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this inimical feeling with some of the most enlightened people of antiquity—-the Grecians and Romans for instance—found expression in hard and rigorous laws for foreigners living within the boundaries of the state. Another principal hindrance to emigration, as far as individuals are concerned, consisted in the strong ties which among barbaric nations bound the members of one tribe to each other. The fatherland of nomads is the tribe to which they belong, not the country they inhabit; amongst other races they would always feel themselves strangers.
The Phoenicans, Carthagenians, Greeks, and Romans, colonized several countries, but this kind of emigration in ancient times was on the whole but insignificant. Neither was it of much greater importance in the middle ages. From the date of the discovery of America, emigration began to develop itself, but it did not begin to increase to any considerable extent until the present century. \Vhat have been the causes of this '!
The most important have probably been the social relations of America itself. The first _
colonists who arrived at the United States had many difficulties to struggle with before they could get a firm footing in that wild uncultivated country. These were scarcely vanquished before the American war of independence broke out. It was only after peace had been concluded, and the young republic rapidly grew rich, that it was able to attract the surplus population of Europe. This power of attraction has since increased in direct pro ortion to t e risin prosperity of the country, which continually called for more labor to evelop the splendid resources of the country. On the other hand the decrease of emig-ration, since 1854, shows the influence bad times in America exercises on this attractive power. In 1854 the “Know-Nothing" party tried to check emigration, by their cry of “America for Americans !” The year after emigration decreased from 460,000 to 230,000. Similar results will probably be shown as arising from the late civil war.
Another great cause will be found in the unparalleled development of all means of communication in the present century. The numerous difiiculties which wer'e connected with a voyage across the Atlantic made emigration seem an adventuresome and hazardous undertaking, deterring many. At the present time, both Europe and America being covered with a net of railways, since the introduction of steam vessels and numerous improvements in sailing ships, the difficulty and the expense of such a voyage are greatly lessened.
If we glance at the state of Europe we shall find many reasons for the great increase of emigration in the present century.
At the olose of the last century and the commencement of the present one this continent was the theatre of fearful revolutions and wars. These struggles craved the attention and energy of the people. There was no desire to emigrate; neither could any labor be spared for other countries; there was more than enough to do at home.
Immediately on the conclusion of the peace the increase of emigration was rapid.
In the years 1825-30 a new impulse was given to it by the application of steam power in cotton andother factories, by which a large number of workmen were temporarily thrown out of work. In 1846 and 1847, nearly the whole of Europe sutfered from bad harvests, the potato disease de riving large masses of people of the means of subsistence. Just at this timeemi ation ound a new channel in the rich gold mines which were discovered in California an Australia.
Theserare the principal general causes of the great increase of emigration in the present century, and especially in the last decennaries. We will add a few remarks on the special causes which have influenced the extent of emigration from different countries. ‘
Of the three principal races of which the‘ population of Europe consists the Slavonic has contributed little or nothing to emigration ; the tracts of country inhabited by it are so thinly populated in proportion to their natural resources that they rather offer a field for zmmzgration. .
Nor do the Roman races take a great part in emigration; it is the Germanic race alone that year after year sends forth its swarms -to the west and south. What can be the reason of this difiererrce?
A French author, Duval, calls attention to the fact that the Latin races personify the idea of fatherland in the country itself, while family ties with them are of less importance in that respect. With the whole of the Germanic race, including the English, Germans, and Seandinavians, the love of family is on the other hand strongest. Outside the circle of his family the German feels himself a stranger; united to his family he can feel himself at home in a foreign land. To this capability of carrying their country with them to a foreign land may be attributed the great emigration of the Germanic races, in ancient times and in our days; it makes them the first colonists in the world. _
As regards the non-Germanic race, the Irish, strong ties of family have not contributed a little to remove the hindrances to emigration.
Besides the above-mentioned general causes, we will briefly mention a few local ones:
As far as Ireland is concerned, emigration has been specially caused by the potatoe disease,in connection with over-population, agrarian laws, and political and religious discontent.
In England, by discontent among the dissenters, crises in the commercial and industrial world, in conjunction with the efforts both on the part of the state and of private individuals to promote and facilitate emigration. '
In Germany, by numerous restrictive laws, for instance, in contracting marriages, the
existence of guilds, unfavorable condition of the agricultural classes, bad harvests, and political discontent.
