the inaccessibility of our country to travellers, who have but little time to spare, may deprive us of the honor to receive so distinguished a visitor.” After many other highly complimentary expressions he terminated the interview with the same kindness and cordiality with which he received me.
On M0nday,‘June 3d, I received written notice from the secretary of foreign affairs that I would be received by his Majesty the King on Tuesday at one and a half o'clock p. m., and would be conveyed to the great palace of Stockholm in the carriage of the King, and be escorted by the vice-master of ceremonies, Baron Bennet.
At the appointed hour on Tuesday I was accordingly escorted to the palace, where with but little ceremony I was received by his Majesty the King in the audience chamber.
I had barely stated the fact of having been appointed by the President minister resident of the United States of America near his Majesty's person, when his Majesty interrupted me, and taking the sealed letter of credence from my hand commenced an easy conversation upon ordinary topics. Very soon, however, getting upon millitary affairs, he gave me a rapid review of his military system, and concluded by saying that he had ordered ten thousand rifles from the Remmington Rifle Company, New York State, and expected soon to receive them. Nothing was said during our interview, which lasted perhaps a half hour, upon any political subject whatever. His Majesty’s manner was characterized by an openness and freedom which conveyed the impression to me that I had been received by him with pleasure, as the representative of a great nation.
Upon the conclusion of my audience with his Majesty the King, I was escorted to the apartments of the Queen, and received by her with a warm welcome to Stockholm, and a great many pleasantly expressed wishes that my residence would be a happy one at the Swedish court. ~
I was . lastly escorted by Baron Bennet to the apartments of the Queen Dowager, Josephine, who also extended a welcome to me in the some easy and impressive manner which had characterized the receptions of the King and Queen.
* Q Q i Q * ¥ G
I am, sir, with the highest consideration of respect, your obedient servant,