The above review of the general causes of European emigration throws in many respects light on the causes of emigration from Norway.
Norway is but a member of the great body politic of Europe, and has as such been influenced by the circumstances which have affected the other European nations. It is, therefore, unnecessary to dwell on the development of. the general causes, but only to state the specific ones for Norway.
The whole course of emigration shows plainly that the principal causes are pecuniary. It took its commencement at a time remarkable for bad seasons; and we see subsequently that
every bad season plays a part in the emigration of the succeeding year.
The pecuniary state of Norway is too, in many respects, unfavorable. The geographical position and nature of the country necessitates the population to live much scattered, which throws great difficulties in the way of material progress by preventing the division of labor. The cost of carriage must necessarily be very great in such a thinly populated country as Norway. The inhabitants live at too great a distance from one another, and are too few in numbers to develop the division of labor in the same degree as in other countries. This will explain the great part which the mountain districts take in emigration. The same cause is at work in the continual change of abode within the boundaries of Norway. Before emigration to America commenced the peasants from the mountain districts emigrated to the more thickly populated plains. and this movement has not yet ceased; whilst, therefore, the total population of the country has been greatly on the increase, the population of the mountain districts has been almost stationary. _
The same phenomenon makes its appearance in other countries; the Swiss leave their Alps ; the Highlanders their mountains ; the Basques the Pyrenes ; while in the middle ages people isolated themselves in the heart of mountains to avoid the storms which. swept the plains. The present tendency is gregarious.
The scattered population is not the only difficulty to be surmounted. The soil is often sterile, and the extent of land capable of being cultivated very limited. The severity of the climate puts the Norwegian agriculturist to great expenses, from which other countries are spared, and destroys in some years a great portion of his crops. In this respect, also, the most unfavorably situated are the mountain districts. _ .
To these natural difliculties artificial are joined. There are still a great many restraints on industry and trade. The right of every man to choose his own way of getting his livelihood is by no means general in Norway. Erroneous views of political economy in past centuries have bequeathed the country a multiplicity of restrictions on industry and trade, ‘from which it has as yet become but partially liberated. Commerce is trammeled with numerous restrictive laws; guilds still exist. It may be mentioned, therefore, here, that an emigrant farmer in a letter home, which can be shown to have given the first im ulse to emigration from Hardanger, in the province of Bergen, mentions among other a vantages of -America, “ that ever man may get his living in whatever way he pleases.” It must, however, be stated that t e last cause has not latterly had much influence on emigration.
A circumstance which, among the agricultural classes, seems to have given a great stimulus to emigration, is the Norwegian law of primogeniture. This, in conjunction with the high price of landed property—a necessary result of the limited extent of cultivated landincreases the difficulty, with the mass of the population, of satisfying the desire of becoming freeholders, the cherished wish of every Norwegian peasant.
It is, therefore, not to be wondered at that America should exercise such a strong power of attraction on the inhabitants of this country. In the new world plenty of rich and fruitful land is to be bought for a comparatively low price; the means of communication are easy, and all kinds of industry and trade perfectly free.
In the first period of emigration there was still another circumstance which no doubt contributed not a little to swell the tide of emigration. The number of able-bodied workmen
, increased very rapidly about the years 1836 and 1845. The census shows that in 1835 there
were'8'2,S09 men between 20 and 30 years of age. In 1845 the number had increased to no less than 116,295, an increase of about 40 per cent., (occasioned by a proportionate number of births in the years 1815 and 1825, when compared with the war times from 1806 to 1814.) Such a considerable increase could not but occasion great competition and partial want of work, a state of things which necessarily gave a strong impulse to emigration.
In conjunction with the above-mentioned pecuniary causes we may remark that the decrease of travelling expenses arising from the trade of Norway with Canada has, to a certainextent, been the cause of the increase in emigration since 1850. Norwegian emigration has not been influenced by pecuniary circumstances alone. It cannot be doubted but that many, on account of family reasons alone, have gone over to America. Those members of a family who have emigrated do all in their power to persuade their relations at home to follow them, and, if necessary, send money for their passage. , A large number of the emigrants consists of those who are drawn in by the stream. How loose the determination to emigrate often is has lately been seen by an instance from the province of Throndhjem. An emigrant agent had persuaded a great many people to insert their names on his list ; but what was the result’! The “ lcnsmand” of the parish assembled the parishioners and gave them to understand that America was not exactly the promised land they imagined. The consequence was that one
and all altered their minds. As in several other countries, religion has influenced emigration, and religious intolerance
probably gave the first impulse to it. In his report on emigration from Stavanger amt, in the years 1836 and 1837, the “amtmand” states that in all probability emigration from that district was brought about by letters written by persons who had emigrated from Stavanger 12 to 14 years before, some of whom were known to be Quakers. If we take into consideration thc persecution which this sect had to endure from government——for instance, com
pulsory baptism of infants, confirmation, and the exhumation of bodies buried according to,.
the ritual of the Quakers, in order to rebury them according to the ritual of the established chm'ch—it will not be unreasonable to imagine that this intolerance was the cause of the emigration of these Quakers in the years 1823~’25. The fact that emigration had its commencement in Stavanger amt would seem to strengthen this supposition, for that amt was the only one in which there were any Quakers. The emigration of these few Quakers seems to have been the example which so many of the inhabitantsof the country have followed.
At a later date, too, religion has not been without its influence on emigration; such, for instance, has been the case with the emigration from the province of Tromsoe of late years, the emigrants consisting chiefly of dissenters from Maalselven and Bardodalen. In connection of this may be noticed the Mormon emigration. '
As one of the causes of emigration deserves to be mentioned the dee -rooted dissatisfaction with and suspicion of government oflicials felt by the peasantry. 1‘his suspicion has its origin in the conduct of many unprincipled ofiicials, who, especially under the Danish regime, and no doubt since, illegally screwed money out of the peasantry. How deeply rooted it was is best shown by its existence at the present day in many districts.
A letter from aNorwegian who emigrated in 1831 gives a clue to the opinions of the peasantry on this subject. We take the liberty of quoting some passages :‘
" * * _ “When meetings are held here (in America) to elect a representative of the people, the voice of the poor man has as much weight as that of the rich; here they make no itierence between a peasant and a magistrate ; liberty is as much for one as another if they conduct themselves properly. People can travel about the country as much as they
lease without assports; every one can follow the trade or profession he is best suited for,
ut vice is quicfily and summarily punished. There is no duty to pay here on goods manufactured in _the country, and conveyed to the towns by land or water. Neither is the registration of deaths necessary; the survivor has a right to do as he pleases with the elfects-of the deceased after having)paid off the debts ; nobody comes here to seize them like a beast of rey, that would live y the labor of others and inherit their property. No! here everybody must work for his bread, no matter whether he be ignorant or learned.” * * ~
These are indeed serious complaints against this country, but apart from all exaggeration it must be admitted that several of them were by no means unfounded. It is, at all events, evident that the unenlightened peasant, always suspicious of govemmont oificials, would join in this censure of Norwegian institutions. The time when such things might have been advanced with some show of truth is, however, long since gone by. Taken altogether there is, probably, no nation whose political and social position ranks higher than that of Norway.
Nor can it be said that the industrial laws force people to emigrate. To be sure the pecuniary resources of America are beyond all comparison, greater than those of Norway, and this has been the reason why so many have preferred the former country; but the gradual development of trade and industry, the increase of population, show plainly enough that in this country, too, there is plenty to do for those who can and will work. Notwithstanding natural obstacles the resources of Norway can still be greatly developed, and by a proper use of them double and treble the present number of inhabitants might be supported. The glpgree of social well-being to which a country can rise depends altogether upon the people
emselves. - .
THE RESULTS OF EMIGRATION- -I
The efl'ect of emigration is chiefly seen in the decrease of the population. In several countries, Ireland, for instance, this has been the case; in others the result has been a less
increase in the population than would otherwise have been the case.
As regards Norway, it has not been’ followed by either of these results, the population having increased more rapidly since emigration commenced than ever before. It amounts at the close of the following years to
1814 ........................ .. 885,000 1845 ........................ .. 1,328, 000 , 1825 ........................ -. 1,051,000 1850 ........................ .. 1,400,000 1835 ........................ .. 1,195, 000 1855 ........................ .. 1,490, 000 1840 ........................ .. 1,245, 000 1863 ........................ .. 1,645, 000
* The writer of letter is Gjert Gregorinssen Howland ; the letter, whichiis dated ‘lid April, 1835, shows among other things that eight Norwegian families were then living on the same spot.
In the years of 1814—‘40 there was no emigration worth speaking of. The total increase during that period was 360,000, or 13,800 per ‘annum.
From 1841-’63 the population has increased with 400,000, averaging 17,400 per annum. Calculated at a percentage on the average population, this yearly increase for 1814—’40 gives 1 3-10 per cent., and for 1841—’63, 1 2-10 per cent., consequently a trifle less. It must, however, be remarked that the years 1814—’25 ought not to be included in the comparison, the rapid increase of the population of Norway during that period having been caused by the cessation of the great European war. The average increase for the years l826—’40 was 1 1-10 per cent., consequently rather less than at a later date, when emigration commenced.
If we inspect more closely the period in which emigration has taken place, we shall find that the increase in the population was greatest at the very time when emigration was at its height. By comparing the years 1841-50 with 1851—’63, the following dilference will be seen:
The annual increase of the population was . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . . . 15, 500 18, 000 Or a percentage of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 124 The annual emigration was . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 17, 000 4, 000 Or a percentage of ................... . .' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 013 026
Notwithstanding, therefore, emigration during the last 13 years has become twice as great, the increase of population has likewise been greater than in the period from 1841—’50, which has been principally caused by a decrease in the number of deaths in conjunction with an increase in the number of births.
On the other hand, the influence of emigration on the population is plainly shown in the several years, and in the different parts of the kingdom.
Its efi'ect during some years has been greater owing to the fact that the causes of increase ~
of emigration have generally a bad effect on the rate of mortality. This has especially been the case during the two years whichfollowed the bad harvest of 1860. The average number of -births for the years 1856—’60 was 51,562, of deaths 26,058; consequently an excess in the number of births of 25,503. The number of emigrants was 3,200, making the increase of population 22,300. The population for these two years is as follows:
1861. 1862. Number of births . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . _ . . . .. 49, 524 52, 160 Number of deaths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - . . . . . - . - . . . . . 31, 471 32,494 Majority of births . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18,053 19,666 Emigration . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . _ ..'.. . . . . - _ . . . 8, 850 5, 100 Increase of population ................................... . . 9, 203 14,566
_ In those two years the increase of population averaged about one half of what it had been during the previous years. In 1857 the increase was also less than usual, (17,621,) principally on account of the large number of emigrants. The same was the case in 1853; whereas the excess of births in 1864 was so great that the increase for that year, notwithstanding the large number of emigrants, was greater than ever before. In 1859 the increase, on account of the small number of emigrantsand low rate of mortality, went up to 26,000. It will be seen from this that emigration causes the increase of population to vary considerably. '
In the districts where emigration has been most extensive the population has generally increased at a slower rate than in other parts of the kingdom. This is, however, not without an exception; and it deserves likewise to be noticed that the population of a district has never decreased on account of emigration. The effect has been greatest in Bradsberg amt, Northern Bergenhuus, and Buskerud. _
The increase of population in the first-named amt, from 1815—’35, was rather more than 17 per cent. for each decennium; from 1835445 it was only 71} per cent., and from 1845-55 only 5 per cent. The increase in Upper Thelemarken in the two last named decennia has been only 4-} and 2 per cent.
In Northern Bergenhuus amt the increase from 182-5—’35 was 11 per cent. ; from 1835-’45 10 per cent. In the decennium following the commencement of emigration it was only 41} per cent. ; in Sogne not more than 2§ per cent.
The increase of population in Buskerud amt during each of the decennia in 1825—’35 and 1835—’45 was but a little above 9 per cent., and from 1845—’55 the increase went down to 71} per cent., and in Hallingdal to 5 per cent.
In Christians amt, on the other hand, emigration does not seem to have caused any perceptible decrease in the population, for it was greater after the commencement of emigration in 1848 than in the preceding decennia, (12 per cent. against 8 per cent.) This does not, however, refer to the whole amt. In Valders the increase in 1846—’55 did not rise to 4 per cent. ,
Stavanger is quite an exception. Notwithstanding a proportionally extensive emigration, the population of this amt has increased more than in any other, Finmark alone excepted. The increase in 1835—’45 was 151} per cent., and in 1845-’55 it was 17 per cent. The emigration from this amt was counterbalanced by an equally extensive immigration, chiefly from Lister and Manda].
One of the results of emigration is to alter the numerical proportion of the sexes, and the different ages, the emigrants being chiefly males and grown-up people.
In those countries to which the emigrants resort the male sex is still often in excess of the female. In the colony of Victoria, South Australia, there are not more than 60 females for every 100 males. Among the white population of the United States the males numbered 10,000,000 and the females 9,500,000. ‘
In most of the European countries before the commencement of emigration the female sex was considerably in excess of the male, which excess has latterly become still greater. In 1821 the number of females was 102.97 for every 100 males, and has since gradually risen to 105.64 in 1861. The same phenomenon is observable in Germany, principally in \Vurtemberg, where the proportion during six years (1849 to 1855) rose from 105.54 to 108.40.
In Norway the results of the census show a gradual decrease in the excess of females up to 1845, but an increase in the decennium from 1846 to 1855. For every 100 males there were in 1801, 109 females ; in 1825, 106; in 1835, 104.1; in 1845, 103.7; but in 1855, 104.1.
With regard to the proportion between the different ages the result of emigration should tend to decrease the number of inhabitants between the ages of twenty and forty. In this case, however, it will be more difiicult to show the influence emigration has had, the rate of mortality being the chief cause of the increase or decrease of the population within the difl'erent ages. The influence of emigration in this respect may, however, be arrived at pretty closely. ‘
In 1825, the number of males between the ages of ten and twenty was 87,648; ten years later (1835) the census would show what decrease there had been in the number of the population at the above-mentioned ages. In 1835, the number of males between the ages of twenty and thirty was 82,809; the decrease has consequently been 4,839, or 5.8 per cent. In the same way we find that the 123,823 males in 1835, who were between the ages of ten and twenty, had decreased to 116,295, or 6-; per cent. ; for the years 1846 to 1855, the
- decrease was not less than 11.1 per cent.
' If we investigate the proportion for the ages of twenty to thirty, we get at the following result: \ '
In the decennium 1826 to 1835, the decrease was 10¢ per cent. ; in the decennium 1836 to 1845, the decrease was 8.7 per cent. ; in the decennium 1846 to 1855, the decrease was 16 per cent. For both these ages there is a far greater decrease in the decennium from 1846 to 1855 than in any of the preceding decennia, which can only have been caused by the extensive emigration which took place in 1846 to 1855; for the rate of mortality during these years was much more favorable than formerly, and had there been no emigration the decrease must necessarily have been less.
As regards the female sex, we should probably arrive at similar results if we were in possession of reliable reports for the ages in question; but owing to peculiarity with the fair sex, the statements of the number of females between the ages of twenty and thirty can never be relied on.
We have above shown that the yearly increase of the population has not been lessened by emi ration. It is quite another question how far the increase would have been still greater ad the emigrants remained at home. At the first glance the matter seems easy enough ; if the 73,000 had not emigrated the population of Norway at the present time would have been greater than it is by that number, and if one chose to calculate very closely something should be added for the increase in this number. Norway would thus have lost about 80,000 of its population. This calculation is, however, not correct; for the increase of population is not determined by an excess of births, or by the proportion between emigration and immigration. The increase or decrease of the population depends principally on their pecuniary position; if a land advance in social well-being the population is sure to increase, notwithstanding emigration; if, on the other hand, the pecuniary resources of a country remain stationary or diminish, the population, exceptions not included, will also remain stationary or decrease, even should there be no emigration; the unfavorable pecuniary position will always tend to increase the number of deaths and lessen the number of marriages and births.
The question of the influence of emigration on the population is dependent on another question: its influence an the pecuniary development of the country.
_ It is not, however, easy to ascertain to what extent the results of emigration have bden iavorable or pernicious; this would necessitate a more careful investigation.
It would seem that emigration is generally advantageous to the community at large. How